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PASSED MARCH 15, 1363. 









The House of Assembly of Nova Scotia, on the 30th April, 
1857, on the motion of the Honorable Joseph Howe, adopted, 
the following resolution : 

" That His Excellency the Governor be respectfully request- 
" ed to cause the ancient records and documents illustrative 
" of the history and progress of society in this province, to 
" be examined, preserved and arranged, either " for reference 
" or publication, as the legislature may hereafter determine, 
" and that this house will provide for the same." 

In the following year the Lieutenant Governor was author- 
ized by the Assembly to " procure from the state paper office, 
" in England, as recommended in the report of the Commis- 
" sioner of Records, copies of any dispatches or documents 
" that may be found necessary to complete our files." In 
1859, 4th April, by another vote of the house, he was em- 
powered to procure from the government of Canada, copies 
of such papers in the archives of Quebec as related to the 
early history of Acadia. 

In 1864 the work was so far advanced that upwards of 200 
volumes of manuscripts had been selected, arranged, catalogued 
and bound, — comprehending copious selections from the colo- 
nial documents in the state paper office in London, and from 
those at Quebec, orginally obtained from the archives of 

In 1865 the Assembly referred the annual report of tht 
Commissioner of Records to the Honorable S. L. Shannon, 
J. Bourinot, and A. G. Archibald. This committee recom- 
mended the publication of a " volume of public documents 
"to be selected by the Commissioner of Records, provided, 
11 the selections be contained in a single octavo volume of 


" moderate size," and " that such publication be proceeded 
" with without delay." This report was adopted by the house 
on the 15th March, 1865. 

In preparing this volume, I have selected, as the portions of 
our archives which possess the greatest historicalvalue : — the 
documents relating to the Acadian French inhabitants and their 
Removal from Nova Scotia, — to the encroachments of the French 
authorities of Canada on the territories of Nova Scotia, — to 
the siege of Fort Beausejour in 1755, and the war on this 
continent, which terminated in the downfall of the French 
power in America, — the papers connected with the settlement 
of Halifax in 1749, and the first British colonization of the 
province, — and, lastly, the official correspondence preparatory 
to the establishment of a Representative Government, in the 
year 1758. 

The expulsion of the French Acadians from Nova Scotia 
is an important event in the history of British America, and 
has lately derived peculiar interest from the frequent re- 
ference made to it by modern writers. Although much has 
been written on the subject, yet, until lately, it has under- 
gone little actual investigation, and in consequence, the neces- 
sity for their removal has not been clearly perceived, and the 
motives which led to its enforcement have been often misun- 
derstood. I have, therefore, carefully selected all documents 
in possession of the government of this province that could 
in any way throw light on the history and conduct of the 
French inhabitants of Nova Scotia, from their first coming 
under British rule, until their final removal from the country. 

The exact spelling of original letters and papers has been 
preserved as far as possible. 

I have appended a few biographical notes which may be 
found useful. 

There are yet many documents of value and interest among 
our archives worthy of publication. 

T. B. A. 

January, 1869. 






Instructions for Mr. Peter Capoon, Comissy. and Enqn% 

Thomas Button, to proclaim His Majesty King 

r -j George, att ye several ports of Mines, Shekenecto, 

*• '•* River St. Johns, Pasmacoay, Penopscot, in the 

Cottony of Nova Scotia or IJAccadie. 

Whereas by Letters from the most honble. his Majesties 
Privy Councill, the honble. ye Lords Commiss. of Trade and 
plantations, and ye Right honble. Henry, Earlc of Bollingbroke, 
Secry. of State, and his Exclly. Genii. Nicholson, directing 
that his most Sacred Majesty, George, King of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, &c, be proclaimed in all the proper parts 
of this Govemtt. and, accordingly, that the same be done with 
all ye speed possible to the end, an acct. thereof may be 
returned them. You are hereby directed, with ye Sloop 
Caulfield, to proceed on the said service, the charge of which 
is to be born by ye Crown of Great Britain ; and you are, at 
the Ports of Mines, Shekenecto, River St. Johns, Pasmacody, 
Penobscot, in ye Collony, to proclaim his Majesty King George 
in ye best manner You can ; allsoe, ye proclamation for con- 
tinuing officers in post. You are likewise to tender the oaths of 
Allegiance to ye french Inhabitants, with such English as you 
shall find, and administer ye same to such as are willing to 
take them in ye form prescribed, and will be Loyall and Good 
Subjects to his most Sacred Majesty, George, King of Great 
Britain, <fec. 

You are to take care and inform ye selfe, at all those plases, 
how ye Inhabitants stand affected to ye English Govemtt. ; ye 
nature of theire trade and the Reasons why they do not as 
usuall come into these parts and vend their commodities. 

As alsoe you are to make strict enquiry for and buy up 
what pork and other provitions you can meet with (except 
corn), if you shuld think ye same fitt ye service in victualing 
this Garrison, which you are to send soe soon as possible by 
the speediest and most convenient opportunity. 


In the execution of all which you are to proceed without 
delay to make quickest dispatch, and return immediately when 
the service is finished. Given at His Majesties Garrison of 
Annapolis Royal, this day of Jan., 1714-5, in the first 

year of His Majestie's Reign. 

Copy of a Letter from Mons. de Pontchartrain, Minister 
of Marine at Paris, to Mons. D 1 Iberville. 

(From a translation in the State Paper Office, London. ) 

November 7th, 1714. 

Monsieur Soubras, Commissary, 

(At L'Isle Royale, formerly 
called Cape Britone) Informs me by his Letter of 22nd Sep- 
tember last, That upon his arrival he found that the Sieurs de 
la Ronde and Captain de Pensens had been sent to Accadie, 
in two different Vessels — the first by Mons. PHermite, and 
the other by Mons. de St. Ouvide — upon occasion of the com- 
plaints of the French inhabitants of Accadie, in order to obtain 
from the Governor, Mr. Nicholson, a free liberty to retire 
with their cattle and feorn to Cape Briton. 

Mons. Pensens has returned, and has sent over an account 
of his negotiations, by which it appears, That by Colonel 
Nicholson's permission, They assembled the people together, 
to know their intentions; that upon requiring the term of 
one year, according to the 14 Artie, of the Treaty of Utrecht, 
to 'remain without molestation upon their Estates, They have 
been referred to the Court at London, As has also their desire 
of Transporting, during that time, their corn and cattle, of 
building Vessels, carrying off their effects, and of receiving 
from the French tackle and other necessaries, for such as 
shall build at Port Royal and elsewhere. Upon the demand 
of having an ordinance published for permitting the French 
to sell their Habitations, and leave letters of Attorney for that 

Surpose, It was answered, It is referred to the Queen and to 
[er letter, which is an undoubted Guarantee. As Mr, 
Nicholson has promised expedition in all these matters, The 
King, who is informed thereof, Desires you would take such 
measures as you would Judge fit, to press the execution 
thereof, in wich manner, That the King of England give with- 
out delay the necessary orders therein. I desire you would 
acquaint me with what has been done, that I may inform his 


Copy of Letter from Lord Townshend to the Board of Trade. 

Whitehall, 15th Novr., 1714. 

My Lords and Gentlemen, — 

The Enclosed Copy of a letter from Mons. Pontchartrain 
to M. d'lberville, having been laid before the King, It is His 
Majesty's pleasure, you should consider the contents thereof, 
and report your opinion, what may be proper to be done 
therein ; Whereupon His Majesty will give his further 

I am, 
My Lords and Gentlemen, 

Your most humble Servant, 

The Board of Trade. 

Copy of Letter from Colonel Vetch to the Bight Honble. The 

Lords of Trade. 

London, Novr. 24tb, 1714. 
My Lords, — 

In answer to Your Lordships Queries, delivered to me 
by Mr. Secretary Popple upon the 23d of this instant, my 
most humble opinion is as follows : 

As to the number of familys of French Inhabitants in the 
countrys of L'Accady and Nova Scotia, by the best account I 
ever could get during the space of three years and more I had 
the honor to command there, they were computed to be about 
five hundred family's at the rate of five persons to a family ; 
which makes two thousand five hundred souls. 

As to the next how many of them it is supposed will 
remove ; by the last advices from thence, they had obliged 
themselves under their hands all to remove save two family's 
viz one Mr. Allen and one Mr. Gourday both of which had 
liv'd in New England formerly. 

As to the 3d Querie, how many family's may be upon Cape 
Breton is what I can't pretend to be so exact in. But accord- 
ing to the best advices, I could learn they are said to be now 
about five hundred familys besides the Garrison, which I 
consider, consists of 7 companys already. The French King 
to encourage them to settle the place gives them eighteen 
months provisions, and assists them with ships, and salt, to 
carry on the Fishery : 


As to the 4th what may be the consequence of the French 
moving from Nova Scotia to Cape Bretton ; They are evi- 
dently these, First their leaving that country intirely desti- 
tute of inhabitants: There being none but French, and In- 
dians (excepting the Garrison) settled in those parts ; and as 
they have intermarried, with the Indians, by which and their 
being of one Religion, they have a mighty influence upon 
them. So it is not to be doubted, but they will carry along 
with them to Capo Bretton both the Indians and their trade, 
Which is very considerable. And as .the accession of such a 
number of Inhabitants to Cape Bretton, will make it at onco 
a very populous Colony ; (in which the strength of all the 
Country's consists) So it is to be considered, that one hundred 
of the French, who were born upon that continent, and are 
perfectly known in the woods ; can march upon snow shoes ; 
and understand the use of Birch Canoes are of more value 
and service than five times their number of raw men, newly 
come from Europe. So their skill in the Fishery, as well as 
the cultivating of the soil, must inevitably make that Island, 
by such an accession of people, and French, at once the 
most powerful colony, the French have in America. And of 
the greatest danger and damage to all the British Colony's as 
well as the universal trade of Great Britain. ***** 

As to the next question, which relates to the time of the 
French's removing from Nova Scotia, with their effects : I am 
informed, several of them, who have no very great substance, 
are already removed thither, this summer ; and that the rest 
design to do so next summer, as soon as their harvest is 
over, and grain got in ; As to the number of cattle, they may 
carry away, (if permitted) and what will be the consequences 
of the same, I have been informed when upon the place, that 
there may be about five thousand black Cattle, besides a 
great number of Sheep, and Hoggs, in all that country, the 
greater part of all which, no doubt they will carry off if 

The consequences of which are evidently these : First, 
It will Intirely strip that Colony, of the above cattle of all 
sorts, and reduce it to its primitive state ; To replenish which 
at the same rate (it now is from New England the nearest 
Colony to it, which is one hundred and ten leagues) at a 
moderate computation of freight, only for the transportation 
of such a number of Black Cattle, and a proportionable 
number of Sheep and Hoggs, will cost above Forty thousand 
pounds ; besides the long time, it will require to stock that 
country. ****** 


As to the last Querie, That comes under my cognizance, * 
viz., The consequence of allowing the French to sell their 
lands in those parts, First, as it would entirely disappoint the 
settlement of that valuable country, Because it is never to be 
supposed, that any person will go to buy land in a new 
country, when in all His Majesty's plantations abroad, there 
is such encouragement, of land gratis, to such as will come to 
settle in them. 

2ndly. It would be a breach of the Public faith, contained 
in Her Majesty's Royal instructions, when the reduction of 
that place was undertaken, By which the lands are promised 
away to the Captors, for their encouragement to reduce the 
same. Nor is there any article in the treaty of peace ; that 
entitles the French to any such privileges. Nay moreover, I 
am of opinion that by the treaty, the French inhabitants, are 
allowed either to remove if they designed it, or at least to 
make a demand of the same, in a year's time after the ratifica- 
tion of the treaty, neither of which was done. Nor would the 
inhabitants have offered to goe, had they not been not only 
importuned but threatened by the French officers, in the 
French Kings name, to be treated as Rebels if they did not 
remove, Which how far that is consistent with the Treaty, is 
with the foregoing particulars most humbly submitted to Your 
Lordships consummate Wisdom by 

May it please Your Lordships 
Your Lordships most humbly 
To Devoted Servant 

The Right Honorable 

The Lords of Trade, <fcc. 

Lt. Govt. Caulfield to Secretary of State. 

(Govrs. Lett. Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, May ye 3rd, 1715. 

I hope by this time that mine of the 24th of Dembr. last 
is come safe to hand with ye account of my proclaiming his 
Most Sacred Majesty King Geo. Here inclosed are the trans- 
actions of Messrs. Button and Capoon, Gentlemen I sent on 
that occation to ye several ports and harbors in a sloop which 
ye season of ye year would not permit to go with my first, 
Save some few places to ye Eastward which have already 
declared for ye french King, by which you will find that ye 
Inhabitants of this country, being most of them french refuse 


the oaths, having as I am informed refused to quit this 
collony intirely and to settell under ye french Govrmt. and I 
humblie desire to be informed how I shall behave to them ; 
The unhappy circumstances of this place obliges me to 
acquaint you that if some other methods be not taken than 
what lately have been, it will be impossible for this place to 
subsist the ensuing winter. The french who always main- 
tained this Garrison with corn are most of them quitting the 
Collony, especially att Mines* the only grain plantation, So 
that in all probability we have noe prospect on their side, 
And as I am intirely destitute of any farther Credite at 
Boston in New England, occasioned by Genl. Nicholson, which 
may at this time prove detrimental to his Majesty's Service — 
having always endeavored upon my own creditt to serve ye 
Garrison to the utmost of my power, for I doe assure you that 
I have complyed with Genii. Nicholson's orders in all respects. 
Inclosed is the Commisserys return of quantity and sort of 
provitions and to what time each specie will bring the Gar- 
rison. I am now obliged to send a vessel to ye Gov'ment of 
New England to sollicite for provitions, therefore beg you 
will not take itt amiss that I apprise you of the difficulties 
wee labour under, that in case (which God forbid) any misfor- 
tune should happen I may not suffer, I am 

with all respect 
Yr most obedt. humble 

To ye Sectry. of State, ) 

James Stanhope,'&c. j 

Lt. Oovr. Gautfidd to Board of Trade and Plantations. 

(Goys. Lett. Book.) 

Annapolis Royall, Novr. ye 1st, 1715. 

My Lords, — 


I am now to lay before Tour Lopps. my opinion in relation 
to ye french Inhabitants of this Collony, wch. if they continue 
in this country, will be of great consequence for ye better 
improvement thereof ; for as you will observe their numbers 
are considerable and in case they quitt us will still strengthen 

* Horton, in Kings county. 

X Thomas Caulfield was Lt. Governor of the Fort of Annapolis Royal, under 
General Nicholson, from 1714 to 1717. 



our enemies when occasion serves, by* so much ; and tho* we 
may not expect much benefitt from them, yet their children in 
process of time may be brought to our constitution. And 
whereas there are several well meaning people among them, 
We may always guard ourselves from any injury they can be 
able, if willing, to do us. I have always observed since my 
comeing here their forwardness to serve us when occasion 
offered And if some English Inhabitants were sent over, 
especially industrious labourers, tarr and pitch makers, car- 
penters and smiths it would be of great advantage to this 
Colony ; but in case ye french quit us we shall never be able 
to maintaine or protect our English family's from ye insults of 
ye Indians, ye worst of enemies, wch. ye french by their 
staying will in a great measure ward off, for their own sakes. 
Your Lopps will see by ye Stocks of Cattell they have at this 
time, that in two or three years with due encouragement, we 
may be furnished with everything within ourselves. The 
Indians of Pennobscott, St. Johns*, and Cape Sables, trade 
chiefly on ye several coasts with furrs and feathers, who 
never come here but when necessity obliges them and ye 
reasons they assign are that there is noe Kings Magazine 
here for them, &s was in ye time of ye french, or as there is 
now at Cape Breton, wch : if there was they would bring in 
all their peltery to us and I believe would prove a great 
advantage, both in respect of trade, and as well ye. chief 
means to bring them over to our Interest, by kindly using of 
them, on wch. foundation their friendship is wholly founded, 
and great advantages would accrue thereby to ye Crown in 
particular and country in general. I herewith transmitt Your 
Lopps. ye. copy of a letter, I received from ye. Savages of 
Pennobscott, and St. Johns, wrote by their Priests and trans- 
lated in English with my answer to ye same. * * * 

I am now to inform your Lopps. that upon ye arrival of 
General Nicholson our late Govr. in these parts, I received 
several letters from him dated at Boston containing his 
request of my opinion relating to ye. Garrison and Country 
wch. I punctually answered. * * * * * 

At his arrival here the following Augt. he assured ye. Gar- 
rison of his favour and Interest tho 7 at ye same time he stopt 
our pay att Home, injured our creditt att Boston by his ordrs 
obliged some of ye ffrench Inhabitants to quit ye. country, 
shutt ye gates of the Garrison against those that remained 
and declared them traytors, tho' he was convinced wee must 

■■■ ■ ■■■■» ■-■ ■ !■■■ -^— ^^ ■ « M 1^— — ■—» ■■ II ■ I — ■ — ■ < 

* River St- John. 





subsist that Winter by .them or perish; for by ye methods he- 
took when he returned to Boston left us intirely unprovided 
in all respects. 

My Lords were I to relate the means and methods he took 
when here, itt would be too troublesome, there never having 
been anything proposed by him for either the service of 
country or Garrison, but a continued Scene of unpresidented 
methods taken to ruine Mr. Vetch or any other person who 
interposed on that head. 

I must own 'tis with ye greatest reluctancy immaginable 
that I am obliged to acquaint your Lopps. of ye frequent mis- 
behaviour of Capt. Armstrong of this Garrison towards several 
inhabitants here and by my next shall transmitt your Lopps. 
the several complaints in behalf of ye said inhabitants. 

I shall endeavour from time to time to transmitt your Lopps. 
the best accounts I may be able to procure relating to this 
Province and as well their proceedings at Cape Breton and 
am with great respect 

My Lords Your Lordships 
most obedient 
most obliged 
humble Servt. 

To the Honrble 

the Lords Comrs. of Trade &c. 

Lt. Govt. Caulfield to Board of Trade and Plantations. 

(Governor's Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, May ye. 16th, 1716. 

My Lords, — 


The Island of St. Johns which the ffrench of this Collony 
seemed to like in case they were obliged to quit us, is intirely 
abandoned by those inhabitants who went there out of this 

I reed, a letter from ye People of Minis of their resolution 
to continue in this Governmt. and are making all preparations 
for emprovement, as formerly, and they seem impatient to 
hear what is determined on their behalfs. 

I cannot omitt informing Your Lordshipps that there are 
no Courts of Judicature here established to decide any 
dispute that may happen amongst the Inhabitants wch. I 
formerly endeavored to accommodate to the satisfaction of 


both party's, untill Genl. Nicholson* when here ordered that 
I might exhibit my commission, that authorised me to do 
Justice in Civil Affairs, to wh. I answered that as I had ye 
Honor to command in ye absence of ye Governor I should 
always endeavor to cultivate as good an understanding 
amongst ye people as possible believing the same essential 
for his Majties Service, and tho 7 1 had no Comn. for that effect 
Tett I held myself blamable to suffer Injustice to be done 
before me without taking notice thereof, having never inter- 
posed farther than by ye, consent of both partys, and I 
humblie desire Your Lordshipps will direct some thing on 
that head. ****** 

Your Lordships most obdt. 

most humble and obliged Servt. 


To ye Rt. Honble. the Lords Comrs. ) 
of Trade and Plantations. j 

Lt. Govt. Caulfield to Secretary of War. 

(Governor's Letter Book.) 

Xbr. 24, 1716. 
Rt Honble. Sr. 

* * * As to ye. number of the ffrench Inhabitants, 
they are in ye. scvl. parts of the Colonic, according to our 

* Francis Nicholson was the first British Governor cf Nova Scotia. He 
received the appointment of Lieut. Governor of New England, under Sir Edmund 
Andros. in the year 1088. He was Governor of New York in 1G89. and in the 
year following Lt. Governor of Virginia. In 1602 he was transferred to the 
government of Maryland, and in 1698 sent back to Virginia as Governor-in- 
Chief, at which time he held the rank of colonel in the army. He was in 
command of the expedition against Canada, which encamped at Lake Cham- 
plain in the year 1709, and afterwards proceeded to England to give an account 
of the failure of that enterprize. He returned to Boston in the following year, 
and was appointed to the command of the expedition against Port Royal (now 
Annapolis Royal), winch terminated in the surrender of that post to him by 
Subercasc, the French commander, on 2d Octr., 1710. His forces consisted 
chiefly of four regiments of provincial troops, raised in New England, under 
Cols. Hobby, Whiting, and Walters. He returned to Boston after the capture 
of Port Royal, leaving a garrison there under Col. Vetch. He again proceeded 
to England to urge on Government the necessity of another attempt upon 
Canada. He carried with him on this occasion five chiefs of the Iroquois 
Nations, who were presented to Queen Anne. He organized the second expedi- 
tion against Canada in 1711, which terminated so disastrously in the loss of 
Admiral Walker's fleet at the month of the River St. Lawrence, and had the 
command of the forces then collected at Lake George, destined to attack 
Montreal simultaneously with those under General Hill, which were to proceed 1 
up the River against Quebec. He became eventually Commander-in-Chief, of; 
the British forces in America, and a Lieutenant General. 


best information about 900 or 1000 able men, of which having 
upon ye. receipt of ye. letter, again summoned those of this 
place to take ye. oaths*, and declare theire sentiments and 
dispositions to his majties Governmt, I herewth send you 
theire answers to me on yt. head, and shall enquire as soon 
as ye. season of ye. Year will permitt into ye. dispositions of 
those in ye. remoter parts. And at present presume to inform 
you that my sentiment of them is very much altered from my 
former believe yt. they are all of one opinion and that from 
theire trifling argumtt there is but little dependence on their 
friendship, tho 7 , at the same time I am persuaded it will be 
wth. reluctancy they leave the Country, most of those who had 
formerly gone being again returned, but for ye. better improve- 
ment of ye. country English Inhabitants are absolutely neces- 
sary. ****** 

Rt. Honble Sir 

Yr. most Obdt. Servt, <fcc 
To ye. Rt. Honble. ) T. CAULFIELD. 

Secretary of War. j 

Lieut. Governor Doucette to Secretary of State. 

(Gov. Lett. Book.) 

Annapolis Royal Novr. ye 5, 1717. 
Sib,- • 

Soon after my arrival here which was on the 28th day of 
the last month, I was informed that the French Inhabitants 
had never own'd his Majesty as Possessor of this his conti- 
nent of Nova Scotia and L'Acadie.f 

General Nicholson appears to have possessed much influence with the In- 
dians of the Five Nations, with whom he had frequent intercourse during the 
frontier wars. His Indian name was Annadagarriax. General Nicholson con- 
tinued to hold the post of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Nova Scotia 
from 20th Octr., 1712, to August, 1717, when he was succeeded by Governor 
Fhilipps. He revisited Nova Scotia in 1714, but did not remain long in the 
country. In his absence the command devolved on Cols. Hobby, Vetch, and 
Mr. Caulfleld, successively as Lt. Governors of the Fort. — N. S. Documents ; 
N. York Col. Doc, vols. 6 and 9 ; Murdoch's N. S., vol. 1 ; Garneau's Hist. 
Canada, 2d vol. 

* See Govt. Mascarene's letter to Govt. Shirley, Cth April, 1748. 

t By the fifth article of the capitulation of Port Royal to General Nicholson in 
1710, it was declared that "the inhabitants within a cannon shot of Port Royal 
" should remain upon their estates, with their corn, cattle, and furniture, dur- 
" ing two years, in case they should not be desirous to go before — they taking 
" the oaths of allegiance and fidelity to her sacred Majesty of Great Britain." 
This was declared by the General to extend three English miles around the 
Fort. Queen Anne's letter of 1713 extended the right to all the inhabitants of 
Acadia without limitation of time. 


I therefore sent a summons to the people that were in this 
neighborhood to signe one of the papers inclosed, which if 
they complied with, I promised them they should have the 
same Protection and Liberty as the other of his Majesty's sub- 
jects had here, if not I could by no means lett their vessels 
pass this Fort, to trade or fish on the coast, upon which they 
drew up the other paper enclosed which I could have been 
glad to have sent you in a cleaner manner, but the ship that 
brought the provisions being ready to sail, I had not time to 
get another signed, I find abundance inclinable to sign rather 
than lose the profitt they make in the fishing season, and I 
do veryly believe all would become subjects to His Majesty 
were it not for the Priests that are amongst them, who have, 
from the misserry that I and our poor Soldiers have been 
reduced to for want of money and all sorts of necessary's, and 
seeing the Fort so much run to ruin, for the same reasons 
they have taken it as a means to inculcate a notion amongst 
the french inhabitants, that the Pretender will be soon settled 
in England and that this country will again fall into the hands 
of the french King; which sentiments they not dareing toN 
own, they turn their disobedience to His Majesty to a dread 
of the Indians which is impossible, for the Indians here are 
intirely ruled by the french, and are used by them in no other 
manner but like slaves, so that with submission Sir, if orders 
could be procured to be sent from France to the Governors of 

Canada and Cape Breton to and severely punish any 

Indians or others, the french who shall insult the people of 
Nova Scotia or Lacadie who live under the protection of 
his majesty, and that a copy of such order be sent to this 
Garrison and others dispersed amongst the french Inhabitants, 
that now live in Nova Scotia and Lacadie, it would certainly 
be a mean's for the inhabitants to become Subjects to his 
Majesty, and convince them of one error amongst the millions 
their Priests dayly lead them into, after which we might hope 
that the country about us which has been neglected (ever 
since the reduction of this Place) would be again improved 
so far that we might not longer want grain, cattle and other 
necessarys as wee do at present. * * * * 

Your honors 
Most obedient and most 

humble servant to command, 


* John Doucette succeeded Thos. Caulfield as Lt. Governor of the Fort of 
Annapolis, under Nicholson, in 1717, and continued to hold office under h» 
successor, General Philippe, until the year 1726. On the 21st September of 


Copy of the Declaration sent to the French Acadians for Signed 
ture, inclosed in the foregoing Letter to the Secretary qf 
State and War. 

Wee the french Inhabitants whose names are under written 
now dwelling in Annapolis Ro} r al and the adjacent parts of 
Nova Scotia or Lacadie formerly subjects to the late french 
King who by the Peace concluded att Utrecht did by ^articles 
therein deliver up the whole country of Nova Scotia and 
Lacadie to the late Queen of Great Britain, wee doe hereby 
for the aforesaid reason and for the protection of us and our 
Familys that uhall reside in Annapolis Royall or the adjacent 
parts of Nova Scotia or Lacadie, now in possession of his most 
sacred Majesty George, by the Grace of God King of Great 
Britain, and doe declare that we acknowledge him to be the 
Sole King of the said Country and of Nova Scotia and Lacadie 
and all the Islands depending thereon and we likewise doe 
declare and most solemnly swear before God to own him as 
our Sovereign King and to obey him as his true and Lawfull 
subjects in Witness whereof we sett our hands in the Pre- 

that year his name appears on the Council Books under that of Lawrence 
Armstrong, then appointed Lt. Governor of the Province. The last meeting 
of the Council which he attended was on the 10th November following. 

* The 12th article of the treaty, made at Utrecht between Anne, the Queen 
of Great Britain, and Louis the 14th, King ot France, is as follow? : 

" The most Christian King shall cause to be delivered to the Queen of Great 
.^Britain, on the same day on which the ratifications of this treaty shall be 
- exchanged, solemn and authentic letters or instruments, by virtue whereof 
it shall appear that the island of St. Christopher is to be possessed hereafter 
by British subjects only; likewise that all Nova Scotia or Acadie, compre- 
hended within its ancient boundaries; as also the city of Port Royal, now 
.called Annapolis Royal, and all other things in these parts which depend on 
the said lands and Islands, together with the dominion, property and posses-' 
tion of the said islands, lands and places, and all right whatever by treaties, 
or any other way attained, which the most Christian King, the Crown of 
France, or any the subjects thereof, have hitherto had to the said islands, 
-.lands and places, and to the inhabitants of the same, arc yielded and mude 
• over to the Queen of Great Britain, and to her crown forever; as the rao^t 
-christian King doth now yield and make over all the said premises, and that in 
such ample manner and form that the subjects of the most christian King shall 
hereafter be excluded from all kind of fishing in the seas, bays, and other 
places on the coasts of Nova Scotia, that is to say, on those coasts which lio 
towards the East, within thirty leagues, beginning from the island commonly 
called Sable, inclusively, and thence stretching along towards the South 

Hth Article. — " It is expressly provided that in all the said places and colo- 
nies to be yielded and restored by the most Christian King in pursuance of thi* 
treaty, the subjects of the said King may have liberty to remove themselves, 
within a year to any other place, as they shall think fit, together with all their 
movable effects. But those who are willing to remain there, and to be subject 


wnce of John Doucett his Majesty's Lieut. Governor of Anna- 
polis Royal this day of in the year of Our 
Lord 1717. 

Copy of the ansiver to the above Declaration, sent to the Secre- 
tary of State. 

[Translated from the French.] 

We the undersigned inhabitants of Acadie, according to the 
orders which the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased to 
cause to be published on the part of King George viz. that 
we have fully to declare ourselves regarding the oath of 
fidelity which is demanded of us in the said orders, humbly 
entreat Mr. John Doucette our Governor, to be pleased to 
consider, that we constitute but a small number of the inhabi- 

We therefore respectfully request him to assemble the 
deputies of the other colonies of Minas, Beaubassin and Cobe- 
quid, with ourselves, in order that we may answer the demands 
that have been made on us, as we are instructed that they are 
now made for the last time. 

to the Kingdom of Great Britain, are to enjoy the free exercise of their reli- 
gion according to the usage of the Church of Rome as far as the laws of 
<Jreat Britain do allow the same." 

Treaty signed 11 April 1713. (31 March, Old style.) 


Anne K. 

Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. Whereas our good brother, 
the most christian King, hath, at our desire, released from imprisonment on 
board his galleys, such of his subjects as were detained there on account of 
their professing the Protestant religion. We being willing to show by some 
mark of our favour towards his subjects how kind we take his compliance 
therein, have therefore thought fit hereby to signify our will and pleasure to 
you, that you permit such of them as have any lands or tenements in the 
places under our government in Accadie and Newfoundland, that have been or 
are to be yielded to us by virtue of the late treaty of peace, and are willing to 
continue our subjects, to retain and enjoy their said lands and tenements, 
without any molestation, as fully and freely as other our subjects do or may 
possess their lands or estates, or to sell the same, if they shall rather choose to, 
remove elsewhere. And for so doing, thi9 shall be your warrant, and. so we. 
bid you heartily farewell. Given at our court at Kensington, the 23rd day of 
June, 1713, and In the 12th year of our reign. 
By her majesty's command) 

(Signed) DAJ&TMOUTH, 


To our trusty and well beloved Francis Nicholson, esquire, governor of 
our province of Nova Scotia or Accadia, and general and com- 
mander-in-chief of our forces, in our said province and in New*. 
foundland in America. 


For the present, we can only answer, that we shall be ready 
to carry into effect the demand proposed to us, as soon as his 
Majesty shall have done tis the favor of providing some means 
of sheltering us from the savage tribes, who are always ready 
to do all kinds of mischief, proofs of which have been afforded 
on many occasions since the peace, they having killed and 
robbed several persons, as well English as French. Wherefore 
we pray his Excellency to consider this, and to represent to 
his Majesty the condition in which we are. 

That unless we are protected from these savages, we cannot 
take the oath demanded of us without exposing ourselves to 
have our throats cut in our houses at any time, which they 
have already threatened to do. 

In case other means cannot be found, we are ready to take 
an oath, that we will take up arms neither against his Britannic 
Majesty, nor against France, nor against any of their subjects 
or allies. 

Such, Sir, is the final opinion which the inhabitants take the 
liberty of presenting to your Excellency, as they are not able 
to act otherwise at present. 

Signed by all the inhabitants in this neighborhood. 

Governor PhUippa to Board of Trade. 

(Got. Letter Book.) 

Boston N England Jan. 3d 1719, 
My Lords, — 

I am gladd to heare that some of your Lordships have been 
at the Court of France to settle the affaires of these Countryes, 
which was absolutely necessary for the peace and safety 
thereof and could not be managed by better hands : and yet 
after all that your Lordships may have done, there will ever 
remaine a great obstruction to our happiness, whilst the 
Priests and Jesuits are among us : for it is not to be imagined 
with what application they incourage the ffrench and Indians 
against submitting to his Majesty's Government, and even 
their Sermons are constant invectives against the English 
Nation, to render it odious to the Natives. Among this Tribe 
are Pere Vincent and Felix who distinguish themselves for 
most inveterate Enemyes to the Brittish Interest, and precide 
in the quallity of Governors over Minas and Chignecto, two 
.most considerable settlements in Nova Scotia. The people 


pay them a willing obedience and are growne so insolente, as 
to say they will neither sweare allegiance, nor leave the 
Country. This I can affirine to your Lodspps. to be the pre- 
sent state of these Settlements, how far they may change 
their sentiments at my arrival among them is uncertaine. I 
shall not fail to publish the King's gracious intentions towards 
them, and endeavour to convince them, they are acting 
against their own Interest, but the best argument will bee a 
reinforcement of Troops, for they are not ignorant that the 
Garrison of Annapolis consisting of but five Compos upon a 
low Establishment will not admit of a considerable detachment 
to be sent against them ; and tho' force need not be made use 
of but as the last remedy, it is my humble opinion, that I 
should have orders to move three Companys forthwith from 
Placentia, which are not wanted there, the remaining part 
being sufficient to carry ou the small work entended there, 
end at the same time the Engineer have direction sent him to 
rase a fortifycation to contain two Companys, with a few 
Cannon in a convenient scituation for keeping those neigh- 
bouring settlements in obedience for they are computed at 
above four hundred familys, and tis observed they multiply 
exceedingly, and likely in a few years, to become a numerous 
people, and therefore {with submission) this is the time to* 
take care of them. ***** 

I must farther acquaint your Lodsps that the ffrench from 
Cape Breton have continued their ffishing last season at 
Cansoe, under a guard of soldiers, intending that for their 
chief settlement, if their pretended right could be made out. 
It is by all accounts the best and most convenient fishery in 
any part of the King's dominion, the People from the West of 
England have found great satisfaction in the place, and will 
return with many ships in the spring. 


Your Lordspps 

most humble and most 

obedt servant 


To the Rt Honble the Lords Commissrs for Trade <fcc. 

* General Richard Philipps, Governor of Nova Scotia, was born in the year 
1661. When a young man he is said to have been employed in distributing 
the manifestos of the Prince of Orange (William III.) among the troops 
^encamped at HounMow, for which service he was made captain. He served at 
the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, became Lt. Col. of foot in 1712, and received 
(he appointment of Governor of Nova Scotia, by commission from King George 



To the Right Honorable the Lord Cwrteret, His Majesty's Prin- 
cipal Secy, of State. 

The situation and state of His Majesty's province of Nova Scotic 
is humbly represented. 


Upon the Isthmus which joins the East and West parts of 
the Province, and is in breadth in some places Six, and in 
others Ten or Twelve Leagues, most of the French inhabi- 
tants have their settlements. These are divided into Pour 
Colonies, in number about 500 Families, besides another settle- 
ment of 100 Families about Annapolis Royal. 

The Port of Annapolis Royal stands upon a river flowing 
into the Bay of Fundy from the Eastward, twenty leagues 
below the Isthmus, and thirty from Cape Sables but has no 
communication bv land with those settlements tho* not diffi- 
cult to be opened when it may be more convenient then at 
present. The Garrison there consists of five companies 
amounting in the whole to 200 men, exclusive of commissioned 
officers. There are (besides the aforementioned French set- 
tlement) about ten or twelve families of English, who live 
together in a small Fauxbourg, under cover of the Fort. * * * 

The French who are settled on the Isthmus, and the River 
of Annapolis Royal (as before related) are the old inhabitants 

1st, dated 17th August, 1717, and afterwards the Government of Placentia, in 
Newfoundland. He arrived at Annapolis in the year 1720, and returned to 
England in 1722. He again visited Nova Scotia, and after inducing the Aca- 
dian French of Annapolis River to take the oath of allegiance to the British 
Government, he finally returned to England about 1731, leaving Mr. Doucette 
in command of the Fort. From his correspondence with the Government 
authorities, and other documents among, the archives of the Province, he 
appears to have been in the early part of his career a very active and intelli- 
gent Governor. During the latter part of his life, which was spent in England, 
he apparently took very little interest in the affairs of the Province; and the 
regiment quartered at Annapolis and Canso, of which he was colonel, became 
at last so destitute of clothing, that his lieutenant colonel, Mr. Armstrong, was 
compelled at his own charge to furnish them with necessary supplies. — 
(Armstrong's letter to Secretary of State.) 

Governor Cornwallis, on his arrival in 1749, found the companies of this 
regiment reduced to about thirty men each, and supplies furnished for twenty- 
six men only in each company ; and there were but ten or twelve great coats 
in the whole corps, which in winter were exchanged by the men on relieving 
guard. Cornwallis observes, in his letter to the Secretary of State, that " no 
regiment in any service was ever reduced to the condition in which he found 
this unfortunate battalion," and that the General should be censured for his 
conduct regarding it. Philippe, in his memorial to the Secretary of State 
regarding the appointment of a Lt Governor during his absence from the 


greatly multiplied since the surrender of the Province to the 
Crown of Great Britain, at which time it was stipulated in 
their behalf, to have their choice either to remain in the 
Province, if they would transfer their allegiance, or in case of 
the alternative, to dispose of their Estates and Effects to the 
best advantage ; to determine which, one year's time was 
allowed them ; but at the expiration thereof, finding their new 
masters in no condition to oblige them to the observance of 
one or the other, they have remained upon their possessions 
in contempt of the Government, waiting the opportunity of a 
rupture between the two Crowns to re-establish their former 
Government, and in the mean time are daily in secret, inciting 
the Indians to robbery and murder, to the destruction of trade 
and hinderance of settling the country. They are seated on a 
fertile soil, and raise great store of corn, and cattle, with 
which and their furs, they traffic at pleasure with the neigh- 
bouring French Colonies at Cape Breton, and Island St. 
John's ; * and have refused supplies to the Garrisons in the 
greatest necessity. ***** 


province, mentions his having had command of one of the oldest regiments in 
the service, which he had purchased for 7,000 guineas, and his having been 
induced at the request of the ministry in 1718 to exchange it for the Govern- 
ment of Nova Scotia with the salary of £1,000 per annum, and the colonelcy 
of the new regiment then lately raised and stationed in Nova Scotia ; and as an 
excuse for his parsimony, he mentions that his agent or paymaster had become 
a defaulter to the extent of £10,000, which he had been compelled to make 
good. On his return to England in 1731, he recommended Lt. Colonel 
Armstrong to be appointed Lt. Governor of the Province, and during his absence 
to receive half the salary. On the death of Armstrong, ir order that no further 
deduction should be made from his pay, he requested that the office of Lt. Gover- 
nor should not be continued, but that the Lt. Governors of the Fort should admin- 
ister the Government of the Province, which they ever after were compelled to 
do without any additional pay — the General being permitted to remain in 
England and receive the whole salary of Governor until 1749v He was then 
succeeded by Governor Cornwallis, and was given the 38th Regiment, late 
Dalzell's, in exchange for that stationed in Nova Scotia, to the command of 
which Cornwallis was appointed. This regiment had been stationed for more 
than 30 years in the Province. It was formed in 1717 or 1716 from the Ameri- 
can independent companies, and had never been in England.. Gen. Philipps 
died in 1751, at the age of 90 years. He was the grandson of Sir John 
Philip ps, of Pictou Castle, in Wales, who was created a Baronet in 1621. Govt. 
Philipps left one son by his first wife, Captain Cosby PhHipps, some time Secre- 
tary at Annapolis. — Governor's Letters, N. S. Archives ; Murdoch's Hist. N. S. 
rol. 1, p. 361 ; New York Colonial Documents ; Burke'B>Peer»ge and Baronetage. . 

* Now Prince Edward Island. 


At a Council held at the Honble. Lieut. Governor's House 
in His Majesty's Garrison of Annapolis Royal upon Friday 
the 29th April 1720. 


His Excellency the General, The Honble. Lieut. Governor, 
Major Lawrence Armstrong, Major Paul Mascarene, The 
Revd. John Harrison Esqr., Cyprian Southack Esq. f 
Arthur Savage Esq., John Adams Esq., Hibbert Newton* 
Esq., William Skene Esq., William Shirreff Esq., Peter 
Boudre Esq. 
His Excellency read that part of his instructions relating 
to the French inhabitants of tins Province taking their Oaths 
to his sacred Majesty King George, and a copy of the former 
Oaths and subscriptions of the French inhabitants of this Pro- 
vince to Queen Anne at the time the late Sr Charles Hobbey 
was Lieut. Governor of this Garrison was also read, advised 
and ordered, 

That His Excellency be desired to send up an order to the 
French inabitants of this river to choose six persons to repre- 
sent the whole body of the Inhabitants ; and to act in behalf 
of the whole and that the said order be drawn up by a com- 
mittee of Council to be laid before this Board at their next 
sitting in order for His Excellency's approbation and signing ; 
that Paul Mascarene, John Harrison, Cyprian Southack, and 
Hibbert Newton Esq., be the said Committee. 

Advised and ordered, 

That a Committee be appointed to inspect the papers of 
the late Governor Caulficld relating to the French inhabitants, 
That the Honble Lieut. Governor, Lawrence Armstrong Esq., 
John Adams Esq., and William Shireff Esq., be the said com- 
mittee, and that they lay before this Board at their next 
sitting all such papers as they shall think for the service oi 
this Government, and particularly those relating to the Oaths 
of the French inhabitants of this Province formerly taken by 
any of them. R PIJILIPPS. 

At a Council held at the Honble. Lieut. Governor's house 
in His Majesty's garrison of Annapolis Royal upon Saturday 
i;he 30th April 1720 a. m. 

* Hibbert Newton was Collector of the Customs at AnnapolU and Canso. He 
was a native of Massachusetts — the only son of Mr. Thomas Newton who came 
out to America from England in 1688, and was some time Attorney General 
and Comptroller of the Customs at Boston. Hibbert Newton was father of Mr. 
Henry Newton, Collector at Halifax, and a Member of Council in 17G1. 



His Excellency the General, the Honble. Lieut. Governor, 
Major Lawrence Armstrong, Major Paul Mascarene, The 
Revd. John Harrison, Esq., Cyprian Southack, Esq., Arthur 
Savage, Esq., John Adams, Esq., Hibbert Newton, Esq., 
William Skene, Esq, William Sheriff, Esq, Peter Boudre,Esq. 

A report of the Committee appointed to draw up an order 
to the French inhabitants of this river vizt that they had 
drawn up said order which was delivered in read and appro- 
ved of. 
Advised and Ordered, 

That the said order be translated into French and sent up 
the river to said inhabitants ; to choose six persons to repre- 
sent the whole body of the French inhabitants of this river. 


A letter from His Excellency the General to Father Justinian 
Durands (a Popish Priest) was read and approved of to be 
sent up the river with the aforesaid order. 

A report of the Committee appointed to inspect the papers 
of this Government relating to the French inhabitants vizt. 
that they had found several papers relating to the French 
inhabitants particularly the Oaths they had taken to Her late 
Majesty Queen Anne which were delivered in read and 
advised on. 


To the Inhabitants of Menis and Places Adjacent. 

I do now hereby send his Majesty my masters commands 
to you in the inclosed Proclamation, by which you may see 
the great good will he bears towards you, by granting in the 
same to those who shall become subjects the free exercise of 
their Religion, with their estates ensured to them and 
posterity and all their Civel Rights. And as their is so 
strickt, and inviolable friendship between the two Crowns, I 
think it a duty incumbent upon me to exhort and invite you 
to take hold of this opportunity of answering his Majesty's 
just demands in takeing your Oaths of Allegiance and fidelity 
to his sacred Person, under whose Gvernment you live. 
Likewise since he has so graciously condescended to let you 
injoy what you seem to think most precious, your Religion, 
and upon your so doing I do further assure you of my pro- 
tection and friendship. 


I expect your answer at Annapolis by Father Felix and 
four of the Inhabitants chosen from amongst you, whome you 
may direct to represent what you have further to say, and in 
case you shall not agree in your choice, I do hereby name 
Alexander Bourg, James Leblang, Paul Mallenson and Peter 
Brow to be the persons, and order you to have this Proclama- 
tion together with this letter read publickly, and in the 
hearing of as many of the Inhabitants as can be gathered 
together, and of Capt: Blin and the rest of the English in 
your parts. 

I am your friend ready to serve you 


Annapolis Royal Apll 28th 1720. 

To the Inhabitants of Uliegnecto*. 

[The same as above, with this paragraph added.] 

And to shew my readyness to serve you, have permitted 
the Bearer hereof to transport from Menis, &ce fifty hhds of 
Wheat to be sold to you for your subsistence wthrout his 
being obliged to come back first to this port, and as you shall 
deserve, you shall find further proofs of my kindness. 

I am your friend, ready to serve you 

Annapolis royal April 28th, 1720. 


To the Inhabitants of the River of Annapolis &c. 

Whereas it may be conducive to his Majesty's service, 
and the welfare of this his Province that the Inhabitants here 
may have access from time to time to me, and may by that 
freedom, declare their intentions, in relation to his Maj:ties 
good pleasure, in regard to them, signified by my Proclama- 
tion dated April, and receive the answers I may give them 
from the Instructions I have received from his Majesty, and 
whereas it is difficult for all of them to attend, so often as it 
may be requisite : This is to order the people inhabiting this 
River, and country adjacent unto it, to choose Wednesday 
next, being the fourth of May 1720 N S. from amongst them- 
selves six persons to appear before me, who are to be im- 

* Cumberland. 


power'd by ye said Inhabitants, to act in behalf of the whole, 
and to transact such matters, as shall be necessary to be 
transacted between me or those whome I may depute, and 
ye said Inhabitants dureing ye time limited by the above 
mentioned Proclamation — Given under my hand, and Sealed 
with my Seal, at Annapolis royal April 30th, 1720 N. S. 


To the reverend father Justinien Durand. 

" I hereby order you to read to-morrow to your congre- 
gation when att the fullest, the enclosed order directed to the 
inhabitants, and after you have read it, to affix it to the 
Chappell door, that none may pretend cause of Ignorance of 
the same, and if you have anything to offer on your part, I 
shall be glad to grant any reasonable demands you can make 
me, as farr as I shall be authorised by His Majesty's instruc- 
tions. I am, Reverend Father, Yo'r most humble servt." 

Annapolis Royal, April 30th, 1720, N. S. 

Governor PhUipps to Father Justinian Durand. 

(Govts. Letter Book.) 

Revd Father, — 

I was very much surprised to hear that you had left your 
habitation up the River, without haveing my leave for it, the 
character the Lieut. Governor had given me of you, gave me 
no room to suspect such a proceeding ; since he had told me 
that with the quiet life you led, you added an entire submis- 
sion to the Government under whose protection you were, 
and did never absent yourself, without first receiving his 
orders. I am sure that the treatment you and the Inhabitants 
have received of me has not given you occasion to change 
your conduct, and if some ill intention'd persons, or your 
own apprehensions, have put ill grounded fears in your mind, 
which may have caused your absence, or fright the Inhabit- 
ants, you may quiet your minds, my intention being of treating 
one & the others with all the mildness you can expect of me, 
and in what shall follow, you'l see that neither I nor those 
under my command will use no kind of violence, unless the 
Inhabitants by their indiscretion or disobedience, should 
against my will oblige me to do it. As for you in particular, 


I can assure you, that notwithstanding your proceeding, I 
have a true value for your person and character, and that 
you may come without fear, & have a free access to me, 
being ready to satisfye all the reasonable demands you can 
make me, and his Majesty has left in my power to grant. 

I am, Reverend Father 
Your sincere Friend & most humble 

Servant R. PHILIPPS. 

Annapolis royal, 

2d May 1720 0. S. 

At a Council held at the Honble. Lieut. Governor's house in 
His Majesty's garrison of Annapolis Royal upon Wednesday 
the 4th May 1720. 


His Excellency the General, the Honble. Lieut. Governor 
Major Lawrence Armstrong, Major Paul Mascarene, The 
Revd. John Harrison, Esq., Cyprian Southack, Esq., Arthur 
Savage, Esq., Hibbert Newton, Esq., William Skene, Esq., 
William Shirreff, Esq. 

The six French representatives (who appeared according to 
order) of the inhabitants of this river, being sent for in before 
the Council, were demanded to shew their power from said 
inhabitants who delivered in their power in writing which was 

Their qualifications as freeholders were examined vizt. 
Prudent Robichaux, Alexander Robichaux, Nicolas Gautier, 
Barnard Goudett, Charles Landre, and Pier Goudet. Nicolaa 
Gautier not proving that he was a freeholder of this Province 
only a transient person was excepted against, likewise Prudent 
Robichaux having but a slender propriety in the said Province 
was also excepted against. 

Advised and agreed, 

That another order in writing be sent to the French inhabi- 
tants of this river from His Excellency the General to choose 
two other persons in the room of said Prudent Robichaux and 
Nicolas Gautier to servo as representatives of the inhabitants 
of this river with Alexander Robichaux, Barnard Goudet, 
Charles Landre, and Pier Goudet. That Major Paul Masca- 
rene draw up said order for his Excellency's perusal and 


At a Council held at the Honble. Lieut. Governor's house in 
His Majesty's garrison of Annapolis Royal upon Wednesday 
the 11th May 1720. 

Present — [the same members.] 

A letter from the French inhabitants of this river to His 
Excellency the General, dated the 20th Instant N. S. in answer 
to His Excellency's order to them to choose two other repre- 
sentatives in lieu of Prudent Robichaux and Nicolas Gautier 
who was objected against was read. 
Advised and Agreed, 

That no answer in writing be returned to said letter but 
that the French inhabitants be verbally acquainted that their 
non-compliance with His Excellency's order hath put it out of 
his power to adjust the matters they petitioned for in said 
letter, by reason of their obstinately refusing to send proper 
persons to act for them and therefore he leaves them to his 
Advised and Agreed, 

That it is for His Majesty's service that means be found out 
to send to LaHave for Monsieur Patipau with all expedition 
who it is thought may be of great use and service to this 
Government in the present circumstances of affairs and that 
Mr. John Broadstreet a volunteer in this garrison is thought 
the most proper person to send on that expedition. 

Letter of the inhabitants of Acadie to Mr. St. Ovide* requesting 
his advice and assistance in the matter of the summons 
from the English general requiring them to take the oath of 
allegiance to the king of England. 

(Translated from the French.) 

May 6th, 1720. 

We take the liberty, Sir of writing to you by the Revd. P. 
Justinian in order to present to you our very humble respects. 

We have up to the present time preserved the purest sen- 
timents of fidelity to our invincible monarch. The time has 
arrived when we need his royal protection and assistance, 

* M. St. Ovide de BrouUlan succeeded M, Costabelle as Governor of Isle 
Royal or Cape Breton- about the year 1720. He continued to hold the post of 
Governor at Louisburgh for man) years. He was there in 1736. M. St. 
Ovide was nephew of M. BrouUlan, who was Governor of Acadia in 1700, and 
assumed his name. 


which you Sir may give us on this occasion. The English 
general whom we have been expecting for a long time has 
arrived. Provided, as he has informed us, with full authority 
from his prince to compel us to take the oath of allegiance or 
leave the country within four months, without being allowed 
to take away with us any part of our personal property, 
except two sheep, per family, — he claims the rest as the pro- 
perty of the king his master. However, in this very pressing 
conjuncture, we have preserved our fidelity to our king, in 
declaring anew that we will persist in being faithful to our 
prince and to our religion, as you will see by the copy, which 
we send you, of the reply to the proclamation published by 
the said general. It is now Sir that we have recourse to the 
intelligence and the counsel which you by your prudence 
may afford us on an occasion so unpleasant, and in the second 
place to the effective assistance which you can give us, should 
we be obliged to leave our property. In the mean time we 
entreat you most earnestly to send us an officer of note 
and experience to speak for us in general and to look after 
our interests. We take the liberty of observing that we know 
of no person more capable than Mr. De Ronville, a gentleman 
of prudence and sagacity. We beg you to send the gentle- 
man whom you may choose as promptly as possible in order 
that things may take place with more moderation before the 
end of the four months allowed for signing or leaving the 
country. If you can advise or assist us in any other way we 
leave it to your zeal and prudence to decide. In the mean 
time we declare ourselves with profound respect the most 
faithful servants of his majesty and of yourself in particular. 

<fcc. &c. &c. 

Qovr. Philipp8 to M. St. Ovide BrouiUan, Govt, of Cape Breton. 

(Gov's Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal 14th May 1720. 
Sir, — 

I had the pleasure of making my complim:ts to you in a 
letter, which I had the Honr. to write you from Boston by 
Mons. Dominicie, who was prepareing to sail the day after 
my departure, which I hope came safe to your hands. 

Since my arrival in my Government, I have according to 
my duty put in execution, the first thing given me in order 
by the King my Master, who thinking it high time to provide 
for the welfare and security of these his dominions, has com- 


manded me to declare his Royal will and pleasure, to the 
french Inhabitants thereof, wch I have done by proclamation, 
a copy of which I have the honour to enclose to you, with 
the intent only that you may be acquainted with his Majesty's 
great goodness and gracious indulgence to these people as 
therein expressed. 

And as nothing less might reasonably be expected from 
them than a quiet submission to the terms prescribed as being 
grounded upon Solemn Treaties acknowledged and ratifyed 
by his Most Christian Majesty, and agreable both to reason 
& justice, it will be very surpriseing to his Majesty to hear 
that instead thereof, they are indeavoureing at this time to 
disturb the peace of this Government, by practiseing with 
the Savages to assemble together upon this occasion, to 
assert their native rights to this country, in opposition to that 
of his Majesty which I am inform'd they intend to do in a 
disorderly manner, the fatal consequences thereof, in case 
hostilitys should begin, must inevitably tend to the confusion 
of the contrivers. That the french Inhabitants are these very 
persons is too plaine from several expressions they have 
drop'd to that purpose, as that they wish we may part friends 
Ac. also from some marks of contempt they have lately shewn 
to my authority and that which gives me a greater suspicion 
of some rash and evil design is the abrupt departure of Pere 
Justinian their Missionary who never was known before to absent 
himself without the knowledge & permission of the Governor. 

As for my parte I have given them as many proofs of kind- 
ness <fc the lenity of my Government as opp.os have offered 
within the little time I have been among them, but as they have 
been alwayes taught by their Priests to look upon themselves 
as subjects of France, and to observe the direction & Council 
of the Isle Royalle*, they have now asked my consent to send 
their deputy's thither for your advice in this matter, which 
they think to be of the last consequence to them, to which 
I have the more readily condisended, as not in the least 
doubting but that you are perfectly acquainted with the 
intentions of the most Christian King, to preserve inviolably 
the strict alliance offensive & defensive betwixt the two 
Crownes, and therefore will make no other use of the power 
<fc influence you have with these people, than to persuade 
to take such measures as may tend to their own good, and at 
the same time to preserve the peace & tranquillity of these 
Countrys, and I cannot help thinking that whatever happens 

* Cape Breton. 


in this affair, whither good or evil will naturally be construed 
the effect and consequence of your Council. I have nothing 
further to add but to assure Monsr. St. Ovide of my perfect 
esteem & that I shall always make it my business to cultivate 
a good understanding with him & the Govrs of his most 
Christian Majesty in these countrys ; in this I obey the 
comands of my Royal Master & at the same time gratifye the 
ambition of Sir Your most humble & most obedt servant 

To Monsr. Monsr. 

St Ovide Brouillian 

Governeur de Cape Breton. 

(Translated from the French.) 

Letter from the inhabitants of Mines to Mr. Philipps Gover- 
nor of Acadie concerning the difficulties which have presented 
themselves to the execution of the orders which he has trans- 
mitted to them by Mr. JBlin, and to ask of him that after the 
valuation of their property by commissioners, the proceeds 
shall be given to them in pursuance of a letter from the late 
Queen Anne. 

May— 1720 
Sir — 

We have received by Mr. Blin the orders which it has 
pleased your Excellency to send us. Being all assembled, 
your Excellency's demands were read to us. These demands 
we cannot agree to, for several reasons, inasmuch as you 
demand from us, an oath which is so much the more burden- 
some as we should expose both ourselves and our families to 
the fury of the savages, who threaten us every day and watch 
all our proceedings in order to assure themselves that we are 
not violating the oath taken in presence of General Nicholson 
and two officers from Isle Royale. This oath is known to the 
courts of England and Prance, and it appears to us very 
difficult to relieve ourselves from the conditions it imposes. 
And if we should happen not to keep our promise to our 
invincible monarch, we would have nothing to expect but 
punishment from the threatening hand of the savages. 

Nevertheless Sir we promise you that we shall be equally as 
faithful as we have hitherto been and that we shall not commit 
any act of hostility against any right of his Britannic Majesty, 
so long as we shall continue to remain within the limits of his 


dominions. You reproach us Sir in the proclamation with 
having remained on our property more than the year stipulated 
in the articles of peace. We have the honor to reply that it 
Was impossible for us to do otherwise for the following reason 
that although permission to sell our real estate was granted 
to us, yet we have not been able to do so not having yet found 
a purchaser ; the above privilege therefore has been useless to 
us. Moreover by a letter of the late Queen Anne of happy 
tnemor} r it was ordered that a valuation of our property should 
be made and that the amount of said valuation should be paid 
to us as was done in the evacuation of Placentia and other 
places ceded to the Queen by the King of France. 

Thus Sir, if you think that what we have had. the honour to 
represent is not justice and equity, we beg that you will have 
the goodness to tell us so — the favour that those expect who 
take the liberty of subscribing themselves, &c. &c. &c* 

At a Council held at the House of the Honble. Lieut. 
Governor's in His Majesty's garrison of Annapolis Royal upon 
Tuesday the 17th May 1720* 


His Honor the Lieut. Governor, Major Lawrence Armstrong, 
President, Major Paul Mascarene, the Revd. John Harrison, 
Cyprian Southack Esq., Arthur Savage Esq., Hibbert 
Newton Esq., William Skene Esq., William Shirreff Esq., 

The Honble. Lieut. Governor acquainted the Board that 
His Excellency General Philipps having advice that the 
French inhabitants of this river are cutting a road from this 
river to Menis which gives him suspicion that they design by 
it, either to molest this place or to drive off their cattle and 
carry their effects from hence by that way in order to settle 
in a body, either there or Shignecto and stand in defiance 
of the Government. Advised and Agreed, 

That His Excellency be desired to send his special orders 
to the French inhabitants of this river and Menis not to cut 
any such road without having His Excellency's leave in 

That the said order be drawn up to be presented to His 
Excellency to sign and approve of, — that the Honble. Lieut. 
Governor, Major Lawrence Armstrong, Major Paul Mascarene, 
and Cyprian Southack Esq. be the Committee to draw up 
Baid order. 



To the Inhabitants off This River & Menis. 

Notwithstanding the many favours, & Intentions of kind- 
ness, His most Gracious Majesty the King of Great Brittain 
&c has been pleas'd to order me to communicate to the french 
Inhabitants dwelling in this his Province of Nova Scotia and 
L'Accadie which on my part I have accordingly made publick, 
in a Proclamation bearing date April 19th 1720 S, and have 
since used all methods possible which I have thought might 
be conducive particularly to the welfare and interests of the 
said Inhabitants, to which marks of kindness shewed them, 
they have hitherto answered with ingratitude, — especially in 
their late contempt and disobedience of what I required for 
their immediate and future good, as also in ye attempt (as I 
am inform'd) the Inhabitants of this River, have now taken in 
hand, of Cutting a communication through the Woods to 
Menis, who have sent likewise to demand of those Inhabitants 
to assist in cutting th8ir part, without desireing my leave or 
so much as acquainting me with it, which rash and ill con- 
certed proceedings gives me just reasons to believe, that they 
have very ill designes on foot, either to bring by the said 
communication a number of people to molest this his Majesty's 
Garrison, or otherwise to carry and drive their effects and 
cattle from hence, and form a general assembly at Menis or 
Chignecto, to stand in opposition and defiance to his Majesty 
and Govermt. 

I therefore do hereby positively Order and Command, all 
persons whatever to desist immediately, from any such under- 
takeing, which commands, if they should be so obstinate to 
disobey, I shall be obliged to look upon it, as an act of defy- 
ance to the King's authority, and take such methods as shall 
be most proper for the preservation of this his Majesty's 
Government and Province, and I do further forbid any person 
to quitt their Habitations clandestinely, & without my leave. 

Given under my hand at Annapolis royal 18 May 1720. 



Governor PhUipps to Secretary Oraggs. 

(Govts Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, May 26th, 1720- 

* # * # The third day after my arrival here I 
was visited by the Priest of this district of Annapolis at the 
head of one hundred & fifty lusty young men (as if he meant 
to appear formidable) whom I received as civilly as possible, 
and after giveing them assurance of his Majesty's favour & 
protection, caused the Priest to read to them, one of the 
Proclamations I had prepared according to my Instructions, 
and will (I hope) be found exactly conformable thereto, Copy 
of which I have the Honour to enclose No. 1. I asked him 
afterwards if he did not allow that his Majesty's Condescen- 
tion therein expressed did not exceed even the People's 
expectation : he answered that his Majesty was very gracious, 
bnt that the people were not at liberty to swear Allegiance 
because that in General Nicholson's time they had sett their 
hands unanimously to an Obligation of continuing Subjects 
of France & retireing to Cape Breton, and for another reason, 
they were sure of haveing their throats cut by the Indians 
whenever they became Englishmen, he was answered to both 
very fully, & the true Interest of the People demonstrated ; but 
arguments prevaile little without a power of inforcing: for 
the case is thus, they find themselves for several yeares the 
only Inhabitants of a large Country, except the small Garrison 
of this place, which haveing been so much neglected they 
make no acco:t of, and began to think they had as much right 
here as any other : They were indeed very much surprised 
at the arrival of a Chiefe Gov'r which they never expected, 
often saying that person was not borne, and therefore are 
getting out of his way as fast as they can, as you will find by 
the sequel, that so being once joined in a body, with the help 
of the Indians to favour their Retreat, they can march off at 
their leisure, by the way of the Bay of Verte with their 
effects, and distroy what they leave behind without danger 
of being molested by this Garrison which scarce suffices, to 
secure the Fort in its present Condition. 

To return to my Journal, the next day I sent a Proclama- 
tion up the river, with a letter to the Priest to require him to 
assemble all his people, and to read it to them againe, and 
when they had considered well of it to send me their answer, 
which he did much sooner than I expected (being I suppose 


determined beforehand) with a letter from himself. Coppys 
of all which goe inclosed marked No. 2. 

While these matters past, I made choice of the King's 
Council whose names, and qualifications I here transmit 
marked No 3 & and after duly qualifying ourselves according 
to law, by takeing and subscribeing the Oaths required, & my 
Commission read, I acquainted them with what passed in 
relation to the french Inhabits of this river, and that they 
expected my reply to their Paper, upon which it was agreed 
that a letter be wrote to order them to send six Deputies to 
represent the whole, with whom I would confer, which letter 
was accordingly wrote, a Copy whereof is inclosed marked 
No 4. I also acquainted the Council that I intended the next 
day to send some of the Proclamations to the chief settle- 
ments at Minas & Chignecto with a letter to each which had 
their approbation, the Copy 8 thereof are likewise enclosed No 5. 

I had at this time Information that the Priest of the river 
absented himself. The same night he sent me his letter, but 
supposeing him not far off, I wrote to him very civilly as per 
copy marked No 6. I am told since he is gone to Minas to 
consult with his brethren there (of mischief no doubt) as may 
be gathered from his letter. * * * * 

Tho' I had reason to expect nothing less from this proce- 
dure than a thankful complyance, with what was demanded 
for their own good, instead thereof they took the occasion of 
shewing their Contempt of his Majesties Goverment, by re- 
fusing to alter their first choice, and sent me their Letter to 
that purpose as pr Copy marked No 8 — however I granted 
their request to send two persons to Cape Breton for advice 
in the measures they should take, being glad to make use of 
that opp'o of writeing to the Governor on that head, a Copy 
of which letter goes enclosed marked No 9. 

Dureing these Transactions they have been on all sides 
practiseing with the Indians who are intirely in their Interest, 
to get them to play their part, and to assert their native 
right to this country, in opposition to that of his Majesty, for 
which end, I am told they are assembling. The Chief of this 
River Indians, who are but few and inconsiderable, among 
the rest has been with me accompanyed with half a score of 
others, and desir'd me to resolve him, if the french were to 
leave this Country, whether the Two Crowns were in alliance, 
whether I intended to debar them of their religion or disturb 
them in their traffick; to all which Queryes I answer'd to 

♦ See page 23. 


Satisfaction, and sent them away in good humour, promissing 
they would be very peaceable while the Union lasted between 
the Two Crownes. I must observe here, that I have hitherto 
deferr'd sending for the Chiefs of the other Indians, expecting 
every day the arrival of the presents I applyed for f and were 
prepareing to be sent before I came from home, & can never 
be more serviceable, than at this juncture ; in the meantime 
have signifyed my Intentions to them. 

This morning I had intelligence that the Inhabitants of this 
river are hard at worke in opening a communication thro' the 
Woods to Minas, which was formerly a road (in order to retire 
thither with their Cattle & Effects (as I have the Honour to 
hint before) & had sent to Minas that those People might do 
the same on their side, upon wch. with the advice of the 
Council I dispatched an Order to both places to stop them as 
per copy marked No. 10. 

At this time arrived the Deputyes from Minas & delivered 
one letter from their body with another from one of the King's 
Council, by whome I had sent up the Proclamations & was 
directed to make his best Observations of their behaviour & 
designs copys of both are marked No 11 & 12, which being 
read before the Council, the whole proceedings were then 
taken into consideration. 

It was agreed that whereas my Instructions direct me with 
the effect of the Proclamation & that I have neither order, or 
sufficient power to drive these people out, nor prevent their 
doeing what damage they please to their houses and posses- 
sions, and likewise for the sake of gaineing time and keeping 
all things quiet till I shall have the Honour of your farther 
comands in whate manner to act. That it is most for his 
Majesty's service to send home the Deputys with smooth words, 
and promise of enlargement of time whilst I transmit their 
case home and receive his Majesty's farther directions therein. 

Thus Sir stands the present posture of affaires here, in the 
course of which I hope my conducte may have the Honour of 
your approbation at least so far as I have not erred from my 
Instructions except in enlargeing the time of evacuation, which 
was by advice of the King's Council. 

I account it a misfortune that the beginning of my Gover- 
ment has afforded matter of Trouble & difficulty. It is a hard 
and uneasy task in my circumstances to manage a People that 
will neither believe nor hearken to reason (unless it comes out 
of the mouths of their Priests) and at the same time to keep 
up the Honour & dignity of Govert. If they are permitted 



to remaine upon the footing they propose, it is very probable 
they will be obedient to Goverment, as long as the Two 
Crownes continue in alliance, but in case of a rupture will be 
;bo many enemy es in our bosom, and I cannot see any hopes or 
likelyhood of makeing them English, unless it were possible to 
procure these Priests to be recalled (who are tooth and nayle 
against the regent, not sticking to say openly, that Tis his day 
now, but will be theirs anon) ai\d haveing others sent in their 
stead, which (if anything) may contribute in a little time to 
make some change in their sentiment and give them oppo. of 
opening their Eyes, which hitherto are shut even to their 
own Interest. Like care must be taken to prevent the 
Governor of Cape Bretons carrying on his secret correspon- 
dance with them and our Indians, to whome he yearly makes 
presents, to secure them in the french Interest. 

As to the Indians all the mischief they are capable of acting, 
is to be expected from them, whenever the Inhabitants are 
obliged to retire, many of whome will joyne them in disguise 
to disturb us in the building any fortifications for the security 
H of the Country, and as they are not a people, that can be mett 
with in open Field, I can advise no other Expediet. than 
that the Govermt. be at the charge of takeing Two hundred 
of the Mohock Indians from New Yorke side into the Service,, 
which will be no great Expence, who being a Terror to these r 
& alwayes faithful! to the English, will in my humble opinion 
be of very good consequence toward the settling this Country, 
but all this I submit to your better judgment. 

You will please to observe that the Lands at Minas which 
afford great quantity s of wheat yearly, and the best farms as 
yet in the Country, are lyable to be all drown'd by cutting a 
dyke, which the Inhabitants at. goeing off will not want ill 
nature to do. 

It would be great pity those Farms should want Inhabit- 
ants, when vacated by the ffrench & great inconveniency to . 
the Garrison, which they supply with plenty of fresh provi- 
sions. I have sent a paper to Newfoundland to be comtmi- 
cated to the People there, to acquaint them, with his Majesty's 
desire for their removing to this Country by a Sloop I sent 
express with some Provisions for the Garrison of Placentia, 
being accidentally informed that no Store Ship was arriv'd 
there in the Fall, and that they were in Apprehension of want, 
& made use of the same opp.o for drawing one Comp.a from 
thence as a small reinforcement to this place which I hope will 
meet with approbacon. 


Whilst I am writeing, the Deputy* from the Inhabitants of 
this river, who had disobeyed Command, in the Choice of. their 
representatives, & were cutting the Communication to Min^s, 
are come with a Submission sign'd by the body, Copy whereof 
is inclosed markt No 13, so that I am not out of hopes by 
maintaining the authority of Goverment amongst them to 
bring them to obedience: they say they will Oblige them- 
selves to be good subjects in every respect excepting that v of 
takeing up arms against the King of France : And . I would 
humbly propose that if an Oath were formed for them to take 
whereby they should oblige themselves to take up arms 
.against the Indians if required, to live quietly & peaceably in 
their houses, not to harbour, or give any maner.of assistance 
to any of the King's Enemys, to acknowledge his Majesty's 
rights to these countrys, to pay obedience to his Goverment, 
and to hold their lands of the King by a new Tenure, instead 
of holding them (as at present) from Lords of Manners who 
are now at Cape Breton where at this day they pay their rent, 
how farr this may be thought sufficient to bind them. * * * 

I am Sir your most 
obedient and humble servant 

To the Rt Honble. James Craggs Esq 

one of his Majesty's 
Principal Secretary's of State 

Ghvernor PhUipps to Secretary Craggs. 


Since the last I had the honour to write you matters 
continue here in the same scituation in regard to the french 
Inhabitants, who seem yet undetermined which party to chuse, 
tho if left to themselves, would certainly imbrace that of in- 
joying their possessions, by becoming subjects to Great Bri- 
tagne but the neighboring french Governors finding that these 
people will no longer be serviceable to their Interest after 
•wearing allegiance, and judging (too well) of the conse- 
quence of wanting such a number of hands to strengthen, & 
improve their Colonys, are makeing use of all stratagems to 
draw them to their party, to this end the Priests are all assem- 
bled at Minas to be near Cape Breton, where their great Council 
is held, between which places they are continually passing 
-And repassing from whence they disperse false pacquetts, and 


Insinuations among the people as fast as they can be coynecL 
Among other things they are told that the promise made them 
of enjoying their Religion is but a Chimera, and what jfchey 
must not depend on, for they will quickly be reduced to the 
same state with his Majesty's Popish Subjects in Ireland and 
their Priests deny'd them. I endeavour all I can to undeceive 
them, but scarce hope to find more credit with them than their 
Priests : if these prevaile, there will a great many fine posses- 
sions become vacant, I believe it would not be difficult to 
draw as many people almost from New England as would 
supply their room, if it were not robbing a neighbouring 
Colony, without gaining much by the exchange, therefore 
hope there are schemes forming at home to settle this Country 
with Brittish Subjects in the Spring, before which time these 
Inhabitants do not think of moving, haveing the benefit of in~ 
largement of time I granted untill I shall receive your farther 
Commands. What is to be apprehended in the resettling these 
farmes is disturbance from the Indians, who do not like to hear 
of the French goeing off and will note want prompting to 

This day I have received a letter from Cape Breton about 
this affair which I have the honour to lay before you. It may 
be necessary to explane to you that the Convention therein 
mentioned was an affair transacted by General Nicholson, who 
can give the best accot : thereof, and how far his Majesty 
stands obliged to make good at this time of day, what should 
have been executed seven yeares agoe according to that Treaty* 

The wants of the presents which I have expected for the 
Indians, has made me delay speakeing with them hitherto, but 
finding it no longer adviseable to deferr that matter, upon in- 
formation that the disaffected French are dayly practiseing to 
posess them with notions of some ill designes form'd by the 
Govermt. against them, have sent an Express over the Bay 
/where the most considerable of them keep) to assemble their 
Chiefs with whome I shall indeavour to settle a peaceable & 
friendly correspondence. But I am sorry to find that the 
french have so well made their advantage of our neglect of 
this Country, that their Goverment prevailes both among the 
Inhabitants and Natives. And the King's Authority (whch. 
is confin'd within this ffort for want of meanes to extend & 
diffuse its influence over the several inhabited parts) is in a 
manner disposed & ridiculed. This I have the mortification to 
Experience almost every day, in many respects, particularly 
by letters that have fallen into my hands from some principal 





Officers of Cape Breton, wherein the people addressed to, are 
told that they may for forme sake apply to me, but in case I 
do not grant their request, they may follow their owne inclina- 

These things (with submission) require speedy & effectuall 
redress, that his Majesty's Authority may be better maintained 
& supported within this Province. I have the honour to 
assure you nothing shall be wanting on my. part towards 
doeing my duty, but while I am shut up within this Garrison, 
without the necessary convenience of looking abroad, the 
people of Minas & Chignecto know very well that they are 
out of my power & in spite of any thing I can do to obstruct 
carrying on a clandestine trade with Cape Breton, wch. they 
supply yearly with come & cattle in exchange from the 
woollen & linnen manufactures of France. 

These practises may in a great measure be prevented, and 
the people kept in better obeidance, if I might be permitted 
to hire and arm a sloop with some troops of the Garrison, when 
' occasion requires to visit the Settlements and observe their 
actions, the charge of which will be inconsiderable compared 
with that of a Stationship which will cost the Goverment 
three or four thousand pound pr. annum, and this not more 
than four hundred pounds, one year with another, and that 
service every way answered : and if I durst propose what 1 
think farther necessary towards retrieving the affaires of this 
Province, and settling it with safety, it would be the addition 
of one hundred men, this Garrison being too small to supply 
all dutys that may be required in the ^everall services of this 
Goverment in its present scituation. ******* 

I am with great respect 
your most obedient and 
most humble servant 

Annapolis ) July 1720 R. PHILIPPS. 

Itoyall j 

To the Rt Honble James Craggs Esq 
one of his Majesty's Principal 
Secretary of State at Whitehall 

Great Brittain 



Ghvr. Philippe to Mr. St. Ovide, Govt, of Cape Breton. 

[Translated from the French.] 


The bearers of this letter go with my permission and my 
passport to Cape Breton, for a priest in place of the one who 
has left them ; and I take the opportunity at the same time of 
replying to that which you wrote to me, the 7th of last month 
from port Thoulouse. * 

It appears to me, from some passages in your letter that 
you take the proclamation which I published on my arrival 
here to the inhabitants of this province, for a pure act of my 
will, without the knowledge of the king my master. If that is 
your opinion I can assure you that you are mistaken, and that 
I know my duty too well to make use of the name of his 
majesty without having his royal authority for it as my war- 
rant ; and you may depend upon it, that each article of this 
proclamation is in conformity to my instructions and contained 
in them. Therefore I am quite easy on that score, having 
nothing to apprehend in all that has taken place on this sub- 
ject except having undertaken to prolong the time beyond 
what my orders empowered me to do. As to the proceeding 
of the king in their case, it is sufficiently justified by the 
articles of the treaty of Utrecht. It is not denied that Queen 
Anne granted to these inhabitants, as well as to those of Pla- 
centiaf the liberty which you mention, of which, some took 
advantage in leaving within the limited time ; but of which 
others have, justly, lost the advantage, through their negli- 
gence or presumption. 

Your commissioners even who came here to regulate this 
affair, in the time of General Nicholson agreed that there was 
but one year's grace, and disputed only whether its com- 
mencement should be reckoned from the date of the said 
treaty, or from the time of the convention of the inhabitants 
here for the purpose of being instructed as to this favor. 
Since that time they have not been prevented from withdraw- 
ing. Many of them left and sold their possessions according 
to the Queen's intention. But you must admit that there is a 
groat difference of time between one and seven years, that 
they have remained in his majesty's dominions, in the full en- 
joyment of their property, until they have begun to think that 

* St. Peter's. f In Newfoundland. 


they have more right here than hia majesty himself. So you, 
ought not to be surprised, if his majesty at this time thinks 
proper, for the security of his dominions, to summon them in 
this manner, demanding of them their allegiance* if they con- 
tinue in this country, on the most advantageous terms they 
-could possibly expect or desire ; or to leave this country with* 
out having any regard to them. 

It remains for me to assure you, that I shall not fail on my 
part to give proofs on every occasion that shall present itself 
of my desire to maintain as much as possible the strict union 
between the two orowns, as well as a friendly correspondence, 
with the governors established by the most christian King, in 
this part of the world, being enjoined to do so by the positive 
orders of the king my master, and to cultivate in particular 
your esteem and friendship. 

I am 
with perfect sincerity 
your very humble and obt. servant 

Annapolis Royal 

August 10, 1720 
Mr. St. Ovide Brouillon 

Governor of Cape Breton 

By Paul Mascarene, Engineer. 

[Transmitted to Lords of Trade by Governor Philipps in 1720.] 

The Boundaries having as yet not been agreed on between 
the British and French Governments in these parts as stipu- 
lated in the 10th Article of the treaty of Utrecht no just ones 
can be settled in this description. The extent of the province 
of Nova Scotia or Acadie, according to the notion the Britains 
have of it, is from the limits of the Government of Massachu- 
setts Bay in New England, or Kennebeck River about the 
44th degree North latitude, to Cape de Roziers on the South 
side of the entrance of the River of St. Lawrens in the 44th 
degree of the same latitude, and its breadth extends from the 
Eastermost part of the Island of Cape Breton to the South 


side of the River of St. Lawrence. Out of this large tracf r 
the French had yielded to them at the above Treaty the 
Islands situated at the mouth of the River St. Lawrence and 
in the Gulph of the same with the Island of Cape Breton. 

The climate is cold and very variable even in the souther- 
most part of this Country, and is subject to long and severe 

The soil notwithstanding this, may be easily made to pro- 
duce all the supplies of life for the inhabitants which may 
more particularly appear when mention is made of each par- 
ticular settlement. It produces in general, Wheat, Rye, 
Barley, Oats, all manner of pulse, garden roots and Herbs, it 
abounds in Cattle of all kinds, and has plenty of both tame 
and wild fowl. It is no less rich in its produce for what 
relates to trade. It's woods are filled with Oak, Fir, Pine of 
all sorts fit for masts, Pitch and Tar, Beach, Maple, Ash, 
Birch, Asp &c. There are also undoubtedly several iron and 
Copper mines, the latter at Cape Dore have been attempted 
three different times, but the great expense which would 
attend the digging and thoroughly searching them has dis- 
couraged the undertakers, the whole Cape being of a vast 
heighth and an entire rock, through the crevices of which 
some bits of Copper are spued. There are good Coal mines 
and a quarry of soft stone near Chignecto, and at Musquash 
cove ten leagues from Annapolis Royal, as also in St. Johns 
River very good and plenty of white marble is found which 
burns into very good lime, feathers and furs are a consider- 
able part of the trade of this Country, but the most material 
is the fishing of Cod which all the Coast abounds with, and 
seems to be inexhaustable. It is easy from hence to infer of 
how much benefit it is to Great Britain that two such con- 
siderable branches of trade as the supplies for Naval Stores, 
and the Fishery may remain in her possession, and if it should 
be objected that New England and Newfoundland are able to 
supply the demands of Great Britain on those two heads it 
may be easily replied, that the markets will be better, espe- 
cially in relation to fish when Great Britain is almost the sole 
mistress of that branch of trade, and her competitors abridged 
of the large share they bear in it. 

• There are four considerable settlements on the south side 
of the Bay of Fundy, Annapolis Royal, Manis, Chignecto, and 
Oobequid which shall be treated on separately. Several 
femilies are scattered along the Eastern Coast which shall be 
also mentioned in their turn. 


The Inhabitants of these Settlements are still all French 
and Indians ; the former have been tolerated in the possession 
of the lands they possessed, under the French Government 
and have had still from time to time longer time allowed them? 
either to take the Oaths to the Crown of Great Britain, or to 
withdraw, which they have always found some pretence or 
other to delay, and to ask for longer time for consideration. 
They being in general of the Romish persuasion, cannot be 
easily drawn from the French Interest, to which they seem to 
be entirely wedded, tho 7 they find a great deal more sweetness 
under the English Government. They use all the means they 
can to keep the Indians from dealing with the British subjects, 
and by their mediation spreading among the Savages several 
false Notions tending to make them diffident, and frighten 
them from a free intercourse with them, and prompting them 
now and then to some mischief which may increase that 
diffidence, and oblige them to keep more at a distance . 

There are but two reasons which may plead for the keeping 
those French Inhabitants in this Country. 1st. The depriving 
the French of the addition of such a strength, which might 
render them too powerful neighbours, especially if these 
people on their withdrawing hence are received and settled 
at Cape Breton ; and secondly, the use that may be made of 
them in providing necessaries for erecting fortifications, and 
for English Settlements and keeping on the stock of cattle, 
and the lands tilled, till the English are powerful enough of 
themselves to go on, which two last will sensibly decay if they 
withdraw before any considerable number of British subjects 
be settled in their stead, and it is also certain that they having 
the conveniency of saw mills (which it will not be in our 
power to hinder being destroyed by them, at their going 
away) may furnish sooner and cheaper the plank boards &c. 
requisite for building. 

The reasons for not admitting these Inhabitants are many 
and strong, and naturally deriving from the little dependance 
on their allegiance. The free exercise of their religion as 

Eromised to them, implies their having missionaries of the 
lomish persuasion amongst them, who have that ascendance 
over that ignorant people, as to render themselves masters of 
all their actions, and to guide and direct them as they please- 
in temporal as well as in spiritual affairs. These missionaries 
have their superiors at Canada or. Cape Breton, from whom it 
is natural to think, they will receive such commands as will 
never square with the English interest being such as these 


viz., Their forever inciting the Salvages to some mi&chief or 
other, to hinder their corresponding with the English; their 
laying all manner of difficulties in the way when any English 
Settlement is proposed or going on by inciting underhand 
the Salvages to disturb them, and making these last such a 
bugbear, as if they (the French) themselves durst not give 
«,ny help to the English for fear of being massacred by them f 
when it is well known the Indians are but a handful in this, 
country. And were the French Inhabitants (who are able to 
appear a thousand men under arms) hearty for the British 
Government, they could drive away, or utterly destroy the 
Salvages in a very little time. The French Inhabitants be- 
sides are for the generality very little industrious, their lands 
not improved as might be expected, they living in a manner 
from hand to mouth, and provided they have a good field of 
Cabbages and Bread enough for their families with what 
fodder is sufficient for their cattle they seldom look for much 
further improvement. * 

It is certain that British Colonists would be far more 
advantageous to the settling this Province, and would besides 
the better improvement of it, for which their Industry is far 
superior to the French who inhabit it at present, lessen con- 
siderably the expence in defending of it, not only in regard 
to fortifications, but also in regard to Garrisons, because the 
English Inhabitants would be a strength of themselves^ 
whereas the French require a strict watch over them. This 
would also reconcile the native Indians to the English, which 
the other as mentioned before, endeavour to keep at a 

The neighbouring Government of the French at Cape 
Breton is not very desirous of drawing the Inhabitants out 
of this Country so long as they remain in it under a kind of 
Allegiance to France, especially if they are not allowed to 
carry their cattle, effects, grain, &c, which last would be more 
welcome in the barren country than bare Inhabitants, but is 
opposing with all its might and by the influence of the Priests 
residing here, their taking the oaths of Allegiance to Great 
Britain, and if even that oath was taken by them, the same 
influence would make it of little or no effect. That Govern- 
ment is also improving by the same means the diffidence of 
the Indians, and will make them instruments to disturb the 
British Settlements on the Eastern Coast of this Government, 
or any other place, which might check the supplies they have 

* See note to letter from Gorr. Mascarene to Gorr. Shirley in April, 1748. 


from hence for their support on their barren territories besides 
the jealousy in trade, and fear of this Government being too 
powerful in case of a War. 

It would be therefore necessary for the interest of Great 
Britain, and in order to reap the benefit, which will accrue 
from the acquisition of this country, not to delay any longer 
the settling of it, but to go about it in good earnest to which 
if is humbly proposed, viz. : 

That the French Inhabitants may not be tolerated any 
longer in their non-allegiance, but may have the test put to 
them without granting them any further dfelay, for which it is 
requisite a sufficient force be allowed to make them comply 
with the terms prescribed them, which force ought to be at 
least six hundred men to be divided to the several parts 
already inhabited by the French and Indians, and might be at 
the same time a cover to the British Inhabitants who would 
come to settle in the room of the French. For an encourage- 
ment to those new Inhabitants, should be given free transpor- 
tation, free grants of land, and some stock of Cattle out of 
what such ot the French who would rather choose to with- 
draw, than take the oaths, might be hindered to destroy or 
carry away. 

The expence this project would cost the Government, would 
be made up by the benefit, which would accrue to trade, when 
the country should be settled with Inhabitants, who would 
promote it, and would be a security to it and in a little time a 
small force of regular troops would be able to defend it, with 
the help of loyal Inhabitants. 

The great expence the Government has been at already on 
account of this country, and the little benefit that has accrued 
from it is owing for the most part, to its being peopled with 
Inhabitants that have been always enemies to the English 
Government, for its evident from what has been said of the 
temper of the Inhabitants, and the underhand dealings of the 
Government of Cape Breton, that what orders are or may be 
given out by the Governor of this Province, without they are 
backed by a sufficient force, will be always slighted and 
rendered of non eifect. 

It will bo easy to judge how the number of Troops here 
proposed, ought to be disposed of by the description of every 
particular settlement and first 

Annapolis Royal is seated on the Southern side of the Bay 
of Fundy, about thirty leagues from Cape Sables. The entry 
from the Bay into the British River is of a mile long, and in 


the widest place about half a mile broad, this entry leads into 
a larger Basin where a vast number of ships may safely 
anchor. Three leagues from the entry, and up the British 
river lies Goat Island ; the ship channel between that and the 
main lies on the larboard side going up, it is narrow, but has 
water enough for the biggest ship, the other side of the Isle 
is full of shoals, and has a very narrow and difficult channel. 
Two leagues above Goat Island is the Fort, seated on a rising 
sandy ground on the South side of the River on a point formed 
by the British River and another small one called Jenny river. 
The lower Town lies along the first and is commanded by the 
Fort, the upper Town stretches in scattering houses a mile 
and half South East from the Fort on the rising ground be- 
twixt the two rivers. From this rising ground to the banks 
of each river, and on the other side of the less one, lies large 
plats of meadow which formerly were damn'd in, and pro- 
duced good grain and sweet grass, but the dykes being broke 
down, are over flowed at every spring tide from Goat Island 
to five leagues above the Fort. On both sides of the British 
River are a great many fine farms Inhabited by about two 
hundred families. The tide flows that extent, but the river 
is not navigable above two leagues above the Fort, by any 
other than small boats. The Bank of this River is very plea- 
sant and fruitful and produces wheat, rye and other grain, 
Eulse, garden roots, herbs and the best cabbages of any place, 
ere abounds also cattle and fowls of all kinds and if the 
several good tracts of land along this river were well im- 
proved they would suffice for a much greater number of In- 
habitants than there is already. 

The chief employment of the French Inhabitants now is 
farming and the time they have to spare they employ in hunt- 
ing, and catching of Sable Martins. Their young men who 
have not much work at farming beget themselves to Fishing 
in the summer. The Fort is almost a regular square, has four 
Bastions, and on the side fronting the Point, which js formed 
by the junction of the two Rivers, it has a ravelin and a bat- 
tery of largo guns on the counterscarpe of the ravelin, which 
last with the battery, have been entirely neglected since the 
English had possession of this place and are entirely ruined. 
The works are raised with a sandy earth and were faced with 
sods, which being cut out of a sandy soil (the whole neck 
betwixt the two rivers being nothing else) soon mouldered 
away, and some part of the works needed repairing almost 
every spring. The French constantly repaired it after the 


e&me manner except part of the courtin, covered with the 
Ravelin, which they were obliged to face with pieces of tim- 
ber some time before they quitted possession of this place. 
The English followed that last method in repairing of this 
Port, reverting of it all round with pieces of round timber, of 
six or seven inches diameter, to the height of the Cordon, and 
raising a parapet of sod work, but whether by neglect of the 
workman, or those who had the overseeing of them, or their 
little thrift in carrying on these repairs, or some other reason, 
they put the Government to a prodigious deal of charge, and 
gave an entire disgust for any manner of repairs. Thus the 
tort laid for a great while tumbling down, till at the arrival of 
Governor Philipps, the orders from his Majesty signified by 
him to the French Inhabitants not pleasing them they shewed 
some forwardness to disturb the peace and to incite the In- 
dians to some mischief, which made it necessary to put the 
fort into a posture of defence against the insults which might 
be offered to the Garrison which is too small of itself to en- 
counter so great a number, as even the Inhabitants of this 
River, might make against it, they being able to arm and 
assemble four hundred men, in twenty four hours time. It is 
therefore humbly proposed in relation to this place, that till 
the Inhabitants are more loyal, two hundred men of regular 
Troops may remain garrisoned here, and that whilst a new 
projection for the fortifying of this place shall be agreed and 
carried, this fort may be next summer, thoroughly repaired, 
the sum demanded for these repairs, not exceeding eight hun- 
dred pounds sterling, by which this place will be put in a con- 
dition to last the time requisite for providing of materials, 
and building a stone redoubt &c, and may serve to secure the 
materials, and workmen, which otherwise will be much in 
danger. This project will be more particularly transmitted 
this fall to the Honorable Board of Ordnance. 

Manis called by the French Les Mines has its name from 
the Copper Mines which are said to be about it especially at 
one of the Capes, which divides the Bay of Fundy, p,nd is 
called Cap Des Mines or Cape Dor£. This Town lies thirty 
leagues by sea and about twenty two by land, East North 
East from Annapolis Royal, of the same side of the Bay of 
Fundy. The harbor there, or rather the road, is very wild 
and unsecure. The vessels tradiug there, which seldom ex- 
ceed forty or fifty tons in burthen, take the opportunity of 
the tide, which commonly rises nine or ten fathoms, and run 
up a Crick to the Town, where when the tide leaves them 


they lye dry on a bank of mud which stretches five or six 
miles before it meets with low water mark. This place might 
be made tha Granary not only of this Province but also of the 
neighbouring Governments. There is a plat of Meadow, 
which stretches along for near four leagues, part of which is 
darn'd in from the tide, and produces very good wheat and 

The rest of the Meadow might be with some labor dam'd in 
also, and if peopled by industrious Inhabitants, might be of 
very great advantage, not only in regard to this Province, but 
as is mentioned above, for the supply of the neighbouring 

The houses which compose a kind of scattering Town, lies 
on a rising ground along two Cricks which run betwixt it and 
the meadow, and make of this last a kind of Peninsula. This 

1)lace has great Store of Cattle, and other conveniencies of 
ife, and in the road they catch white porpoises, a kind of fish, 
the blubber of which turned into oil, yields a good profit. 

The Inhabitants of this place and round about it are more 
numerous than those of the British River, besides the number 
of Indians which often resort here, and as they never had any 
force near them to bridle them, are less tractable, and subject 
to command. All the orders sent to them if not suiting to 
their humors, are scoffed and laughed at, and they put them- 
selves upon the footing of obeying no Government. It will 
not be an easy matter to oblige these Inhabitants to submit to 
any terms which do not entirely square to their humours 
unless a good force be landed there, and a Fort or redoubt of 
earth bo thrown up, well ditched friezed and pallisaded, till a 
more durable may be built; this redoubt must have four 
pieces of cannon (sakers) and command the meadow, which is 
their treasure. The force sent for that purpose must be three 
or four hundred men, the reason of which will appear, when it 
is considered, when the wildness of the harbor will not make 
it safe for any Ship of force to remain there to give counte- 
nance to such an undertaking, and that even if she could 
anchor safely, it must be at the distance of near twelve miles 
from the place where the said redoubt is to be built and that 
any other vessels, which must be employed to carry the troops, 
and workmen must lie ashore dry, sixteen hours at least of the 
twenty four, and may be liable to be burned, and thereby cut 
off the retreat of those employed in this work unless they are 
able to defend themselves and to make head against the 
Inhabitants and the Indians ; who will never suffer it to go on, 


if not kept in awe by a sufficient force. The redoubt ought 
to be capable of receiving a hundred and fifty men, which will 
be enough to curb the Inhabitants till they grow more loyal, 
or better be put in their stead. 

Cobequid* lies about twelve leagues North East of Manis, 
at the upper end of the Easternmost branch of the Bay of 

There are about fifty French Families settled in this place. 
The soil of which produces good grain, and abounds in cattle 
and other conveniencies of life. By a River the Inhabitants 
have communication with Chibucto a harbor on the Eastern 
Coast and by a road across the woods at a distance of about 
twenty leagues they fall into the Bay of Vert, in the Gulph 
of St. Lawrence, by which they drive a trade to Cape Breton. 
The Indians resort much to this place. 

Chignecto is seated upon the Westermost branch of the 
Bay of Fundy almost at the upper end of it. The inhabi- 
tants are numerous having much increased of late years, and 
are about seventy or eighty families. This place is about 
twelve leagues distant from Manis having a communication by 
a river which discharges itself into Manis Rhoad. 

This place ; produces good store of grain and abounds in 
Cattle more than any other. Within seven leagues of Cape 
Chignecto (which with Cape T>or£ divides the Bay of Fundy 
in two branches) there are very good Coal Mines, and easily 
come at, but the want of shelter makes it dangerous for the 
vessels which come to receive it ; they being forced to anchor 
in the open Bay. Near the town itself which lies four leagues 
beyond the coal mines, there is a small Island which has a 
good quarry of Soft Stone, it cuts in layers of four or six 
inches thick, and hardens soon after it is cut. The Inhabitants 
are more given to hunting and trading than those of the other 
settlements, which is partly occasioned by their being so 
conveniently seated for it. There being but a small neck of 
land of two leagues wide which parts the Bay of Fundy from 
the Gulph of St.' Lawrence, by this last they have a continual 
intercourse with Cape Breton, carrying most of their Furs 
that way, and supplying it with provisions, of grain, cattle <fec. 
and bringing for returns linens and other goods, to the preju- 
dice of the British trade and manufactories. To put a stop to 
this, and to bring the Inhabitants of this place under obe- 
dience, who are the least subject to the English Government 
of any other here, it will be necessary that a small fort be 

* Truro and Onslow and the country around. 


built in some convenient place on this neck capable of con- 
taining one hundred and fifty men. This is the more so by 
reason the French have sent four Ships this Summer, with 
two hundred families with provisions stores and materials for 
the erecting a fort and making a settlement on the Island St. 
Johns*, which lies in the Bay of Verte, part of the Gulph of 
St. Lawrence, part of which Island (which is near fifty leagues 
long) is but at three or four leagues distance from the main, 
and six in all from Chignecto. When this settlement is made 
by the French, they will from thence command all the Trade 
and carry a greater sway, over all the Bay of Fundy, than 
the English, who are the undoubted owners but have only 
the name of possessors of it, till such measures are taken as 
are here humbly proposed. For it is to be remembered, that 
each of these places have a French Popish Missionary, who 
is the real chief Commander of his flock, and receives and 
takes his commands from his superiors at Cape Breton. 

The lesser settlements on this Bay, and other parts of this 
Government shall be referred to another opportunity and at 
this time, the most material of all shall only be touched upon 

Cansoe is an Island with several other less ones adjoining, 
lying at a small distance from the Main, and at South East 
and North West from the Passage which bears the same name 
and separates the Island of Cape Breton from the main Conti- 
nent. This place has been found so convenient and advan- 
tageous for catching and cureing Cod Fish that of late it has 
been the resort of numbers of English, as it was of French 
before the seizure nlade by Captain Smart in His Majesty's 
Ship Squirell. This stroke was so grevious to the French, 
who were concerned in this loss, amongst which were some of 
the principal Officers of Cape Breton, that seeing they could 
not obtain the satisfaction they demanded, they have been all 
at work all this Spring, and incited the Indians to assemble at 
Canso and to surprise the English who were securely fishing 
there, (and did not expect such treatment) and having killed 
and wounded some and drove off the rest to Sea. 

By means of this hurry and confusion whilst the Indians 
were plundering the dry goods, the French were robbing the 
fish and transporting of it away, till the English having re- 
covered themselves sent after them, and seized several of 
their shallops and shareways, laden with English fish and 
other plunder, and made the robbers prisoners, and pursued 

* P. £. Island. 


the retreating Indians and took two of them also prisoners. 
Had it not been for this eruption twenty thousand Quintals of 
dry cod fish this season would have been exported out of this 
place, and the returns arising thereby, very considerable to 
Great Britain, 

This is sufficient to show the necessity ot supporting the 
British subjects, whom the advantage of the Fishery will draw 
every year, and induce to settle in this place, if they can be 
secured from the like insults by a Ship or armed Sloop coun- 
tenancing them in summer, and a Port and Garrison protect- 
ing them in winter. This if encouraged is very likely to be 
the chief place for Trade tho' not so conveniently situated for 
the chief seat of Government as Port Roseway * LaHave, 
Marligash,+ Chiboucto, or any other Harbor situate on the 
Eastern Coast of this Government; which by being near the 
centre, may best hold communication with the whole. But as 
neither of these harbors, have been as yet narrowly surveyed, 
and no sufficient information can be had about them, further 
mention thereof will be deferred to another opportunity, by 



The foregoing treatise has been carefully examined and 
found to be exact and perfect. 


Governor PhUipps to Secretary Craggs. 

(Govrs. Lett. Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, 26 Sept. 1720. 

In my former letters I have had the Honour to lay before 
you the State of the Kings affaires in this part of his Majesty's 
JL>ominions, with every step of my proceedings with as much 
exactness as was possible. What hath hapned since at Cansoe 
and the damage done there to the fishery, by way of reprisall 
(as the Savages give out) for what was taken from the ffrench 
by Capt Smart, is an unhappy confirmation that I have not 
been mistaken, for nothing is so evident, as that our ffrench 
Inhabitants and the neighbouring ffrench Govermts are 
Equally secrett Enemys to the Brittish interest in this Pro- 
vince & consult together how they may disturb and obstruct 

4 * Now Shelburne, f Lunenburgh. 


it being settled ; especially at this juncture they are more 
buissy than ordinary, seeing their hopes of this Countrys falling 
into their hands againe is like to be at an end. And that the 
Savages are the tooles in their hands with which they worke 
the mischiefs which themselves dare not appear in. 

I need not trouble you here with the particulars of that 
misfortune, they being contained in the inclosed papers, and 
shall only acquaint you that the fishermen being drove off 
from their Stages into their boats by the Savages who sur- 
prised them in the dead of the night, and their fish and 
merchandize left to the pillage of the ffrench, who lay ready 
for that end, they held a consultation the next morning and 
concluded to send a Sloop to Cape Breton to seek for redress ; 
but not finding to their satisfaction they sent to me by one 
Mr. Henshaw for relief, whome I dispatch'd with arms, 
amunicon and provissions, & would have given him an Officer 
with a detachment of the Garrison but he thought there would 
be no occasion. This person brought me five french prison- 
ers, taken in severall Shallops loaden with the English fish & 
merchandize, whose examinations together with his memoriall 
to me, are inclosed markt No. 1, by which Sir you will see 
how far the Counsells of Cape Breton may have been con- 
cerned in contriveing & abetting this mischief. I also sent 
my Major on board him to Cape Breton with copys of those 
examinations to demand restitution of the fish & goods, and 
Satisfaction for the loss of his Majestys subjects, three haveing 
been kilPd upon that occasion. His instructions with my 
letter to the Governor are inclosed markt No. 2. 

As to the Indians I have the honour to assure you, & 
every body here will beare me witness, that I have taken par- 
ticular care to treat them in the civillest manner, that ever 
any Governor yet has done ; there has scarce past a week, 
since I am here, but some of them have been with me, whome 
I never failed to assure of his Majesty's good will & protec- 
tion, and required them to acquaint all their nation therewith, 
and that I expected considerable Presents for them from the 
King in token of his affection ; at the same time I never dis- 
missed them without presents (which they alwayes expect) for 
which I am out of pocket above a hundred & fifty pounds. 
But I am convinced that a hundred thousand will not buy 
them from the ffrench interest while the Priests are among 
them, who haveing got in with them by the way of religion & 
brought them to regular confessions twice a yeare, they 
assemble punctually at those times & receive their absolution 
conditionally that they be alwayes Enemyes to the English, 


I had almost forgot to acquaint you that some of the 
Indians robbers who return'd from Cansoe to Minas to the 
number of Eleven finding a New England tradeing Sloop 
there belonging to Mr. John Alden, and being flush'd with . 
their former success and applauded by the Priests they 

()lundered her also at the very doors of the Inhabitants who 
ookt on without restraineing those wretches under the sham 
pretence of being afraid of provokeing them. I have wrote 
to them to demand a better reason of such their behaviour, 
which is all I can do in my present circumstances but hope it 
will not be long thus, copy of this letter goes marked No 4. 

This being the last oppo. (probably) this season that I may 
have the honour of writeing to you, do therefore think it my 
duty (with submission) to tell you plainly that I find this 
Country in no likelyhood of being settled under the Kings 
obedience upon the footing it is, and therefore it is necessary 
that the Government at home exert itself a little, and be at 
some extraordinary expence, for this has been hitherto no 
more than a mock Goverment : its authority haveing never 
yet extended beyond Cannon reach of this ffort. I was in 
hopes (<fe signify'd as much in the last letter I had the honour to* 
write you) that the addition of a hundred men more with what I 1 
could draw from the Garrison of Placentia might suffice for 
this worke, but am now convinc'd it will require a greater 
number, and because I may not be thought to impose my 
owne opinion in a matter of such consequence I have called ' 
a Council of the Chief Officers (some of which are of the 
King's Council) to consider of and propose the most reasonable 
& least expensive scheme, for establishing the King's autho- 
rity in such manner and in such parts of this Province as 
may render it communicative over the whole, which proposal 
I have the honour to lay before you markt No 5. 

The Inhabitants seem determined not to sware allegiance, 
at the same time I observe them goeing on with their tillage 
and building as if they had no thoughts of leaveing their habi- 
tations ; it is likely they flatter themselves that the King's 
affaires here will allwayes continue in the same feeble State. 
I am certain nothing but demonstration will convince them 
to the contrary. 

The number of these people and how scituate, with a des- 
cription of their particular settlement and Country in general, . 
is herewith presented to you, being the most exact & perfect 
accot. that has yet been given of this Province. 


I heartily wish that this Expence was not absolutely neces* 
sary, but as the case stands, it would be more for the honour 
of the Crowne (I speak it with humble submission,) and proffit 
also, to give back the Country to the ffrench, than be contented 
with the name only of Government, and this charge that 
attends it, whilst they bare the rule & make it subservient 
to the support of their settlement at Cape Breton; which 
could ill subsist without the graine & the cattle they fetch 
from Manis <fec. ####### 

I am with perfect duty and respect 

Tour most humble and 

most obedt Servt 

To the Rt Honble James Craggs Esq 
one of his Majestys principal 
Secretarys of State. 

Governor PhUipps to Secretary Craggs. 

(Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, 27 Sept 1720 

Before I could dispatch my letter, the answer from the 
Inhabitants of Manis to the letter I wrote them by advice of 
his Majesty's Council upon the affaire of Mr. Alden's Sloop 
being plunder'd there, is come to my hand, Copy of which 
with what they send me in behalf of the Indians is herewith 
transmitted. You may please to observe by this deportemt. 
of the Deputys excuseing their non-appearance, is a confirma- 
tion of the little regard they pay to any orders of the Gover- 
ment, and how the Indians (whorae they have sett on worke) 
are made the screene for all their actions. The Jesuitical 
frame of the letter plainly discovers ft to be of the Priests 
composure, there not being one Inhabitant in the Countrey 
capable of such a performance. What is therein mentioned 
of Mr. Broadstreet is litterally thus vizt. : this Gentleman was 
sent with a deputation from the Collector (and with my appro- 
bation) to reside at Menis as a preventive officer to observe 
the trade and correspondence those people carry on with Cape 
Breton, and to give an accot. thereof from time to time. This 
Office not suiting with their interest, they told him that he could 
not be protected there, and therefore it was necessary for his 


safety to returne, upon which he desired them to furnish him 
with a guide to direct him the safest way back thro' the 
woods, which not being able to obtaine he ventured alone, but 
first wrote the enclosed letter to the Deputy he had apply'd to 
for the guide. This is their method of excuseing their beha- 
viour by turning it into a grievance on their side. You will 
please to observe that they pass over that part of my letter 
wherein I reminded them of the testimony of my good will 
toward them, in presumeing contrary to my orders to prolong 
the time for their evacuation, which they do not think fitt to 
acknowledge, since they have prevailed with the Indians to 
sett up their native right and title to the Countrey, as you 
will see by their answer or rather the Priest for them. 

These are the effects the Proclamation hath produced, and 
their grounds for laying the blame, and makeing me the cause 
of this trouble, because the honour of publishing those his 
Majesty's orders has fallen to my lott for they will not be per- 
suaded but that I have done it of my owne head. Tis what 
they should have been told eight yeares sooner, but it is not 
yet too late. I hope this will serve as a lucky occasion to 
hasten the securing the Countrey under the King's dominion, 
which is a worke that must be done first or last and the longer 
it is delay'd the more difficult it will be 

I have the Honr. of once more 


Your most humble and 
most obedient servant 

To Mr Secretary Craggs 

Govr. PhUipps to Mr. Popple, Secretary of the Board of Trade. 

(Letter Book.) 


# * # # The french councills this summer have 
tended toward exciteing the Indians to a Generall Warr, upon 
which matter all the nations of them have had several meet- 
ings and consultations, and expresses sent to Canada to draw 
in those. But their Artifices have hitherto proved ineffec- 
tual!. For the Indians (who are not without cunning) will 
not be brought to a declaration of warr because the flrench 
cannot openly joyne with them therein, & therefore have deter- 
mined to deferr it to another opportunity. In the mean time 
they are amused dayly with false packets, the freshest of 


which is that the Young King of Prance k Crown'd, the 
regent out of favour, and the peace between the two Crownes 
upon the point of desolving. So that whenever the affaires of 
France shall happen to take another turne, it may be foretold 
without divination, that this Countrey (which is a fronteer) 
will be hard besett and in no little danger of being lost, if this 
opportunity of peace be not improved for its security. 

There is a continuall intercourse and communication between 
Minas, Chignecto, and adjacent settlements, and the Goverment _ 
of Cape Breton & Isle St. Johns ; the traffick of those' parts is 
wholly turn'd that way, the Inhabitants goe^ahd come dayly, 
and all this not in my power to prevent wi£n the Garrison at 
the distance of 30 leagues. I have a detachment at Cansoe 
that winters there for the security of that fishery, which by 
all accots. is the best in the Universe, and I hope in the Spring 
to be fully instructed what measures to pursue in relation to 
these Inhabitants. 

I observe with pleasure that their Lordshipps have much at 
heart the security and settlement of this Province which they 
have alwayes demonstrated by giveing attention to what has 
been proposed for that end ; but the difficulty seems to lye 
with the Board of Ordnance, who will hardly be prevailed 
upon to alter their first scheems, which I will be bold to say, 
in the present scituation of affaires will be found neither 
practicable nor sufficient ; for first the Indians (who will not 
faile of being pusht on by the french) will take incouragement 
from our weakness to give continuall disturbance to the worke ; 
and next if those small projected redoubts or towers can be 
raised they will not answer to awe the present inhabitants, in 
case they continue, or protect others that shall come in their 
roome, but will be in a manner blockt up, because not capable 
of sending out any considerable detachment ; for the french, 
tho' they dare not act barefaced, will not fail many of them in 
the disguise of Indians (as has been their practice) to lead 
them on to mischeife. But this is harping upon the same 
string. If the representations that are made be found to be of 
any weight, I have said enough; if not, I have the misfortune 
of giveing their Lordshipps & you too much unnecessary 
trouble. ****** 

I wish you and family a happy new yeare 

and am Sir 
Your affectionate humble Servant 
To Mr. Popple R. PHILIPPS. 

Secretary to the Board of Trade. 

-This letter is entered in the Letter Book without date. 



Governor Philijypa to the Secretary of State. 

The winter being now over it will be expected that I give 
some further accot: of the affaires of this Country which (in 
regard to both french and Indians) are much in the same scit- 
tuation, as when I had last the Honr. of writeing to you. 
The first of them waite the decisive answer of the Court, as 
to their goeing or staying, and do not want assurance to hope 
a favourable one which (I must say) their behaviour little de- 
serves, particularly that part in permitting or indeed rather 
incourageing the plunder of a Sloop formerly mentioned, at 
their very doores by half a dozen Indians. They have indeed 
lately sent Deputys to sue for pardon, and obliged themselves 
to pay the damage ; but if it be determined for them to retire 
I expect it will be in the manner that the jews march'd out of 
Egypt not only with their owne effects and what they can bor- 
row, but will first distroy the Country. 

Therefore the best way (in my humblW opinion) of answer- 
ing will be in the manner we have proposed ; to fall to worke 
and build Ports among them, and when they find the Gover- 

ment in Earnest and capable either to protect or them, 

tis not unlikely, that they will sitt downs quietly in their pos- 
session, and become good subjects with good looking after. 
As to the latter, they are to meet me towards the latter end of 
this month to receive his Majesty's presents, and I shall make 
use of that opportunity to oblige them to the most advanta- 
geous conditions of peace and traflSck with his Majesty's 
subiects ^ * * ♦ ■ ♦ # ## 

Sir, yours &c R. PHILIPPS 

This letter is entered in the Letter Book without date. 

We the Governor and Members of his Majesty's Council for 
Nova Scotia, being assembled to consult on the scituation of 
the affaires of this Govermt., in order humbly to represent the 
same to his Majesty, and to propose some methods which may 
prove effectual to establish the King's authority in this Pro- 
vince and facilitate the settling the same, so as to prove in 
time advantagious to the Crowne and to the Trade of Great 
Brittain, haveing maturely weigh'd and consider'd the same, 
do humbly represent vizt : 

1st. That the french Inhabitants do persist in refusing to 
take the Oaths of allegiance to the Crowne of Great Brittain, 


and look upon themselves as the Indispensable liege subjects 
of Prance by the engagement they have layd themselves 
under, and from which their Priests tell them they can not be 

21y. That by continuing to plow and till their lands, to 
build new houses, and other improvemts : they seem to have 
no thoughts of quitting this Country, which we have reason 
to believe proceeds from a contempt of this Garrison and a 
dependance on their own numbers, with a reliance on the 
assistance of the Indians, who are their firm allies and depend- 
ants, by the tyes of long acquaintance, consanguinity and 

31y. That these Inhabitants and the Indians, are intirely 
influenced and guided by the Goverment of Cape Breton, and 
the Missionary Priests resideing among them, by which they 
privately or publickly obstruct every thing that may turn to 
the advantage of the Brittish Trade or security of his Majes- 
ty's Goverment hCTe. The propfs of which sufficiently 
appear by the Invasion of Cansoe, where many of his Majes- 
ty's Subjects were great sufferers, and a plundering a Sloop at 
Minas to a considerable value, belonging to another of his 
Majesty's subjects, which last action, was committed by Eleven 
Indians in the midst of two or three hundred french Inhabi- 

4th. That we are sensible by dayly experience that there 
is in general an intire repugnance amongst them to obey the 
Orders which anyway tend to the good of his Majesty's ser- 
vice, and that they pay little regard to the King's authority 
beyond the reach of the gunns of this ffort. 

This being the State of affaires in this Province, We are 
humbly of opinion, that a sufficient number of Troops is ab- 
solutely necessary to be added to those already here, to curb 
the insolent temper of the present Inhabitants, if they are 
allowed to stay, or to oblige them to depart, and leave this 
Country on the terms prescribed them, and at the same time 
to protect those of his Majesty's subjects who will come to 
settle in their stead. The number proposed to be sent we 
humbly conceive ought to be six hundred men at least, with 
a proportionate number of Officers, provisions for a twelve 
month, stores and tooles requisite to raise redoubts, forts or 
intrenchments to secure the Garrisons, till more durable can 
be built for the defence of the several settlements. 

Canceau is the first which we think ought to be possessed 
and defended in regard to the Great advantage which accrues 


from the fishery and the number of Brittish subjects which 
would resort there if a sure protection can be obtained. Two 
hundred men to raise the ffort, and one hundred to be left 
there in Garrison after the ffort is built, we humbly conceive 
to be necessary. 

Mines on accot. of the numbers of ffrench Inhabitants will 
require four hundred men, part whereof after the fort re- 
doubt or intrencht. is rais'd, may be detached to Chignecto 
where, besides the reasons above as to the Inhabitants, it 
requires the more to have a considerable strength in regard 
that the trade is clandestinely carried to Cape Breton by 
meanes of the small Trajett from the bay of Pundy into the 
Gulph of St. Lawrence and that the ffrench have sent this 
summer four ships, two of which we hear are actually arrived 
at Island St Johns, not above six leagues distance from Shig- 
necto, where they intend to have a considerable ffort and set- 
tlement, and by means of it will be able to command the trade 
as well as the french inhabitants in these parts. These two 
places Mines and Shignecto ought to be garrison-d with no less 
than one hundred & fifty men each to serve the ends above 
specifyed. The hundred that remaine with the hundred to be 
drawne .from Canceau may serve for a settlement on the East- 
ern Coast of this Province for which Port Rosway, La Have, 
Marligash, or Chiboucto are recommended. The troopes re- 
quired to carry on these several projects ought to sett out in 
March from Great Brittain to be here in April or May at the 
farthest, the summers being so short here as will hardly admitt 
of makeing the necessary preparations for a long winter. 

We further give it as our humble opinion, that besides a 
Ship of warr, which ought to countenance these several pro- 
jects, two sloops of about fifty tonns each are necessary which 
may be mann'd out of the Garrisons and serve as guard Ves- 
sells as well as packets and transports to the places which do 
not admitt of the man of warr. 

All which is humbly submitted 
Annapolis Royal R PHILIPPS 

27 Septemr. 1720 

John Doucette 
P Mascarene 
William Savage 
John Adams 
Hibbert Newton 
William Skene 
Will: Shirreff. 


Board of Trade to Chvernor PhUipps. 

28 December 1720. 

***** As the French Inhabitants of Nova 
Scotia, who appear so wavering in their inclinations we are 
apprehensive they will never become good subjects to His 
Majesty whilst the French Governors and their Priests retain 
so great an influence over them, for which reason we are of 
opinion they ought to be removed as soon as the Forces 
which we have proposed to be sent to you shall arrive in 
Nova Scotia for the protection of and better settlement of 
Your province, but as you are not to attempt their removal 
without His Majesty's positive order, for that purpose, you 
will do well in the mean while to continue the same prudent 
and cautious conduct towards them, to endeavour to unde- 
ceive them concerning the exercise of their religion which 
will doubtless be allowed them if it should be thought proper 
to let them stay where they are. The presents for the 
Indians we hear have been ordered some while since, of 
which your Agent will give You the necessary advices. * * 

Your very loving Friends 
& humble servants 


Extract from a Letter of Govt. PhUipps to Board of Ordnance 
dated Annapolis Royal, 2Wi December, 1720. 

The ffrench Inhabitants have been suffered here so long 
under no conditions of obedience that they are not only 
multiply ed, and become numerous, but withall insolent, par- 
ticularly those settlements which are out of reach of the 
Govermt. and are the most considerable as Minas, Chig- 
necto &c. 

Soon after my arrival here, they were required by Procla- 
mation (according to my Instructions) to sweare Allegiance 
to the Crowne of Great Brittain, or to avacuate the Country 
within four months from the date thereof, to which they have 
signified by words and actions that they have no thoughts of 


complying with either, untill they see the Goverment strong 
enough to inforce its Orders. * * * * 

I am upon as good terms with those last, as it is possible 
for an English Governor to be, excepting a few Banditti. 


Oovemor Philipps to William Winniet. 

(Translated from the French.) 

Mr. William Winniet, — 

The inhabitants of Mines seem to reflect (as they have 
great reason to do) on their insolent treacherous and astonish- 
ing deportment towards the person and government of his 
Majesty the King of Great Britain within whose dominions 
they have been permitted hitherto to live and enjoy privileges 
greater than those enjoyed by any people in the known world 
at the present day. 

These strange proceedings they consider justified on several 
occasions by a pretended fear of the savages — a pretence as 
false as it is frivolous and to which if it were received, thej 
would always have recourse in order to carry out their 
designs, whenever they might desire to deceive and impose 
upon these ignorant people in making them bear the blame of 
their wicked actions, who of themselves have not the slightest 
shadow of reason for doing any harm to his Majesty's subjects. 

Therefore you will communicate to the said inhabitants the 
true and literal contents of this paper, as the ultimate condi- 
tions of accommodation that can be accepted with safety and 
honour by the government of his Majesty, which will never be 
wanting in power and energy to maintain its authority and 
chastise thoRe who undertake to insult it. 

I am 

your obedient servant, 

Annapolis Royal 
March 4th, 17$j 


(Translated from the French.) 

Annapolis Royal 


March 4th 17£ 

A committee of the council having been appointed to hear 
what the two persons from Minas had to say before being 
admitted to his Excellency, they were heard, and having 
nothing but the old and frivolous excuse of laying the blame 
on the Savages they did not obtain an audience of his Excel- 
lency. By the advice of the council the letter also which 
they brought was not received for the following reasons : 
Because the excuse which they would give to cover their 
wicked conduct in permitting the plundering of Mr. Alden's 
Sloop will never be received as a satisfaction for the insult 
offered to the government under which they live, because 
it is very well known that the Savages have never, or at least 
very rarely, committed any depredations upon the English 
except at the instigation of the French. 

Because these are not the persons requested on this occa- 
sion to attend upon his Excellency on the part of the inhabit- 
ants of Minas, and that when their deputies were requested to 
come and present to his excellency the reasons which caused 
them to allow the savages to rob Mr. Alden, instead of coming, 
they sent a frivolous letter by a poor man who left it in a 
strange manner with the deputies from this river, together 
with an insolent letter signed by one or two Savages, but 
dictated by the French. 

And especially because restitution has not been made for the 
losses which Mr. Alden has suffered, even to the last denier of 
the amount sworn to before his Excellency, and which is requi- 
red to be delivered to his Excellency at the earliest oppor- 
tunity as a preparatory step towards obtaining peace. 

In the last place they are expected to prepare an instru- 
ment in writing signed by the inhabitants of Mines, in which 
they shall acknowledge in the most unequivocal terms the 
enormity of their offences, with the most authentic assurances 
of a perfect obedience to this government for the future, so 
long as they shall remain in this province ; and that the said 
instrument shall be delivered to his Excellency in Council by 
the deputies and Father Felix in the name of all the inhabit- 
ants of Mines. 

P. S. As it is said that some of the deputies have left this 
government, the inhabitants may choose suitable persons in 
their place. 


Governor Philipps to Board of Trade. 

September 19th 1722. 
My Lords, — 

* * * * I have determined to wait on Your 
Lordships in person this fall, and the rather as the face of 
affairs are something changed and a new scene opened which 
has drawn me into an Indian War, notwithstanding all my 
endeavours to avoid it. 

It is certain that nothing could be more unexpected, for I 
never had a better prospect of peace and friendship with 
them then at the time of their breaking out. Their Chiefs 
having been with me but a month before, whom I feasted and 
gave them part of the King's presents on their solem promises 
of good behaviour toward all His Majesty's Subjects, and 
therefore could hardly credit the first reports of their taken 
the Trading Vessels in the Bay of Fundy, which were soon 
after confirmed with the farther accounts of their having 
taken 18 vessels more in the Harbors on this Coast, among 
which was a Sloop I had despatched with Bread for the Gar- 
rison of Annapolis Royal. From this success they began to 
flatter themselves with the hopes of reducing that Fort by 
Blockade, but the Provisions from Europe arriving here in 
the mean time, I armed the Vessels that were to proceed with 

J art thereof to that Garrison, who getting safe thither, and 
[r. Dowcett having an opportunity of making about twenty 
of the Indians (who lay encamped in the Woods,) prisoners, 
about two thirds being Women and children, that great 
design blew up. 

By this time we were in the middle of the Fishery and the 
Harbour full of Ships waiting their loading, when fresh 
advices came that the Indians were cruizing upon the Banks 
with the Sloops they had taken assisted by the Prisoners 
whom they compelled to serve as Mariners, and gave out that 
they were to attack this place with all their strength, which 
alarmed the people to that degree, bringing to mind their 
sufferings two years ago, and being very much disheartened 
to find that no measures had been taken this year for the 
security of the place, from whom they judged my representa- 
tions to have no weight with the Government at home, and 
their misfortunes to proceed from my want of interest, They 
were upon breaking up and every man to shift for himself, 
To prevent which and having just then received an express 


from Governor Shute with a declaration of War by that 
Government against the Indians desiring my assistance, I 
assembled the Harbour and prevailed with them to concur 
with me in fitting and manning out two Sloops to protect the 
Fishery, and having reinforced each of them with a detach- 
ment of the Garrison and an Officer, it had that good effect 
that in three weeks time I retook all the vessels and Prisoners 
except four which the New England people poorly ransomed. 
Upon this occasion many Indians were killed, among the 
number four of their Chiefs who had been with me but a 
month before, receiving the King's presents, on the most 
solemn assurances of their intentions to live in peace and good 
friendship with his Majesty's Subjects and being asked the 
reason of their sudden change, all of them agreed in one story 
that they were set on by the French Governors. * * * 

with very great respect 


Extract from a Letter of (Governor Armstrong to Lords of 

Trade, dated bth September, 1725. 

I hope you will take into your consideration, and to lay 
the same before His Majesty as may forward the security of 
its settlement by a royal fortification, for the subjects are as 
yet discouraged, having no shelter from the daily insults and 
cruel Massacres of the Indians, who are supported and clan- 
destinely encouraged by the French ; who envying our growth 
and increase, supply them with powder and Ball, &c, in order 
to disturb our settlements ; And last winter they were even 
piloted to this place, by one William Godet and one Petipas 
(through no doubt the instigation and contrivances of most on 
the Island of Cape Breton.) 

Being informed of these, and a great many more of their 
underhand dealings, I judged it my duty to write to Governor 
St. Ovide for redress. 

And having herewith transmitted you my letter to him, his 
answer, my instructions to Hibbert Newton Esq. and Ensign 
John Broadstreet, and their Journal of Proceedings with him 
at Louisburg you will see that all the satisfaction I could get, 
is only pretended ignorance of notorious matters of fact and 
ambiguous fair promises of friendship without any punctual 
performances. And for his excuse for supplying of about two 
hundred of them this year, says that it is his most Christian 
Majesty's orders to him to distribute to the Indians their an- 


ntial presents which chiefly consists of Arms, Powder and 
Ball <fec, by which we Brittish subjects do greatly suffer, the 
War being thereby fomented and prolonged. 

Oovr. St. Ovide to Govt. Armstrong. 

(Translated from the French.) 


I have received by Messrs. Hibbert and Bradstreet the 
letter which you have done me the honor to write to me ; and 
I beg to assure you, that I shall do all in my power to main- 
tain a friendly intercourse with you. 

It has never come to my knowledge that our people, in their 
visits to Acadie for the purpose of procuring cattle for the 
relief of this colony, have ever carried with them powder and 
ball in order to supply the savages with these articles, having 
forbidden all the inhabitants and merchants of this govern- 
ment to engage in this trade, under very severe penalties ; 
and I am persuaded that no person from this colony has 
transgressed the ordinance issued for the prevention of said 

It is my earnest desire to discover those who have violated 
this order, that I may punish them severely ; and I request 
that you will inform me, if you have any knowledge of such 
persons, that I may make an example of them. 

But Sir, in order that those who Bhall go from this govern- 
ment to yours for the purpose of procuring cattle, may no 
longer be suspected, I shall order them to cross at Canseau, 
that you may have them examined, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining if they have arms or amunition of war for the savages 
or any other persons under your government. 

I have always endeavoured strictly to cause the arrest of 
deserters from your government to this ; and I shall continue 
to act in the same manner, in order that they may be sent 
back to you : persuaded as I am, that you will do the same 
with those who may desert from us to you. 

I shall make it my especial study to preserve a good and 
sincere understanding with yourself, and with all the gover- 
nors and commanders of the King your master. 

Therefore I beg that you will receive from me the assur- 
ance that no one can be more perfectly than I am, 

Your very humble and obt servant 


Louishourg. Isle Royale 1725 


Governor Armstrorig to the Duke of Newcastle. 


December 2d 1725 
May it please your Grace 

Having so lately wrote to your Grace at large for His Ma- 
jesty's information of the present state of this province, with 
what steps I had taken with the French Governor of Cape 
Breton, his answer upon it with his promises to prevent the 
clandestine trade into this province with the Mai French In- 
habitants, as well as the evil intended Indians, and likewise 
that he would not permit any more missionary Priests to come 
into our limits without my express leave or the Commanders 
in Chief for the time being. 

Notwithstanding these, his fair promises I have had the good 
luck to take two of his passports, the one for trading the 
other carrying a Missionary Priest, both with his directions 
coming into this Government contrary to his Faith and 
Promises, desiring in the Priests passport the protection of 
the Commanders in Chief, just as if he commanded them 
thereunto, contrary to his Majesty's honor and dignity : a 
copy of the said passports I herewith enclose for your Grace's 
just information. 

I have also certain information of a great body of Indians 
joined with the evil French Inhabitants of this Province, that 
are to attack us this Winter, in order to destroy this settle- 
ment and Fishery which is one of the greatest m the world, 
and which the French cannot bear without the greatest envy, 
and underhand, do all they can to destroy it. 

Being with all submission &c. 

To His Grace 

The Duke of Newcastle 

* Lawrence Armstrong was Lt. Colonel of the regiment of General Phiiipps, 
which had been stationed in Nova Scotia for a number of years. He was 
appointed a member of the first Council called by Govr. Philipps at Annapolis 
in 1720. He received the appointment of Lt. Governor of the Province on 8th 
Feby., 1724-5, which he held until his death in 1739. He served in America 
as a military officer for upwards of 30 years. In the year 171 1 he suffered 
shipwreck in the expedition up the River St. Lawrence under General HiU, 
when he lost his money and baggage, and the arms and equipage of the com- 
pany of Col. Windress' regiment, under his command. He was subsequently sent 
to Annapolis Royal, and by Governor Vetch entrusted with a memorial to the 
Secretary of State respecting the iU state of the fortifications at that place. 


Hkdrad from a Letter of Oovr. Armstrong to Secretary of State. 

27 July 1726. 

I shall also want His Majesty's directions about the 
French Inhabitants upon their taking the Oath of Fidelity 
which they have refused these several Years past, as I 
am informed they are resolved to quit the province rather 
than take it, and as I am informed have transported several 
of their Cattle and other effects to Cape Britain. I likewise 
understand that Governor St. Ovide with some Troops and 
his Council are gone to the Island of St. Johns in the Bay of 
Verte in order to mark out the lands of that Island for such 
people and inhabitants as will quit this Province and retire 
under the Groverment of France ; this has been managed by 
the Missionary Priests amongst the Indians and French Inha- 
bitants in this Province. 

As for my part I have been so cautious, that I have given 
them no manner of offence any way and have lived in perfect 
friendship wvth the Governor of Cape Britain, ever since my 
arrival in this province and every thing now stands upon the 
best footing between these two Governments, excepting that 
they are fortified and we left naked in which case upon the 
ieast difference between the two Crowns, we must be des- 
troyed while they remain safe and secure under the defence 
of their fortification which I gave Your Grace an account of 
last Year <fec. 

Entered in Letter Book without address or signature. 

At a Council held at the Honble. Lawrence Armstrong's 
house in His Majesty's Garrison of Annapolis Royal on Wed- 
nesday the 21st of September 1726. 

Governor Armstrong represented himself to have suffered many privations and 
annoyances during his administration in endeavouring to sustain the regiment 
under his command in the absence of General Philipps, and to have contracted 
large debts in the purchase of necessary supplies for the troops, which ne was 
unable to discharge. He appears to have been of a weak, petulant tempera- 
ment, and his mind having gradually given way under the difficulties which 
•urrounded him, he committed suicide on Thursday, 6th December, 1789 — 
being found dead in his bed, with five wounds in his breast, and his sword 
lying by him. — Nova Scoixa Council Books; Lt. Gov. A.'s Memorial to Board 
€tf Trade* and his Letters. 

5 . 

66 noya scotia documents, 


The Honble Lawrence Armstrong Lieut. Governor of the 

The Honble Joseph Doucett* Lieut. Governor of Annapolis 1 

John Adams Esq, 

William Skene Esq, 

William Shirreff Esq. 

* * * Then he [the Lt. Governor] acquainted the Hoard that 
he had appointed the Deputies of the French inhabitants to 
meet him here this day, and that he had a mind to propose to 
them the taking the Oaths to His Majesty King George, which 
being judged very necessary that they either should, or be- 
gone out of the Province, the said Deputies who were attend- 
mgwere called in and the question put accordingly. 

Which being done, the said Deputies seemed satisfied, but 
desired a Copy of said Oath, that they might communicate the 
same to the inhabitants, which being ordered to be given 
them. His Honor appointed Sunday the 25th instant, for their 
making an answer. 

Sunday the 25th of September 1726. p. m. 

His Honor the Lieut. Governor of the Province with the 
Honble. Lieut. Governor of His Majesty's Town and Garrisoij 
of Annapolis Royal with the other members of the Council, 
met at the Flag Bastion according to adjournment where the 
Deputies with a number of the inhabitants being also present. 
His Honor the Lieut. Governor of the Province told them 
that he was glad to see them, and that he hoped they had so 
far considered their own and children's future advantages, 
that they were come with a full resolution to take the Oath of 
fidelity like good subjects, induced with sincere honest prin- 
ciples of submission and loyalty to so good and gracious a 
King, who upon their so doing, due and faithful observation 
of their sacred Oaths had promised them not only the free ex- 

* Joseph Doucett succeeded Thos. Caulfield as Lt. Governor of the Fort of 
Annapolis, under Nicholson, in 1717, and continued to hold office under his 
successor, Genl. Philipps, until the year 1726. His name here appears on the 
Council Books under that of Lawrence Armstrong, who was then Lt Governor 
of the Province. The last meeting of CouncU which he attended waa held 
on the 10th November following, 


wcise of their religion, but even the enjoyment of their Es- 
tates and the rights and other immunities of his own free born 
subjects of Great Britain ; and that for his part, while he had 
the honor to command, his endeavours should always be to 
maintain to them what His Majesty had so graciously vouch- 
safed to grant. " 

Whereupon at the request of some of the inhabitants a 
French translation of the Oath required to be taken was read 
unto them. 

Upon which, some of them desiring that a clause whereby 
they may not be obliged to carry arms might be inserted. 

The Governor told them that they had no reason to fear any 
such thing as that, it being contrary to the laws of Great Bri- 
tain, that a Roman Catholic should serve in the Army His 
Majesty having so many faithful Protestant subjects first to 
provide for, and that all that His Majesty required of them 
was to be faithful subjects not to join with any enemy, but for- 
their own interest to discover all traitorous and evil dfisigns,,. 
plots and conspiracies, any wise found against His Majesty's 
subjects and Government, and so peaceably and quietly to 
^njoy and improve their estates. 

IJut they upon the motion made as aforesaid still refusing 
and desiring the same clause, 

The Governor with the advice of the Council granted the * 
same to be writ upon the margin of the French translation in * 
order to get them over by degrees. 

Whereupon they took and subscribed the same both in 
French and English.* 

Then His Honor the Lieut. Governor of the Province de- 
sired the Deputies might acquaint such as were absent to 
come next Sunday or sooner, in order to be also qualified for 
the enjoyment of their estates and the privileges of British 
subjects and recommended to them the duty of submission . 
and loyalty and their own interests in behaving themselves 
like good faithful subjects — they gave repeated promises, and 
having drank his Majesty's the Royal families and several 
other loyal health, the Governor bid them good night. 

At a Council held at the Honble. Lieut. Governor John 
Doucett's house in His Majesty's Garrison of Annapolis Royal 
on Tuesday the 11th of October 1726 p. m. 

* This has reference to the Inhabitants of the Hirer Annapolis and that 
neighbourhood only. 



The Honble. Lieut. Governor of the Province, 

The Honble. Lieut. Governor of the Town and Garrisofl> 

John Adams Esq., William Skene Esq., 

William Shirreff Esq. 

The Hon. Lieut. Governor of the Province laid before 
the Board a Petition of Pere Gaulins who being come to 
make his submission to the government, desired the advice 
and opinion of the Board thereon. 

The said Petition being read and considered, the Board 
upon the Consequence of the whole, resolved that the said 
Monsieur Gaulin would make ample submission and beg 
pardon for his past faults, (for which there were evident 
proofs) take the Oaths of fidelity to His Majesty King George 
and the Crown of Great Britain, never to intermeddle in the 
affairs of the Government either amongst the Indians or other 
inhabitants, (but in the execution of his own religious fun<v 
tion only) and find the other Priests that are permitted by the 
Goverment, and ten or twelve of the Deputies to be security 
for his future behaviour he should be forgiven for what is 
past, and permitted to remain as a Missionaire in the Pro- 
vince, otherwise that the Government would take other 

At a Council held at the Honble. Lieut. Governor of the 
Province's house in His Majesty's Garrison of Annapolis Royal 
.on Monday the 24th of October 1726, 


The same Members as on Tuesday the 11th last. 

The Honble. Lieut. Governor of the Province acquainted 
the Board that by what discourse he had with the Deputies 
from Mines, he judged it would be necessary to send two gen- 
tlemen along with them, in order to tender and to administer 
to the inhabitants there, the Oaths — the said Deputies being 
also inclinable and promising to be as aiding and assisting in 
assembling of the inhabitants as possible, and in forwarding 
of that affair — that he had therefore drawn up instructions for 
Captain Joseph Bennett and Ensign Erasmus James Philipps 
to proceed accordingly for that purpose, and having laid the 
same before the Board for their perusal, he asked their advice 
% on the same* 


Which being read were approved of — then he laid before 
the Board some directions mentioned in said instructions to be 
communicated to the Deputies of Mines and of these other 
adjacent places of the Bay to be published to the inhabitants 
there ; as also a duplicate of the same to be published to such 
of the inhabitants of this river as had not as yet taken the 
Oaths to His Majesty. 

Which being likewise read were also approved of. 

Then he acquainted the Board that that old mischievous 
incendiary Gaulin had represented to him that he could not 
procure the bail required by the Board on Tuesday, the 11th 
instant ; but that whereas he had at last come to make his 
submission, and to beg pardon for all past faults, promising for 
the future to behave himself with more respect and obedience 
to this His Majesty's Government, than ever he had done 
heretofore, and upon no acconnt whatsoever to intermeddle in 
the Government's affairs, but by his doctrine to instil if possi- 
ble the principles of obedience and loyalty both into the 
Indians and French inhabitants ; — wherefore and finding that 
the inhabitants were also desirous to have him set at liberty, 
as doubtless were the Indians, he had therefore in some 
measure altered his resolution of sending him to Britain, least 
at this juncture it might not only impede the inhabitants from 
taking the Oaths but perhaps also create some misunderstand- 
ings amongst both them and the Indians, to the disturbance of 
our present peace and quietness; which he referred to the 
consideration of the Board and desired their advice whether, 
at present, it would not be more proper considering the pre- 
sent state of affairs so far to humour the inhabitants, which 
would be, no doubt, also pleasing to the Indians to set him at 
liberty, and to trust him once more by giving him, till further 
orders, the Cure of Mines. 

Extract from Letter of Oovr. Armstrong to Secretary of State* 

Annapolis Royal 

24th Novr., 1726. 

No. 3* enclosed is the Oaths administered with the advice* 
of His Majesty's Council to the Inhabitants of the River 
Annapolis Royal who could never be prevailed upon to take 
it before. The next Spring I shall send to the several other 

* No copy of this qualified Oath is to be found among the papers. It did not 
receive the approval of the Secretary of State. 


settlements in this Province the same Oaths, and oblige 
tfiem all to take them, and send them home to Your Grace for 
His Majesty's approbation, herein I hope honestly to do my 
duty and if possible to gain both the French and Indians of 
this province to be faithful and honest subjects to His Most 
Gracious Majesty, and this his Government of Nova Scotia. 
I find really both the French and Indians very well satisfied 
both with the Peace and the Oaths of Fidelity taken to King 
George, in effecting of which it has and will cost me a great 
deal of money as well as pains and Labor. 

Oovemor Armstrong to Secretary of State. 

(Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal 
30 April 1727. 
May it please Your Grace 

Since my last, dated 24th November 1726 I have the 
mortification to tell Your Grace for his Majestie's information, 
that there arrived here from Boston one Mr. Gambell, formerly 
a Lieut, in the Army, who I am told came from England with 
Major Cosby to Boston, in New England, where the Major 
still continues, tho* I have ordered him to his post at Canso, 
and in defiance and disobedience to my orders stays in New 
England to know the result of the said GambelPs false com- 
plaints against me. After his arrival here from England he 
associated himself with some Boston antimonarchical traders, 
who, together with some evil intended French Inhabitants 
that had lately taken the Oaths of fidelity to his most gracious 
Majesty, which they never would be brought to before by any 
former Commander, and incited them to sign such complaints 
as he had formed against me, telling them that I had no power 
nor authority to administer them such Oaths, and also that 
Major Cosby would be with them this Spring with full power 
to Govern the Province ; in short he has instilled such rebel- 
lious principles into the Inhabitants of Minas and *Beaubassin, 
two of the principal settlements, to the former of which I sent 
•Captain Bennett to administer the Oaths and Ensign Philips 
to the latter. They are both returned, with the said Inhabit- 
ants answers and resolutions not to take any oath but to their 
Notre Bon Roy de France as they express it, as Your Grace 
will see in their answer No. 1, from Beaubassin, and that from 

•♦ Cumberland Basin. 


lEnas No. 2 — and all this occasioned by the incitements and 
ill conduct of the aforesaid Mr. Gambell and three or four 
New England Traders, who are now trading with the said 
inhabitants, that are rebels against His Majesty and this his 
Province of Nova Scotia. I must also inform Your Grace 
that the French Missionary Priests, at the above said places, 
have assembled a great body of Indians, with a resolution to 
be<jin the War against His Majesty's Subjects of this Province 
and New England, all which troubles are occasioned by the 
aforesaid Mr. Gambell and his abettors. I must beg Your 
Grace's protection against the said Gambell's complaints, for 
sure I am he must be encouraged by some people that are 
enemies and envy me the honor of making a Peace with the 
Indians, and settling affairs upon a just footing in this pro- 
vince, for His Majesty's service ; otherwise he would not 
presume to come into this Government of himself and commit 
so many evil practices against his Majesty's Interest here, 
and with so much contempt against me, who does all that 
lyes in my power for the dignity and honor of my King and 
Country. ****** 

The bearer, Captain Bennett, can further tell Your Grace 
the disposition of the people or French Inhabitants of this 
Province and also of the conduct of their Missionary Priests, 
who instil an inculcated hatred into both Indians and French 
Inhabitants, against the English, he can also inform you what 
difficulties I have laboured under to get provisions for my 
ready money to support the Kings Troops with during the 
time I have been here. * * * * 

Your Grace's Ac. 


At a Council held at the Lieut. Governor's of the Province's 
House in His Majesty's Fort of Annapolis Royal oh Tuesday 
23rd of May 1747. 

Present — 

The Hon : the Lt. Governor of the Province. 

John Adams Esq William Skene Esq 

William Shirreff Esq Capt. Christ. Aldrige 

Capt. Joseph Bennett Capt. John Blower 

***** Then laid before the board Capt. Joseph 
Bennett's Journal of his transactions with the inhabitants of 


Mines, and that of Ensign Erasmus James Philipps with those 
of Ghecanecto or Beaubassin, and those said inhabitants'' 
answer in reply to their taking the Oaths to His Majesty as 
upon file. 

Which being read the opinion of the Board is, that the 
said inhabitants by their rebellious behaviour and insolent 
answer deserved no manner of favor or protection from His 
Majesty or his Government, and agreed that His Honor the 
Lieut : Govr. had done all that was possible to be done for the 
good of His Majesty's service. Agreed that the original 
papers be transmitted home to His Majesty's principal Secre- 
tary of State, and to the Lords Commissioners of Trade and 
Plantations for His Majesty's further directions therein. 

Ordered that an order by way of a letter bo sent to Alexr. 
Bourg of Mines, who has the above mentioned paper of com- 
plaints against the Lieut. Governor to come here with all 
expedition and to bring said paper of complaints along with 
him as he will answer the contrary at his peril. * * * * 


Lieut. Govt. 

At a Council held at the place aforesaid on Thursday, the 
1st of June 1727. 

Present — 

His Honor the Lieut. Govr. 

John Adams Esq., William Skene Esq., William Shirreff Esq., 
Captn. Christ. Aldridge, Capt. Joseph Bennett, Capt. John 

The Lieut. Governor represented to the Board that upon 
the consideration of Capt. Bennett's and Ensign Philipps's 
report to him of the French inhabitants' behaviour, and refu- 
sal of the Oath of fidelity Ac, judged proper to invite them 
once more to their duty by writing them a Civil letter. Which 
letter being read was approved of ordered to be recorded and 
forwarded to them accordingly. 


Lieut. Govr* 


Lieut. Govr. Armstrong's Letter to the Deputies of Mines &c. 
up the Bay to be published to ye other Inhabitants. 

(Letter Book.) 

Gentlemen, — 

Upon the Report of Capt. Bennett & Engn. Philipps of 
your Comportment and answers in Relation to your takeing 
the Oath and thereby becoming His Britanick Majesty, my 
Masters Subjects ; I have therefore thought proper to send 
you this, to shew you that its not only Your Duty and Interest 
to pay that due Obedience to His Majesty, who for so many 
Years hath been so Graciously Pleased to grant you the 
Enjoyment not Only of your Estates but Religion, and even 
upon so Easy Termes, after so long a Disobedience, to Pardon 
all, and Confirme the same unto you : But also -to Signify to 
you All, that I am so farr from doing You any Prejudice, that 
I hereby in His Majesty's Name, Invite you Seriously to 
Consider not only your present but future Happiness ; and 
Desire that you the Deputees of the people and others the 
Principall Masters of Pamilys Amongst You, with Monsr. 
Gaulin Your Missionary Priest, may come here as Soon as 
possible, with full Power from the Other Inhabitants, That I 
may fully Discourse & Reason with You on this Subject 
before the Council, Before I Represent any part of xour 
Behaviour to His Majesty. This I friendly Advise You to, 
That in Case You do not Comply, You may have none to Blame 
but yourselves for what may be the Consequence of so much 
Disrespect and Disobedience to so Great & Gracious a Sove- 
I am with friendly advise for the Interests of you all. 
Gentlemen yor most Humble Servt. 

Annapolis Royall 

1 June 1727. 

At a Council held at the place aforesaid on Wednesday the 
21st June 1727. 

Present — 

The Lieut. Governor and same members as on the 1st inst. 

His Honor the Lieut. Governor of the Province having sent 
for Etienne Rivette whom he had detained at the Officers' 
Guard Room and having administered an Oath to answer 


directly to the best of his knowledge to such questions as 
should be put to him and to declare the truth and nothing but 
the truth, caused to be read a declaration of said Bivettes, as 
upon file, which he owned to be such, and having signed it, 
declared the same to be according to what he had heard as is 
contained in said declaration, and being further asked whether 
he had heard that the Lieut. Governor's power was of no such 
force as to administer the Oaths of fidelity to the inhabitants, 
answered that the person who brought the letter said and 
signified so. Ques. — Why the inhabitants did not cut the 
road as directed. Answr. — That he had heard several say 
that his Honor would take and drive the cattle away at his 
pleasure, and use them as he did those here, which he believed 
was the reason for that; the greatest part of the people 
desired no communication with us. * * * * 

At a Council held Ac. on Tuesday 25 July 1727. p. m. 

His Honour laid before the board a minute of Council bear- 
ing date the 6th day of July 1725. founded on a representa- 
tion of Mr. William Winnietts merchant of this place relating 
to trade with the French Inhabitants up the Bay* which being 
read His Honor desired the same might be again taken into 
consideration the Inhabitants still behaving themselves with 
so much disrespect and Insolence as aforesd. and absolutely 
refusing to take the Oath to His Majesty. Therefore putt the 
question whether they should be permitted to have the bene- 
fit of trade with our English traders going up the Bay. 

* * * # Taken into consideration the insolent beha- 
viour of the inhabitants as aforesaid and their refusing the 
Oaths to His Most sacred Majesty and declaring they will 
always be faithful to their good King of Prance as per their 
declaration upon file. 

Resolved that until the inhabitants aforesaid submit them- 
selves and take the Oath of fidelity to His Majesty, conform 
to the Laws of Great Britain, no vessel shall be permitted to 
trade with them, until His Majesty's pleasure therein shall be 

At the same time the question was put to the vote agree- 
able to the aforesaid minute of Tuesday the 6th of July 1725 

* At Chigoecto and Minas. 


That if this Town was made the Mart whether it would not 
redound to the benefit of this port, which was agreed to in the 

****#-* Then it was ordered and agreed for the 
encouragement of such of the French inhabitants of this 
river and Cape Sables as had taken the Oaths to His Majesty 
that it should be minuted, that they have the free liberty of 
trade and fishing any where within this His Majesty's Pro- 
vince of Nova Scotia, in the same manner as all other English 
subjects, except going up the Bay to Mines &c. during the 
time of the disobedience of the inhabitants of those parts. 

Then His Honor laid before the Board the Copy of a letter, 
bearing date the 17th instant, which he sent to the Indians of 
Passamaquady by one Simon of this place, upon a report that 
the said Indians had expressed their being afraid of coming 
here according to their desire, there being a false report 
spread amongst them, that two English vessels had shewn 
some hostilities by firing upon some Indians in the Gut of 
Canso, which being read was approved of. 

And it was also judged proper that His Honor should write 
Circular letters to the Indians of this Province to come here 
towards the fall in order to renew and confirm to them the 
sincerity of his friendship in behalf of His Majesty by giving 
them some small presents. 

Ordered that the said circular letters be prepared. 

Lieut. Govr. 

At a Council held at the Lieut. Governor's house in His 
Majesty's fort at Annapolis Royal on Tuesday the 12th Sep- 
tember, 1727. 


The Honble. Lieut. Governor of the Province, John Adams 
Esq., William Skene Esq., Christn. Aldridge Esq., Joseph 
Bennett Esq, John Blower Esq., 

His Honor acquainted the Board that he did intend to pro- 
pose the Oath to the French inhabitants, and to that purpose 
he had caused an order to be prepared to be sent to the 
Deputies to summon them to this place, against such time as 
the Council should think meet — that as the people of Mines 
had refused the Oath which was tendered to them, and taken 
by the people here, to his late Majesty, on account, as they 


pretend, of some harsh expressions, he had therefore some 
thought of proposing no other Oath than that appointed by 
Law to be taken, instead of the Oath of Allegiance. * * * 
Then His Honor caused the aforesaid order to the Deputies 
to be read to the Board, who, having approved thereof, 
Resolved that the said order should be transmitted to the 
Deputies forthwith, to assemble the inhabitants at this fort 
against Saturday next, being the 16th instant, and that the 
Oath appointed by law to bo taken instead of that of Alle- 
giance should be then tendered to them ; and that he should 
embrace the first opportunity of a vessel that could be hired 
to proclaim his Majesty throughout the Government. * * * 


Lieut. Govr. 
Otho Hamilton Sec. 

At a Council held at the Lieut. Governor's house in His 
Majesty's fort of Annapolis Royal on Saturday the 16th of 
September 1727 a. m, 


The Honble. Lieut. Governor of the Province, John Adams 
Esq.,* William Skene Esq,f Christr. Aldridge Esq., Joseph 
Bennett Esq., Johu Blower Esq., 

An answer to the Lieut. Govrs order of the 12th instant to 
the Deputies to assemble the inhabitants this day at the fort 
to take the Oaths to His most Sacred Majesty King George 
the 2nd, read, but not being subscribed, it was returned to 
the throe Deputies who presented it, who were ordered to 
attend at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, together with the inhabit- 
ants, and then adjourned the Board to that time. 

P. M. Met according to adjournment. The Deputies being 
admitted presented again the aforesaid paper subscribed by 
about seventy one of the inhabitants, to His Honor, who 
desired the Board to take the same into consideration and to 
give their opinions thereupon. 

* John Adams came from Boston. His appointment to the Council bears 
date April 28th, 1720. He administered the Government, as senior Councillor, 
on the death of Governor Armstrong, from December, 1739, until May follow- 
ing. He returned to Boston in 1740, with the consent of the Council, having 
been compelled from blindness to relinquish his duties at Annapolis. Ho after- 
wards petitioned the British Government for some small remuneration for his 
services while in command, being then reduced almost to a state of poverty. — 
y. S. Council Books ; Governor's Letters. 

t Mr. Skene was a physician. The others were officers of the garrison. 


The Board having considered and advised upon the said 

etper, resolved that the said paper is insolent rebellious and 
ghly disrespectful to His Majesty's authority and Govern- 
inent, that His Honor would therefore please to tender the 
Oaths to the inhabitants, and in case of refusal to commit the 
ring leaders to prison, whereupon His Honor desired the 
three Deputies Abraham Bourg, Charles Landry and Guillaume 
Bourgois to be admitted and having tendered them the Oaths, 
severally, they refused to take them on any other terms than 
those set forth in their answer ; then Francis Richards who 
had voluntarily taken the Oaths to His late Majesty, being 
called in, he likewise refused to take them to his present 
Majesty, as did four or five more ; the rest of the inhabitants 
having withdrawn themselves without coming to the fort or 
seeing the Lieut. Governor. 

Ordered that the three Deputies Abraham Bourg, Charles 
Landry, and Guillaume Bourgois as also Francis .Richards, 
for their contempt and disrespect to His Majesty's Govern* 
ment and authority, be committed to prison, and that the 
other inhabitants for having refused the Oaths to His Majesty, 
Bhall be debarred from fishing upon the British Coasts, till His 
Majesty's further pleasure shall be known concerning them, 
pursuant to the 13th Article of Governor Philipps' mstruc- 


Lieut, Govr. 
Otho Hamilton* Sec* 

Met at the same place according to yesterdays minute on 
Sunday, the 17th of September 1727. 


The Honble. Lieut. Governor and the same members as 

His Honor represented to the Board that the three Deputies 
in prison had been guilty of several enormous crimes in 
Assembling the inhabitants in a riotous manner Contrary to 
the orders of the Government both as to time and place, and 
likewise in framing a rebellious paper which they, instead of 
complying with his orders to assemble the inhabitants at this 

* Captain Hamilton was afterwards Governor of the Fort of Placentia, in 
Newfoundland, and attained the rank of Major. 


fcrt, signed and delivered in, as their final resolution to take 
no Oaths but upon their own terms. 

Taken into consideration the aforesaid Deputies behaviour 
in assembling the inhabitants the day before the time, and 
above two miles from the place appointed and resolved that 
Charles Landry, Guillaume Bourgois and Francis Richards, 
for their said offence, and likewise for refusing the oath of 
fidelity to His Majesty which was duly tendered them, be re- 
manded to 'prison, laid in irons, and there remain till His 
Majesty's pleasure shall be known concerning them, and 

That Abraham Bourg, in consideration of his great age, 
shall have leave to retire out of this His Majesty's Province, 
according to his desire and promise by the first opportunity, 
leaving his effects behind him. * * * * 

Lieut. Govr. 
Otho Hamilton Sec. 

At a Council held at the Honble. Lieut. Governor Arm- 
strong's house on Monday the 13th November 1727 

Present — 

The Honble. Lieut. Governor of the Province 
The Honble. Lieut. Governor of the Garrison 
John Adams Esq, Joseph Bennett Esq, John Blower Esq. 

Ensign Robert Wroth delivered into the Board the Journal 
and account of his proceeding and transaction up the Bay at 
Mines and Checanectou &c, which was read. 

Then the Honble. Lieut. Governor Cosby moved that his 
instructions from Governor Armstrong might be read, as also 
the Oaths taken by the inhabitants on the Articles and con- 
cessions granted by him, which being read, the Board after 
some debate voted that the said Articles and Concessions are 
unwarrantable and dishonorable to His Majesty's Government 
and Authority, and consequently null and void, and that th© 
Lieut. Governor of the Province be desired not to ratify and 
confirm the same. 

Then Mr. Wroth was called in, and asked how he came to 
grant such Articles answered that he had in every respect 
acted according to the best of his knowledge, and as he 
thought for the good of His Majesty's service. 

#***** Resolved that the inhabitants of the 


places aforesaid, having signed and proclaimed His Majesty 
and thereby acknowledged his title and authority to and over 
this Province, shall have the liberties and privileges of Eng- 
lish subjects and that the trade to and from those parts be 
open until His Majesty's pleasure therein shall be known. 

***** Then a motion was made by the Honble. 
Lt. Govr. Cosby that the inhabitants be admitted to take 
the Oath of Allegiance to His most Sacred Majesty King 
George, upon their requiring the same of any member of the 
Board. ********* 


Lieut. Governor. 
Otho Hamilton, Sec. 

Governor Armstrong to Secretary of State. 

Annapolis Royal 

Novr. 17th 1727. 
May it please your Grace. 

* * * * * * I laid before the Board 
the Reports of two of the officers whom I had commissioned 
and sent to Mines and Checanectou to invite the people there 
to a due submission and obedience to the Government by 
swearing allegiance to His Majesty, which was a duty I 
thought I had a seasonable opportunity to press them to, on 
the conclusion of a War which their friends the Indians had 
managed with very ill success. I likewise laid before them 
the Inhabitants' answer, copies of which accompany the 
duplicate of my last. 

The Council was of opinion that both their answers but 
especially that of Checanectou was full of Insolence and con- 

However being resolved to act with as little precipitation 
as possible I moved that the Secry. should write them a Civil 
letter to invite the principal men among them hither in order 
to reason with them on their undutiful behaviour, and to con- 
vince them if possible of the folly and danger of persisting in 
their disobedience with so much obstinacy ; but this had no 
other effect than to make their contempt of the Government 
more manifest ; and I am sorry to tell your Grace that this pro- 
ceeds very much from the base suggestions of one or two 
Traders who have left no stone unturned to render my actions 
black, and designs abortive to the great prejudice of His Ma- 
jesty's service and interest here. 


None of the inhabitants appearing here on the aforesaid 
letter, I thought it was high time to ao something to raise the 
authority of the Government which was sunk so low and 
become contemptible by their having escaped hitherto with 
impunity notwithstanding their having committed so many 
villanies and robberies as would be endless to relate. 

* * * * I must now beg your Grace's leave to 
open a new scene of matters that happened upon the death of 
his late Majesty of blessed memory. After I had proclaimed 
his present Majesty, King George the 2nd both in Town 
and Garrison, with the usual solemnity, I tendered to both 
officers and soldiers the oaths appointed by law, which they 
took very cheerfully, and having summoned the Council, it 
was agreed to tender them likewise to the French Inhabitants 
of this River who had taken them to the late King, but be- 
cause some malicious people had insinuated that the Oath 
taken by them to his late Majesty was conceived in such 
rigid terms that it was unjust to exact it of Roman Catholics, 
who on the other hand would unanimously concur to take the 
Oath of Allegiance ; it was therefore thought meet to tender 
the same to them translated into French as follows vizt : 

Je promets & jure sincerement que je serai fidele & obeirai 
vdritablement k sa Majeste Le Roy George Second. 

Ainsi Dieu me soit en aide. 

The Deputies desired me to set a day to assemble the In- 
habitants at the Fort and to give them an order for that pur- 
pose, which I ordered to be drawn and the same being read 
and examined in Council, was approved of and ordered to be 
forwarded to the Deputies Bourg Landry & Bourgeois, but 
they instead of complying therewith assembled the people 
two days successively up the River, where instead of per* 
suading them to their duty by solid arguments of which they 
were not incapable, they frightened and terrified them, by 
representing the Oath so strong and binding that neither they 
nor their children should ever shake off the yoke, so that by 
their example and insinuations the whole body of the people 
almost to a man refused them, but upon certain conditions set 
forth in a paper the deputies presented me with, whereof I 
send your Grace a Copy No. 5, (annexed to my order) which, 
being read in Council was judged so very insolent & unde- 
served at their hands, that it was ordered that Landry and 
Bourgois should be sent to prison, and laid in Irons as Ring- 
leaders, where they continued some days, but were at last 
admitted to bail till His Majesty's pleasure therein should be 



known, which I earnestly beg Your Grace will please to send 
tne with directions how to proceed as well in regard to them 
us the other Inhabitants whom the Council has thought lit to 
debar from Pishing, pursuant to his late Majesty's instructions, 
Art. 13, and from Navigating otherwise than according to law. 

Pursuant to the order of His Majesty's most Honble. Privy 
Council and the directions of the Lords Commissioners of 
Trade and Plantations, to proclaim His Majesty in all the 
proper parts of the Government, I have chartered a vessel for 
that voyage for J6100 Sterling, and have put on board a Com- 
missioned Officer with a command of Soldiers, who after a 
long and uncomfortable Voyage is now returned. I cannot 
say but the gentleman has acted very well as far as the pro- 
claiming of His Majesty, but in tendering the Oaths he has 
fallen into very great errors by making some unwarrantable 
concessions which I have refused to ratify, but the Council 
has thought meet to transmit home a Copy No. 6, of his whole 
proceedings for Your Graces perusal, that His Majesty may see 
the presumption and unparallelled impudence of those people. 
I have within these few days received advice by an 
express sent me by the Lieut. Governor of New England 
of some murders and other hostilities committed on His Majes- 
ty's subjects by some Indians within 15 leagues of Canso, and 
by a letter from Monsieur St. Ovide, of their having seized a 
Sloop and Cargo at Port le Basque in Newfoundland. 

# # # # Notwithstanding the French Governor's apolo- 
gy I am convinced that the French are at the Bottom con- 
cerned in order to disturb and discourage our Fishery. * * * 

The Military Officers, who are the only subjects His Majesty 
has here who are any ways qualified for that service, (Coun- 
cillors) will think it hard to be subjected to others, since His 
Majesty has not three faithful subjects in the place besides 
themselves and the Troops they command. 

Your obt. servant, 


Governor Armstrong to the Duke of Newcastle. 

Annapolis Royal 
July 9th 1728. 
My Lord, — 

* * * * I beg leave further to observe to 
Your Grace that the great lenity of the Government is in 
some measure the cause of the people's disobedience, for I 




have no warrant nor Authority by His Majesties Royal Com- 
mission and Instructions to Governor Philipps to proceed 
further against them that refuse the oaths, than only to debar 
them from Fishing during His Majesties pleasure, which 
restraint many of them are willing to bear with in hopes of 
some speedy revolution or change of Government which they 
are encouraged by their Priests and neighbouring French 
Governors to look for very soon ; however I can hardly think 
£hat when matters are brought to the push, either to swear 
or go that they will persist in their disobedience, so far as to 
quit their plantations and improvements to settle new Colonies 
tho' they want neither invitations or promises from the Islands 
of Cape Breton and St. Johns, for that purpose. 

I acquainted Your Grace in my last of several Murders and 
robberies committed by the Indians in this Province and 
Newfoundland last fall, which manifestly appear to have been 
done through the instigations, if not by the assistance of the 
French ; I am since advised that a great body of those people 
made an appearance near Canso last winter, as if they intended 
to attempt some mischief, but at last retired without com- 
mitting any Hostilities. ****** 

I am &g. 

His Majesty's 

Principal Secretary 
of State. 

Extract from a Letter of Ghvr. Armstrong to the Lords of 


Annapolis Royal 

23 June 1729. 


The first person I shall take notice of for his notorious 
insolence is Monsieur Bresley the Popish Priest of this river, 
who having for some time past endeavoured to withdraw the 
people from their dependance on H. M. Government by 
assuming to himself the authority of a Judge in Civil affairs 
and Employing his Spiritual Censures to force them to a 
submission. His insolence and tyranny growing at last insup- 
portable I sent the Adjutant to him to his house which stands 
a little way from the Fort to desire to speak with him, but hi» 
intelligence proved so good tho' nobody was acquainted there- 
with but Mjyor Cosby that before the Adjutant could reach 
his house he was gone off, and has ever since absconded some 


where in the Woods about this River among the Indians 
pursuing his former practices of obstructing H. M. service 
and exciting the savages to mischief. To prevent which 1 
thought proper by an order, published at the Mass House to 
command him to be gone out of the province in a month's 

Gfovernor Philipps to the Duke of Newcastle.* 

Annapolis Royal 
January 3rd 1729. 
My Lord Duke, — 

***** I have appointed the next 
week for the receiving the submission of the French Inhabit- 
ants of this River, and am assured that those of Minaa and, 
the other settlements at the head of the Great Bay of Fundi 
are resolved to follow their example, but the winter being set 
in, and no possibility of having it done till the Navigation 
becomes practicable, will see it finished before I set out for 
Canso and transmit an account thereof. 

Thus far a duplicate of my last. 

As the bringing the French Inhabitants of this Province 
to an entire submission and due allegiance to the King (who* 
are at this time a great body of people) has been thought a. 
work of very great consequence to its safety and welfare,., 
and therefore takes up a considerable part in His Majesty's . 
Instructions to the Governor ; Your Grace will now see by 
the enclosed Parchments and the progress made therein in 
less than three weeks, that I have had that matter at heart 
and my hopes of succeeding not to have been ill-grounded. 

The subscribers thereto are the whole settlement of this 
River to a man, from Sixteen years of age upwards, whereto 
they are pleased to express that the good likeing they have to • 
my Government in comparison of what they experienced after- - 
wards, did not a little contribute, and therefore reserved this 
honor for me ; indeed I have had no occasion . to make use of 
threats or compulsion, nor have I prostituted the King's Honor 
in making a scandalous capitulation in his name and contrary 

* Thomas Pelham Holies, Duke of Newcastle, was the son of Lord Pelham 
by Lady Grace Holies, sister to John Holies, Duke of Newcastle, and assumed 
the name of Holies under the will of his uncle. He was born in the year 1693, 
and after occupying several important posts under the Crown, was appointed 
one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of Stat** in the year 1724, and again 
appointed to the same office in 1746. He held office until 1754, and was suc- 
ceeded by Sir Thomas Robinson.— Collins' Peerage. 


to His Majesty's express orders as has been done by one 
Ensign Wroth of my Regiment, a copy whereof I could not 
omit laying before Your Urace. That same gentleman is now 
in England, gone home (as I am told) to demand great matters 
for his good service ; how far they will be thought such I 
submit, but were it my case to have presumed to make use of 
the King's name, without his authority, I should expect a 
more suitable reward. 

Having finished with the people of this River I must wait 
the breaking up of the Winter to open a communication with 
the other settlements up the Bay of Fundy, from whence I 
daily expect their deputies, thro' the Woods, with assurances 
of the readiness of their people to submit in like manner 
when called upon, where I judge it necessary for me to be in 
person for the solemnity to give them the Oath as I have done 
to all these and then shall return to Canso where I shall be 
expected. * * * * * * 

with all duty and Respect &c. 

His Grace 

The Duke of Newcastle, <fcc. <fcc. 

Mr. Secretary Popple to Govt. Philipps. 


20 May 1730. 

Sir — 

You will perceive by the first paragraph of the letter 
from My Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to 
you of this days date that their Lordships wish the Oath 
which the French Inhabitants at Annapolis have voluntarily 
taken had been in more explicit Terms, and therefore I am to 
observe to you that by the words of that Oath, the French do 
not promise to be faithful to His Majesty. The Oath indeed 
seems intended to have been a Translation of the English 
Oath of Allegiance, but the different Idiom of the two lan- 
guages has given it auother turn, for the particle " To " in 
the English Oath, being omitted in the French Translation, it 
•tands a simple promise of fidelity without saying to whom, 
for as tho word " Fidelle " can only refer to a dative case 
and " obeirai " governs an accusative, King George has not a 
proper security given to him by the first part of this Oatb, 
And it is to be feared the French Jesuits may explain this 





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ambiguity so as to cpnvince the people upon occasion that 
they are not under any obligation to be faithful to His Majesty, 
which might have been avoided, if the Oath had run in the 
following terms " Je Promets et jure sincerement en foy do 
u Chfestien que je serois entierement fidelle a Sa Majeste le 
" Roy George le second que je reconnais pour le Souverain 
u seigneur de la nouvelle Ecosse et de L'acadie et que je lui 
H obeirais vraymont. 

Ainsi Dieu me JSoit en Aide." 

I am, 
Your must humble servant, 

To Colonel Philipps. 

Lords of Trade to Governor Philipps. 


20th Mav, 1730. 

* * * * As to the French Inhabitants who shall take 
the Oaths, it must be esteemed by them as a mark of His Ma- 
jesty's goodness that they have not long since been obliged 
to quit their settlements in Nova Scotia, according to the 
terms of the treaty of Utrecht, not having till now taken the 
Oaths of Allegiance to His Majesty ; it is to be feared we 
cannot much depend upon them in case of a rupture, notwith- 
standing this compliance, and therefore though it might not 
be amiss that they should take new Grants of their respective 
Plantations, there seems to be no reason why they should not 
in that case pay the same quit Rents with the rest of His 
Majesty's subjects. So we bid you heartily farewell and are 

Your very loving friends 

and humble servants, 

To Colonel Philipps. 


Govr. PhUipps to the Duke of Newcastle. 

(Letter Book.) 


Sept. 2nd 1730 
My Lord Duke, — 

* * * * I have done myself the honor by every oppor- 
tunity since my return to this Government of acquainting 
your Grace with the state and posture of affairs therein as far 
as they occurred to me. 

By my last from Annapolis Royal, dated January 3d, your 
Grace may have perceived that I applied myself particularly 
to bringing our French Inhabitants to submit themselves to- 
the Crown of Great Britain by swearing allegiance to His 
Majesty, a work which became daily more necessary in regard 
to the great increase of those people, who are at this day a 
formidable body and like Noah's progeny spreading them- 
selves over the face of the Province. Your Grace is not un- 
acquainted that for twenty years past, they have continued 
stubborn and refractory upon all summons of this kind ; but 
having essayed the difference of Government in my absence, 
they signified their readiness to comply with what I should 
require of them at my return, for which reason I judged no 
time so proper to set about it as at my first arrival among them, 
beginning with the settlements in this River of Annapolis 
Royal, and how well I succeeded there, Your Grace has seen 
by the Parchment transmitted, which was a Duplicate of what 
every man from sixteen years of age to sixty has sworn and 
signed to. 

I acquainted your Grace at the same time of my purpose to 
proceed up the Bay of Fundy (as soon as the winter broke 
up) where the gross of the Inhabitants are settled to finish 
the work so well begun which I have the satisfaction to have 
seen fully completed, and have now the honour to congratu- 
late your Grace on the entire submission of all those so long 
obstinate people, and His Majesty on the acquisition of so 
imany subjects; a duplicate of the instrument to which they 
!have sworn and signed* goes herewith and is Exclusive of the 
•other transmitted from Annapolis ; they are all married and 
may be computed at five in a family one with another by which 

* No copy of the Oath here referred to is to he found among the Nova Scotia 


your Grace will find the number of those people at this day, 
adding to the number about Fifty stragling families who wait 
my return to Annapolis. 

The greatest obstruction that I apprehended to meet with in 
the course of this affair was from the Indians who I had 
notice given me had taken the alarm, and were assembled in 
boddies to know what was upon the Anvil, but by good man- 
agement plain reasoning and presents which I had prepared 
for them they were brought into so good temper that instead 
of giving any disturbance they made their own submission to 
the English Government in their manner, and with dancing 
and Hizzas parted with great satisfaction. 

Thus far the peace of £he Country is settled with a pros- 
pect of continuance at legist so long as the union subsists be- 
twixt the two Crowns, but to be secure in all events requires 
further precautions, for its certain that all the safety of this 
Province depends absolutely upon the Continuance of that 
union, when that ceases the Country becomes an Easy pray to 
our neighbours. ***** 

with <fcc Ac 

To His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 

Govt. Philipps to the Lords of Trade. 

Annapolis Royal 

November 26th 1730. 
My Lords, — 

* * * * Being now much indisposed and fatigued 
with voyaging from almost one end of the Province to t'other 
and the vessels herein being in haste to get home tis almost 
as much as I am able to do to prepare duplicates of what 
papers were sent from Canso, from which place, I had the 
honor of writing to Your Lordships, and I am to acquaint 
you, that this duplicate of the Inhabitants up the Bay's sub- 
mission contains the additional names (marked therein) of 
those who I mentioned not to be come in at that time, so that 
there remains now not more than five or six scattering fami- 
lies on the Eastern coast to complete the submission of the 
whole Province, whom I shall call upon in the spring. 

I am sorry to find Your Lordships think the Oath which 
the Inhabitants of this River have taken not to be well 
worded, I used my best understanding in the forming of it 


and thought I had made it stronger then the original English,, 
by adding the words, "enfoi de Chretien' 1 and "quejereeon- 
nois" &c., the word fidele is the only one I could find in the 
dictionary to express allegiance and am told by French men 
that both it and obeir govern a dative case, and the conjunction^ 
et, between makes both of them to refer to the Person of the 
King, according as I have learned grammar, and I humbly 
conceive that the Jesuits would as easily explain away the 
strongest oaths that could be possibly framed as not binding 
on papists to what they call a Heretic. Your Lordships will 
observe the oath that has been afterwards given to the body 
of the Inhabitants up the Bay of Fundy, to be varied ; it waa 
upon occasion of their thinking the other too strong. I 
believe Your Lordships will think this not liable to the same 
objection as the other, and not at all weakened in the altera- 
tion. ****** 

The Right Honble. 

The Lords Commissiors 

For Trade & Plantation 

I am &c 


Govt. Armstrong to the French Deputies. 

(Letter Book. ) 

Gentlemen, — 

Though I doubt not you have heard of my Return and 
arrivall here, I have nevertheless judged proper to Signify it 
to you myself by this opportunity and to acquaint you that aa 
I have nothing more in view than your particular Interests, 
and the Welfare of this His Majesty's province in general, So 
I hope for and Expect Your Concurrance and ready comply- 
ance with what may be proposed for the promotion of Both, 
To Either of Which you shall always find me to contribute 
while undistinguished and by you noways prefer'd to his 
Majesty's Service, by which you'l allow that as I am enjoyn'd 
to administer impartially to all, that I may therefore not only 
expect But Even Require a Suiteable Behaviour from all to 
which I flatter myself there will be amongst you but few if 
any objections. 

His Majesty having appointed me to succeed Governor 
Philipps, who is ordered to Return to Great Britain, I Recom- 


mend to your care the Inclosed proclamation, which he left 
here to be published, and hope you will have a due Regard to 
the Same, and the Sooner you Come, in obedience thereunto, 
it will be for your own advantage, and I shall only tell you 
that due attendance Shall be given to do Each of you Justice, 
as your Case may appear. Hearing that there is an Appear- 
ance of Scarcity of Grain, The Messenger I have Therefore 
sent Express to know the truth of these Reports, and to be 
inform'd what quantity of Wheat and pease you can Supply 
me with, for the Support of His Majesty's Garrison, and at 
the same time to put you in mmd of the necessitys of Several 
Inhabitants in this River. Pray treat the Messenger Candidly 
and Dispatch him with as Certain and particular advice as 
possible, that I may noways be put to the Necessity of Want. 
The quantity I require for the Garrison is two hundred Quin- 
teals of Biskett and Sixty Hogsheads of pease, for which, 
according to the Information you may send me, shall order 
you payment, by Messrs. Bissett Donald and Blin, with which 
I hope you'l make no Difficulty ; and as I have Also, at the 
Request of the Gentlemen here Agreed with Nigan Robichaux 
to go and purchass Sheep and Black Cattle amongst you, and 
to bring them hither, I shall by the said merchants likewise 
order you payment and I hope you'l Encourage what may 
prove of so Great advantage to yourselves & therefore I 

Gentlemen Your most humble Servt. 

Annapolis Royall 30 August 1731. 

A true Record by His Honours Command, 

W. SHIRREFF, Secty. 

Crovernor Armstrong to Alexander Bourg, Notary. 

(Lett. Book.) 

Annapolis Royal 18 Dec. 1731. 

I might have expected from you, not only as you are one 
of the Deputys, But by the Office you Bear in the Govern- 
ment (by Governor Philipps's Appointment) an Immediate 
and 4 Strict Complyance with all its orders, as also, advise of 


all those, who at any time may either Contemn, or not Comply 
therewith, with their Reasons for So doing, But your Disres- 
pect to me in not answering my said letters, tho* in answer to 
one, I acknowledged the Receipt of from you, makes me 
almost think, that the Spirit of Disobedience is So Rooted 
Amongst you, that the true loyalty you owe to my Master, 
His Britannick Majesty Your Sovereign, can Scarcely be 
Expected, which I must believe till You Give more Convincing 

? roofs of your obedience, which as I would be Glad to See, 
shall always Encourage, and having now also wrote to the 
Deputys, I desire you will assemble them, and that you will 
Give me an account of all proceedings with the Inhabitants, 
to whom I Desire my Said letters may be published, and that 
you and the other Deputys will Signify to me, whether they 
will or will not Comply with these orders already sent you. 

I am 

Your humble Servt 

30th December 1731 

W. SfflRREPP Secry 


Gfov. Armstrong to the Deputies of Pisiquid. 

(Letter Book.) 

Gentlemen, — 

Having wrote to you the 30th of August last, Signifying 
to you my arrival, and therewith Sent you Governor Philipps's 
proclamation, and having since sent you the Sentiments of His 
Majesty's Council, in Relation to the Surveying of your Es- 
tates, for the Better preventing Disputes, and the other Dif- 
ferences that daily arise amongst the Inhabitants, I am sur- 
prized to find you So very Disrespectfull as to give me no 
manner of Answer to Either, there being nothing there Re- 
quired, but what is Equitable and advantageous to your Selves. 
I shall be sorry of any occasion of Charging you with Con- 
tempt to his Majesty's Government under which you have, 
and still may Enjoy So many priviledges, and therefore let me 
advise you to consider your own Interests, which Depend so 
much upon your Dutifull Behaviour, and fail not to send me a 
Distinct and particular Answer to these letters already sent 
you, as to which I have also again wrote to Mr. Bourg and the 


Deputys of Menis Requiring them to publish the same to the 
Inhabitants, and desire you will do the Same amongst those in 
your District of Cobaquit who I hope will also Contribute in 
Assisting me with some Supplys of Grain to be sent me Early 
in the Spring for the Support of his Majestys Garrison, as to 
which I have sent Mr. Samuel Cottenham to treat with you for 
such things as are needfull, and do hereby Confirm what he 
may do in that Respect, and shall Accordingly order you 
punctual payment and am, Gentlemen 

Your most hum. servt 

Annapolis Royall, 18 Decembr. 1731. 
30 xber 1731. 

W. SfflRREFF, Secy. 


Governor Armstrong to Lords of Trade. 

Annapolis Royal 
5th October 1731 
My Lords, — 

***** Your Lordships in Your afore 
recited letter, have a just notion of our French Inhabitants, 
but as they have taken the Oath of Fidelity, and thereby 
admitted to the privileges and liberty of subjects, I beg Your 
Lordships to inform me how far they or- their Seigniors are 
entitled to lands abandoned ever since the reduction of this 
place, and other waste and uncultivated lands to which espe- 
cially since their taking the oath they lay claim, and plead 
the Treaty of Utrecht, tho' for these many Years noways 
cultivated or improven, which if they are to enjoy without a 
limitation of certain conditions, the Country will in a great 
measure remain a wilderness, and there will be scarce one 
acre left, especially in this place, to be granted to protestant 
subjects, who are much desired, and for whom room might be 
found here, if these Seigniors did not thus pretend a right to 
the greatest part, if not the whole Province, without comply- 
ing with such conditions as may be naturally conjectured, that 
first moved his most Christian Majesty to make such conces- 
sions, which if not remedied, will render this part of the 
Province a continual expence, and of no advantage to his 
Majesty, for whose use, there is not an inhabitant that pays a 
farthing rent towards the defraying of such necessary charges 


that attends all governments, as to which the gentlemen of 
the Council, who are daily employed and harrassed with their 
affairs (there being no other Court of Judicature) do and that 
not without reason complain, in whose behalf I humbly recom- 
mend to Your Lordships, to send us a table of fees, both in 
that respect, and the giving of grants, for wax and other kind 
of stationary ware here, is very dear and expensive, and its 
hoped that an annual supply thereof may be ordered us from 

I must also beg leave to recommend to Your Lordships the 
necessity of having the French Inhabitants estates surveyed 
and measured, because otherwise it will be impossible ever 
to lay before Your Lordships any just plan of this Country, 
for its said that some, if not all, of them possess and claim 
greater tracts, than they are any ways entitled to, and in case 
you approve thereof, I desire you will signify the same, and 
who is to be at the expense in so doing, and whether it is not 
necessary, as they refuse to renew and take grants from the 
Government, that their French erants should be recorded. 

They are a very ungovernable people and growing very 
numerous, and the method of treating with them upon any 
subject, is by their deputies, of whom with the Council Ac. 
till supplied with more proper members if their might be a 
small Assembly constituted they in time may be perhaps 
brought through their own free and voluntary acts to pay a 
greater obedience to the Government, and contribute to its 
support, and as Civil Magistrates are much wanted, I entreat 
Your Lordships directions for appointing at least some justices 
of the Peace, and other inferior Officers amongst them, to act 
in things especially that may relate to themselves, with such 
decorum as may oblige them still further to depend upon the 
Government by giving us information of the behaviour and 
clandestine proceedings of the rest. 

I have signified to Your Lordships, that there's several 
people who have petitioned for grants ; some of them are for 
small plots, in and adjacent to this Town for Houses and 
Gardens, and others for tracts fit for Farms, at Mines, but 
especially by several Young people who have settled them- 
selves, some years ago, at a place called Chippody in the Bay, 
not far from Chickenectua, where, if upon the surveyors 
report there is no Woods proper for masting, I presume grants 
may be made out for the same, without being interpreted a 
breach of any Article of the Instructions, tho' not laid out 
exactly in the same form as there directed, which I shall 


recommend to the Surveyor to do, as near as circling 
stances will permit. These peoples petitions were recom-. 
mended by Governor Philipps before his departure, to 
the consideration of the Council, who finding some dis- 
putes were amongst them, deferred the same till these 
differences were accommodated, and for that purpose Gover- 
nor Philipps by proclamation signified it to them, and appoint- 
ed them by the 10th of April next, to appear to make out 
their respective claims. I am so far, my Lords, of opinion, 
that if grants be given to these new planters, that the others 
may be thereby induced to renew their old Grants and hold 
immediately of His Majesty, and not of these Seigniors, who 
in my opinion have forfeited their rights, through Non-perform- 
ance of the conditions, but if in this I differ from Your Lord- 
ships, I still think it necessary, that these Seigniors, should at 
least renew their grants, and pay the appointed quit rent <fec. 
to His Majesty, which I think is but just, seeing they receive 
their rents annually from the other Inhabitants, as to which 
likewise I beg your Lordships advice. Ever since the reduc- 
tion of this place, there hath been strange juggling amongst 
these Seigniors, as well as the other Inhabitants, who, as heirs, 
pretend a right of possession to the Estates of those who left 
the country even at the capitulation ; and others pretend to 
have bought of those that went away. By virtue of Her late 
Majesty's letter, dated the 23rd June 1713, tis true that Her 
Majesty gives liberty to such of the French as had a mind, to 
retire into the bounds and dominions of the French King, to 
sell their estates, but its presumed only, those who had 
remained in the Province, till that time were entitled to the 
advantages therein mentioned, and not those who had abandon- 
ed and left their Estates, at the reduction of the place, in the 
fear 1710 ; in relation to which there being several disputes, 
must entreat your Lordships' opinion, in order to decide the 
same. If Her Majesty's letter can be interpreted to all in 
general, certain it is, that we shall never be without Seigniors, 
whereas, if only in favor of such as were then in the Country, 
part of these Seigniors estates now belong to His Majesty, 
and I have been told, that rents have been remitted from 
hence to some in the Dominions of France which tho' it may 
be forbid, cannot be easily prevented here, no more than their 
clandestine Trade with the people of Cape Breton, whither 
they transport annually above three or four hundred head of 
cattle, besides Sheep and other provisions, to the great preju- 
dice of this Province, which can only be prevented by having 


a Sloop to denize upon the Eastern Coast, and in the Bay of 
y ert . * * * * * * 

I am Ac. 


Oovr. Armstrong to Lords of Trade. 

Annapolis Royal, 

16 November 1731 
Mt Lords, — 

The aforegoing being a Duplicate of my letter to your 
Lordships the 5th of October last, I hope your Lordships will 
favor me with such directions as the facts therein related re- 
quires, for otherways, it will be a difficult matter to bring 
those people, to any reasonable terms of obedience to His 
Majesty's Government, or even to any manner of good order 
and decency amongst themselves ; for tho' they are a litigious 
sort of people, and so ill natured to one another, as daily to 
encroach upon their neighbours properties, which occasions 
continual complaints, and which were partly the cause of 
some of the Paragraphs of my afore recited letter, yet they all 
unanimously agree in opposing every order of Government, 
tho' never so conducive to their own interest, as I presume 
your Lordships will observe by their answer to the instrument 
I issued, by the advice of the Council, on Wednesday the 13tk 
of October last, all which I have, by this opportunity, thought 
proper to transmit for your Lordships' further information, 
and advice thereon — being with much respect <fcc. 

I am &c. <fcc. 

To the Right Honble. 

the Lords Commrs. of 
Trade & Plantations. 

Mrtract from a Letter of Governor Armstrong to Lords of 

Trade, dated 

Annapolis Royal, 

10th June. 1732. 


Without some Statutes this Province can never be 
rightly settled; Especially seeing the French here upon 
every frivolous dispute, plead the laws of Paris, and from 
that pretended authority contemn all the orders of the Go- 


veniment, and follow the dictates of their Priests and the 
Bishop of Quebec for those of Cape Breton) who orders not 
only the building of Churches here, but sends whom and what 
number of Priests he may think proper, and in all other 
affairs takes the same liberty, wherefore I have judged proper 
to transmit the enclosed letters No. 4, 5, 6 from Priest de 
Godalie, wherein he contradicts himself, and No. 7, 8 are mine 
to him ; notwithstanding whereof, and my positive orders to 
the deputies, he conveyed the young man therein mentioned 
out of the Province ; so that without some particular direc- 
tions in relation to the insolent behaviour of those Priests, the 
people will never be brought to obedience, being by them 
incited to daily acts of rebellion. 

I must also acquaint your Lordships that a small Colony of 
French have settled themselves in the St. Johns River, upon 
the North side of the Bay of Fundy, who despise and con- 
temn all authority here as the declaration of one Rene le 
Blanc inhabitant at Menis, No. 9, whereupon I sent them the 
enclosed Summons No. 10, to which, as yet, I have no answer. 

Governor Armstrong to Priest Godalie. 

(Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royall, 20 Aprile 1732. 

Since my last to you of 28th March last In Relation to 
the Church at Cobaquit, and the preists mentioned in yours of 
the 18th of September last, I have seen one from you to Mr. 
Gaulen of the 8 Instant, and as I have signifyd to you my 
displeasure for your activeness therein, I am no less dis- 
satisfy'd & surprisM at your presumption not only in conceal- 
ing from me any of His Majesty's subjects who may at any 
time desert his service, But Even in Endeavoring to incite 
them so to do by your Entertaining of them, in order to draw 
them from their allegiance, and to make them your proselytes. 
Such audacious practices and attempts upon any of his Bri- 
tannick Majestys protestant subjects, Especially within any of 
his Dominions, I do assure you I will resent, and I desire 
therefore, if you have any regard, Either for yourself, or 
Even for any of your function, that may succeed you in those 
his Majesty's Dominions, you will deliver that young man 
.mentioned in said letter to the Deputys, to whom I have sent 


an order to send him hither, and do Require yourComplyance 
thereto ; and as it is provided by the 14th Article of the 
treaty of Utrecht, That the Inhabitants shall Enjoy the Exer- 
cise of their Religion, as far as the laws of Great Britain Do 
allow the same, I have hereunto subjoined a Copy of the said 
Article for your and their perusal, that you may be ware of 
Incroaching upon the same. I am Sir 

your most humble servt 

[copy.] L. ARMSTRONG. 

W. Shirrefp. 

Gov. Armstrong to M. St. Ovide, Governor of Cape Breton. 

(Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royall 17 June 1732. 

The Inhabitants of this River having made application 
to me for a Preist, I have therefore (in answer to the prayer 
of their petition) sent you this, that you may Consider their 
Demand, which (as long as it may be agreeable to the treaty 
of Utrecht) I shall always agree to, and therefore I desire (to 

{►revent all suspicion that way, it Being agreeable to the 
ntensions of the two Crowns to live in friendship) that you' 
will send hither two Preists of known probity, that will 
Behave themselves in the Execution of their Ecclesiastical 
Office, with Such Discretion as may be agreeable to the laws 
of Great Britain, to which the said treaty refers, and in so 
Doing, I Do assure you that they shall always Enjoy the 
libertys therein Stipulated, and all the protection thereby 
Required, according to their merit. 

This comes by Captain Bissell, a Subject of Britain, whom 
I Recommend to your favour, having found him an honest 
man, and as Gaulier is to follow him, I shall send you a 
Duplicate of this, and hope these Priests now wrote for will 
Come by him, to Supply the vaccancy of this place, and that 
of Menis, through the Default of De Godalie, who has not 
only acted and behaved himself Basely, But to Excuse him- 
self, hath in his letters Given himself the lye. Therefore I 
must tell you, that he has not behaved himself like a man of 
Honour ; and for that and his other Impudent presumptions 
in this His Britanick Majesty's Dominions, I have ordered 
him to depart this province, as I am resolved to do with all 


Such of his function, that Dont Behave themselves according 
to the laws of Great Britain, which I seriously Recommend 
to your Consideration, and with Respect Subscribe myself 

Tour most obedt humbl Servt 

W. Shibreff Secy. L. ARMSTRONG. 

St. Ovide De Brouillan. 

At a Council by Order of the Honble. Lieut. Governor 
Armstrong on Tuesday the 25th of July, 1732, at 11 o'clock, 

Present — 

The Honble. the Lieut. Govt, of the Province, 

Major Paul Mascarene, 

John Adams Esq., William Skene, Esq., William Shirreff, 
Secretary, Major Henry Cope, William Winniet, Esq., Otho 
Hamilton, Esq. 

* # # * ]jj s Honor Communicated to the Board that 
he had given orders to one at Menis for building a magazine 
there, and that he had been informed that the person whom he 
Lad thus employed, had been insulted and interrupted by the 
Indians, in the execution of that work, and as Major Cope 
had arrived here from hence, he desired the Major to relate to 
the Board what he there heard and saw, which was as follows ; 

"One Thursday evening the 13th instant there came into 
Rene Le Blanc's House, at Menis, three Indians vizt. Jacque 
son to Winaguadishnick named Jacques, Antoin, his brother, 
and Andress their cousin, all living upon Piziquit River, who in 
a most villanous manner, and approbrious language, insulted 
the said Rene Le Blanc and Peter his brother, saying that all 
the Le Blanc's were dogs, and villians except Francois and that 
as for Rene, he had a dagger (putting his hand at the same 
time under his coat where tis supposed the dagger hung) for' 
lim, for that he was going to build a Fort for the English (Mr. 
Cottnam and myself present) when I assured them, there was 
no such thing or order given at present, but suppose the King 
of Great Britain thought it convenient to build a fort there, 
who had any thing to say against it ; one of them answered 
that he would not suffer it, for that he was King of that 
Country, for that King George had conquered Annapolis, but 
not Menis ; and in a most insolent manner, order Mr. Cottnam< 


98 nova scotia documents; 

and me to be gone, for that we had no business there. 1 
asked them who said we were going to build a fort ; they said 
all the traders, and named Mr. Winniet ; they said also if we* 
did build a fort, the Indians should go in at one door 7 and we 
at another ; upon the whole I could easily see it was some of 
the French that had put the Indians upon this proceedings, 
out of prejudice to Rene Le Blanc, who by the general report' 
of the inhabitants, bad often-been insulted in the like manner, 
for no reason that I could discover but that he was employed 
and intrusted by the Government," 


Then the Board adjourned till to-morrow at 10 of the clock k.u f 
to consider further the contents of Major Cope's declaration. 

Wednesday the 26th July, 1732, being met according to 
yesterdays adjourmenWMrr Skene only excepted.) 

* * * * fji 8 Honor desired that the gentlemen of the 
Board might draw up a paper which might be published 
amongst the inhabitants and communicated to the Indians,, 
whereby it might be made appear that neither any of them 
nor the traders, had their rights infringed by His Majestys 
having a house built there for his especial service, and in 
order to show to the Board, that he had the welfare of the 
Province and the freedom of trade only at heart, he ordered 
the Secretary to read a scroll of a proclamation, which had 
been prepared for their consideration, and the same being read 
he asked the opinion of the Board. * * * * 


At a Council held by order of the Honble. Lieut. Governor 
Armstrong on Monday the 4th September 1732, 

His Honor acquainted the Board that he had received a let- 
ter from the inhabitants of St. John's river in answer to the 
summons sent them the 28th of March last, and that in obedi- 
ence thereunto, some of them were come to take the Oath to 
His Majesty; and their said letter being read, he asked the 
advice of the Board whether they may be admitted and per- 
mitted to occupy and enjoy such lands as they are in posses- 
sion of there or any where else in the Province, upon their 
taken grants for the same conformable to His Majesty's in- 

Ordered that they may be called in and examined both as 
to the number of the families, and in what manner they live 


and whether they will accept of grants and hold immediately 
of His Majesty. 

And the question being put to them, they answered that 
they were willing to take the Oaths, as also grants, but that 
they could not answer for carrying with them a person to sur- 
vey the land, because of the Indians ; which answer for the 
safety of the Surveyor being referred to his honor to consider 
on, when on opportunity offered to send one ; They were ad- 
mitted to oath which they accordingly took and subscribed 
the same. ****** 


Extract from Letter of Oov. Armstrong to Board of Trade. 

Annapolis Royal 
Novr. 15th 1732. 
My Lords, — 

The French continue as disobedient to the Government 
as ever, both in respect of »their own private affairs, as to 
what concerns the public, for they despise all orders, (oft 
which I have sent copies for your perusal) and obstruct every^ 
thing proposed for his Majesty's service, as to which I must, 
also refer your Lordships to major Henry Cope's declaration^ 

Gov. Armstrong to Bishop of Quebec^ 

(Letter Book.) 


I am favored with yours by Mr. Monfils, who with Mr. 
De St Poncy lately arrived here from Lewisburg, and have 
directed Mr. De St. Poncy to attend the Inhabitants of this 
River, and the other Gentleman, those of a place called 
Pissaquit, To both Gentlemen I shall show the Respect due 
to their Merit, and hope that in Respect to your Recommen- 
dation of them they'l behave themselves like men of Honour, 
and not prove the fomentors of Discord, and as I may say 
Rebellion, as Some of their predecessors. I shall always, 
knowing it to be the will of my master, permit them and all 
others that come to this Province in a Regular manner freely 
to Exercise their Sacerdotal functions amongst those of their 
own perswasion, provided they don't thereby transgress the 
lawg of Great Britain as Stipulated by the treaty of Utrecht, 


and therefore hope you'l acknowledge, that those who won't 
Conform themselves to the laws of any Government Dont 
Deserve its protection. 

I should be Glad to see you here But as to the Executing 
of your office, I have wrote to the Court of Great Britain, and 
I doubt not their Answer. The inclosed from Mr. De Poncis 
I hope will Safely Reach your hands and am 

Your most obedt. Servt 

Annapolis Royall 
21Novr 1732 

W. Shirrepp Secry 

At a Council held by order of the Hon. Lt. Governor Arm- 
strong at Major Copes house in His Majesty's Garrison of 

Annapolis Royal on Saturday, the 23d of December 1732. 



John Adams Esq, William Skene Esq, William Shirreff, Secre- 
tary, Major Henry Cope, Otho Hamilton Esq. 

The Secretary acquainted the Board that His Honour had 
directed him to acquaint them that he is informed that the 
inhabitants, by a mutual consent, are contriving all the ways 
and means possible to distress His Majesty's Garrison, by 
raising the price of all eatables, fire wood &c ; and Whereas 
they daily act with so much contempt, and behave themselves 
in most respects, as independent of any Government, and 
showed so little respect to His Majesty's Sovereignty, through 
a spirit of disobedience and obstinacy, and seeing such 
innovations and proceedings of theirs, without any visible 
reason for their so doing, may not only at this time, but here- 
after, prove detrimental to the Province in general ; he had 
therefore recommended the same to their consideration for 
their advice and opinion thereon, and desired that they would 
consult upon such methods as may be used to keep them to 
their obedience, and to consider whether, for their disobe- 
dience, they may not be debarred from the liberty of ffishing 
and navigation, till, according to their allegiance, they paid 
actual obedience to all legal orders. * * * * 



Qovr. Armstrong to Duke of Newcastle. 

Annapolm Royal 

15 November 1732. 
May it please Your Grace, — 

* * * * I have in obedience thereunto sent to 
their Lordships a report of the Gentlemen of the Council of 
the present state of the Province, which, especially this corner 
of it, I am sorry should be in such a poor condition as it is 
really in, after having been so long as upwards of twenty-one 
years (which may be said imaginarily only) under the English 
Government ; for the Inhabitants here being all French and 
Roman Catholics, are more subject to our neighbours of 
Quebec and those of Cape Breton than to His Majesty, whose 
Government by all their proceedings (notwithstanding of their 
Oath of Fidelity) they seem to despise, being entirely governed 
by their most insolent Priests, who for the most part come 
and go at pleasure, pretending for their sanction the treaty of 
Utrecht, without taking the least notice of this Government 
in spite of all endeavours used to the contrary. 

I must also inform your Grace that the Indians are em- 
ployed in the affair, and use for an argument that although the 
English conquered Annapolis, they never did Menis and these 
other parts of the Province, and in consequence of such argu 
ments instilled into them, they have actually robbed the gen- 
tlemen of the Colliery by Chickenectua, destroyed their House 
and Magazine built there, through pretence of a premium or 
rent due to them for the land and liberty of digging ; in this 
manner they now show their insolence to obstruct the settle- 
ment of the Province, being thereunto advised, as I have been 
informed, by Governor St. Ovid, who tells both them and 
our French inhabitants that if they permit such designs of 
the English to succeed, that the Province will be entirely lost; 
and as such proceedings of the French destroys their allegiance 
and those of the Indians, the articles of peace concluded with 
them both here and in New England, I must upon these cir- 
cumstances beg your Grace's advice. * * * * 

I am &c &c 


To His Grace 

The Duke of Newcastle 
&c &c &c 


Govr. Philipps to Board of Trade. 

August 3rd 1734 
My Lords, — 

* * * * In obedience therefore to what your Lord- 
ships require of me, I answer (in respect to Nova Scotia only) 
that it is my humble opinion, that the Chief encouragement 
wanting toward the well cultivating, and improvement thereof, 
is the creating two or three Forts in proper places with an addi- 
tion of 2 or 300 Men, to Garrison such Ports, this may invite 
a new set of people, that are Protestants, to venture theif 
lives, and Fortunes, under the protection of that Government, 
for as to the present Inhabitants, they are rather a pest, and 
incumbrance than of an advantage to the Country, being a 
proud, lazy, obstinate and untractable people, unskillful in the 
methods of Agriculture, nor will be led or drove into a better 
way of thinking, and (and what is still worse) greatly disaf- 
fected to the Government. They raise (tis true) both Corn 
and Cattle on Marsh lands, that wants no clearing, but they 
have not in almost a century, cleared the quantity of 300 
acres of Woodland. From their Corn and Cattle they have 
plenty of Dung for manure, which they make no use of, but 
when it increases so as to become troublesome, then instead 
of laying it on their Lands they get rid of it by removing 
their Barns to another spot ; this, I take it, proves the first 
part of my asssertion, and as to their disaffection, their being 
of the Romish Religion, puts that beyond all doubt. They 
have, indeed, at last complied with taking the Oath of Alle- 
giance, but discover daily a strong retention of nonjuring 
principles. ****** 

I am &c &c 

The Right Honble. 

The Lords Commissioners 
For Trade & Plantations. 

Extract from a Letter of Govr. Armstrong to His Grace the 
Duke of Newcastle, dated Annapolis Royal, Sth Decem- 
ber, 1735. 

" As for the French Inhabitants up the Bay of Fundy, and 
upon all that Coast, I found them upon my arrival there, very 
submissive, tho I have great reason to believe it proceeded 
only from policy ; for I know them to be a very rebellious 


tsrew, if any opportunity offered to favor their designs ; and 
they are always inciting the Indians to give us trouble, and 
those poor ignorant wretches are so guided and led by the 
French, that they will not scruple to do any base action at 
their desire ; and nothing can secure them to our interest, but 
annual presents." 

Extracts from Minutes of Council, 18/A May, 1736, 

The Petition in behalf of the inhabitants of Cobaquid was 
also laid before the Board, which being again read, and what 
His Honour had also said thereon considered, the prayer 
was granted. 

Whereupon Messrs. De St. Poncy and Cheavereaux, the two 
Romish Priests, were called in and informed thereof, and told 
that it was judged necessary before Monsieur De Poncys de- 
parture for Cobaquid, that either he or Monsieur Cheavereaux 
should first go to Pobomcoup, along with Mr. Charles Dentre- 
snont and Lieut. Amherst to use endeavours that restitution 
may be made of the vessels sails and such other effects as the 
Indians had taken. 

They thereunto answered His Honour and the Board in a 
most insolent, audacious, and disrespectful manner, saying, 
that absolutely they would not go, and that they would have 
nothing to do in the affair ; and being asked if they would not 
obey the just and lawful orders of His Majesty's Government, 
to which Mr. Cheavereaux answered contemptuously with an 
unbecoming air and unmannerly gesture, saying, " Que je suis 
ici de la part du Roy de France," and Mr. St. Poncy most 
affrontingly affirming the same also in words to the same effect. 

His Honour therefore told them that he had a mind, seeing 
they had so said for the contempt of this His Majesty of Great 
Britain Province and Government, to send them to Prance. 

They replied with a laugh, and a most haughty insolent air 
u With all their hearts," then turned their backs and went out 
of the room, seemingly in a very great passion, slaming and 
throwing the doors in a most rude and insolent manner ; and 
without His Honour's leave they left the Board, where they 
were desired to attend for an answer to the above said Peti- 

Then Mr. Dentremont being called before the Board, and 
told that the Priests had refused to go, he said he was very 
jBorry for it, for it was his opinion that the most expedient 


method to bring these Indians to reason and restitution would 
be to send a Priest, which was the reason of proposing it to 
His Honour ; a priest being also much wanted at their village 
to Baptize and administer the Sacrament. % 

The Board having taken their behaviour and comportment 
into consideration, came unanimously to this resolution, that 
they should be dismissed, and ordered to retire to the Pres- 
bytere, and there to remain till an opportunity offered to send 
them out of the Province. Agreed that they the said two 
Priests should be again sent for, to hear the opinion and deter- 
mination of the Board, that they may prepare to be gone 
whenever an opportunity offered. 

Whereupon the said two Priests appearing before the Board, 
and the sentence being read, they resumed their former inso- 
lence, calling for chairs to sit down, saying that they did not 
appear as criminals, and that they had no business with things 
temporal, and further expressed themselves in these words — 
il Que nous Savons point d'ordres a recevoir ici," and as their 
whole behaviour and discourse to the Governor was as above 
recited, and tending to a jurisdiction of their own, indepen- 
dant of His Majesty's authority, and the civil power of this 
His Government, they were ordered to depart immediately to 
the Presbytere, and there to remain as aforesaid ; and also 
ordered that the 14th article of the treaty of Utrecht should 
be sent them. 

Gfovernor Armstrong to Secretary of State. 

(Got. Letter Book.) 

Mat it Please Your Grace, — 

I did myself the Honour to acquaint your Grace in my 
last with my Reasons for sending away the two Priests Monsr. 
de St. Poncy & Monsr. Chevereaux out of the Province, by 
and with advice of the Council: The Sequell shews how just 
my Remarks were of their Disregard to this Goverment, 
which I am no longer surprised at, since I find them so Vigor- 
ously Supported in that principle by Mons. St. Ovide de Bruil- 
lan the ffrench Governor of Cape Bretton. One of the Priests 
Monsr. Chevereaux stopt at Cape Sables to serve the Indian 
Tribes in these parts as their Missionary. Your Grace will 
perceive by the said Governors letters that he approves his 
Conduct. The other Priest Mr. de St. Poncy, he has Bent 
back again to this place. The minutes of Council will shew 


yon how we have received him, by forbidding him to Exercise 
his ministerial function & to depart by the first convenient 

The Inhabitants have Petitioned strongly for his Officiating 
this Winter, I have not given them yet any answer nor can I 
yet inform Your Grace of the Council's resolution the affair 
being still before them, I have sent home all the papers & 
Letters on this Subject, that your Grace may have a full in- 
sight into this matter, which I thought proper because I am 
assured that the French Court will make some stir therein. 
No. 1 is Mr St Ovide's first letter after Mr St Poncy's arrival 
at Lewisburg ; No 2 is my answer ; No 3 is his Reply : No 4 is 
Mr St Poncy's Declaration in Council ; No 5 are the minutes of 
Council ; and No 6 is the Petition of the Inhabitants signed 
by one hundred <fc seven of the Chief of them ; By some of 
the above Papers, your Grace will be Informed how high the 
ffrench Govermt. carry's her pretensions over their Priests 
obedience, and the People of the Province being all Papists 
are absolutely governed by their Influence. How dangerous 
this may prove m time to His Majesty's authority & the peace 
& tranquillity of the Province, I believe your Grace can easily 
forsee, and how to prevent the ill Consequences I know not, 
'without we could have Missionaries from places Independant 
of that Crown, but this will prove a considerable expence 
which the French King bears at present with alacrity for very 
Political] reasons. It is most certain that there is not a Mis- 
sionary neither among the ffrench nor Indians who has not a 
Pension from that Crown. I shall not trouble your Grace any 
further in this matter only to beg that you'll please to Honour 
me with his Majesty's Instructions & Directions how to behave 
myself in affairs of this nature for the future. * * * ■* 
I have the honour to be with the utmost respect, 
Your Grace's 

Most obedient & most faithfull 
Humble servant, 

Annapolis Royall 

the 22 Novemr. 1736. 

Governor Mascarene to the French Deputies. 

(Govt: Letter Book.) 

Messieurs, — 

The offence Given to his Majesty's Government By Pub- 
lishing an Excommunication with intention to Deprive of all 


means of Livelyhood one who not only has had the Protection 
of a Subject But is actually in a Publick Employ has occar 
sioned the Inclos'd Proclamation now Sent to you which you 
are to read Publickly Before the Inhabitants and then to 
Affix it in the'usuali manner that none may pretend Cause of 
Ignorance. The Missionaries seem not to think it Sufficient 
that the People here who are his Majesty's Subjects Enjoy the 
free Exercise of their Religion without they themselves 
assume a Power which the Laws of Great Brittain will not 
allow and of consequence is Excluded by the Article of 
Peace Whereby your Religion is Secured to you. If you 
Know your own Interest and are willing to Continue in that 
ease & Liberty which you have Enjoyed under his Majesty's 
Government ; you will avoid all Occasions that may give 
Cause of Offence thereto and those Missionaries which from 
the Indulgence of the Goverment have Resorted and Resided 
amongst you & still do so will certainly do the same and keep 
within the Bounds prescribed by the Laws of Great Brittain 
and pay that Duty they owe to the Goverment under whose 
Protection they Live whilst they are in his Majesty's Domin- 
ions unless they chuse to follow the motives of avarice and 
ambition of Ruleing rather than the Good of the People they 
pretend out of a charitable duty, to come to assist in the 
exercise of their Religion. As Soon as any of these Mission- 
aries misbehave they may recon themselves out of this Gover- 
ment's Protection and when any of them shall thus misbehave 
shall be Supported and Maintained contrary to the orders 
from hence those of his Majesty's Subjects who Shall Thus 
Support and maintain them may Expect to be Called to a 
Severe Account for it. Let the Inhabitants know the contents 
of this Letter and put it into the possession of your Succes- 
sors the Deputys that it may serve as a Rule for Your Conduct 
in time to Come, I am 

Your Good friend & humble servt 

Annapolis Royal 
4th July 1740 

To the Deputys of the french Inhabitants 
Throughout the Province. 

W. SHIRREPF, Secry. 


At a Council held by order of the Honble Paul Mascarene 
Esq President of His Majesty's Council, at his own house, in 
His Majesty's Garrison of Annapolis Royal, on Wednesday 
the 18th September 1740, at eleven of the clock A. M. 


His Honor the President 

William Skene Esq, William Shirreff Esq, Erasmus James 
Philipps Esq, John Handfield Esq, *Edward Amherst Esq. 

His Honour the President acquainted the Board, he had 
received a letter from Mr St. Poncy late missionary Priest of 
the inhabitants of this river, signifying his return from Lewis- 
burg to Chiconecto, within this His Majesty's Province, to 
officiate as Missionary to the inhabitants there ; which, being 
read, as also a letter from Governor Cosby, directed to 
Erasmus James Philipps Esq, as Port Major, to be communi- 
cated to Major Mascarene, also relating to Mr. St Poncy's 
return, and some private intelligence he had of said St 
Poncy's scheme, to the prejudice of this Government, and 
purporting that the Government of Lewisburg expected a 
war with the English, and that St. Poncy having acquainted 
them how much he had gained over the minds of the inhabit- 
ants here in prejudice to the English Government ; he was 
therefore dispatched back, which he was not to own, but to 
give such reasons as he thinks proper, and that ho is to hold 
correspondence with certain inhabitants of this place ; and 
when a stroke is to be given, it is to be against the Governor 
and this Garrison. 

All which being considered, it was the opinion of the Board, 
that Mr. St Poncy should have orders sent him immediately 
to depart this His Majesty's Province ; otherwise in case of 
disobedience to be at his risk and peril ; and also that an 
order be sent to the inhabitants of Chiconecto signifying their 
contempt to this His Majesty's Government, in daring to 

* Edward Amherst was a captain in General Philipps' regiment. His name 
first appears on the Council Books at Annapolis in December, 1736. He was 
in England on leave in 1749, and came out with the settlers under Cornwallis. 
It is probable he proceeded immediately to Annapolis after his arrival at 
Chebucto, as he was not one of the Councillors reappointed in 1749. Amherst 
afterwards became a major, and had command at Placentia, or St. Johns, in 
Newfoundland. His daughter married Thomas Williams, Esq., of Annapolis, 
Commissary of Stores and Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for that 
County; she was grandmother of Lieut. General Sir Fenwick Williams, Bart., 
K. C. B., &c, late Lieut. Governor of Nova Scotia. 


receive the said St. Poncy or any other missionary Priest, 
without first applying to this Government and obtaining leave 
for one. ****** 

Extract as pr. Record 
of Minutes 

W. Shirrbfp 

Chvernor Mascarene to Secretary of State. 

Annapolis Royal, 
15 Nov. 1740. 
May it please Tour Grace, — 

* * * * The increase of the French Inhabitants 
calls for some fresh instructions how to dispose of them. 
They have divided and subdivided amongst their children the 
lands they were in possession of, and which his Majesty was 
graciously pleased to allow to them on their taking the oaths 
of allegiance, and now they apply for new grants, which the 
Governor and late Lieutenant Governor did not think them- 
selves authorized to favor them with, as His Majesty's instruc- 
tions on that head prescribe the grant of unappropriated 

* Paul Mascarene was born at Castras, in the South of France, in the year 
1684. His parents were Jean Mascarene and Margaret deSalavy. His father, 
who was a Huguenot, having been compelled to fly from France at the revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes, young Mascarene fell to the charge of his grand- 
mother. At the age of twelve he made his way to Geneva, where he was 
educated, and afterwards went to England, where he was naturalized in 1706. 
Two years after he received the appointment of second lieutenant in Lord 
Montague's regiment, then doing duty at Portsmouth. In 1710 he obtained 
his commission as captain from Queen Anne, and was ordered by the Secretary 
of War to proceed to America, where he joined the regiment raised in New 
England for the taking of Port Royal. He there commanded the Grenadiers 
of Col. Walter's regiment, and was the officer who took formal possession of the 
fort in mounting the first guard. Shortly after he received the rank of brevet 
major from General Nicholson, the commander-in-chief of the expedition. — 
(Mascarene' s Letter to Duke of Bedford, 1740 / also New England Gen. and 
Hist. Regr., ix., 229, quoted by Editor New Fork Colonial Documents.) 

He for some time commanded the garrison stationed at Placentia, in New- 
foundland, On the death of Colonel Armstrong in 1739, he was appointed 
regimental major, and on the death of Colonel Cosby he became lieut.-colonei 
of Philipps' regiment. Colonel Mascarene was nominated third on the list of 
Councillors at the first establishment of that board under Governor Philipps in 
1720, and was for many years senior Councillor. In 1740 he was appointed 
Lieut. Governor of Annapolis, and became Administrator of the Government 
(Philipps, the Governor, residing in England), which offices he held until the 
arrival of Governor Cornwallis in 1749, when he came down to Chebucto, 
with several members of the Council, to meet the new Governor, and was 


lands to Protestant subjects }>nly. This delay has occasioned 
several of these Inhabitants to settle themselves on some of 
the skirts of this Province, pretty far distant from this place, 
notwithstanding proclamations and orders to the contrary 
have been often repeated, and it has not been thought advisa- 
ble hitherto to dispossess them by force, for the reasons, I 
presume set down in the above article. If they are debarred 
from new possessions they must live here miserably and con- 
sequently be troublesome, or else they will continue to possess 
themselves of new tracts contrary to orders, or they must be 
made to withdraw to the neighbouring French Colonies of 
Cape Breton or Canada. 

Since I have had the honor to preside here, my study has 
been to make these French Inhabitants sensible of the differ- 
ence there is between the British and French Government, 
by administering impartial justice to them and in all other 
respects treating them with lenity and humanity, without 
yielding anything wherein His Majesty's honor or interest 
were concerned. 

The neighboring French at Cape Breton will naturally 
watch all opportunities of disturbing the peace of this Pro- 
vince, especially at this juncture and in case of a war with 
France, and if occasion of disgust was given to these people 

sworn in senior Councillor on board the Beaufort, transport, in Chebucto 
harbor, 14th July, 1749. About the year 1720 he transmitted to the Plantation 
Office and the Board of Ordnance a complete description of the Province, 
with suggestions regarding its settlement and defence. In 1744 he defended 
Annapolis, and beat off the French force under Du Vivier. He was engaged 
on the part of the Province of Nova Scotia in conjunction . with Governors 
Bummer and Wentworth, of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, in nego- 
tiations with the New England Indians, which resulted in the treaty of 1725. 
He proceeded to New England for the same purpose in 1751, under the direc- 
tions of Governor Cornwallis, where he was occupied for some time in con- 
ciliating the Indian chiefs. He soon after obtained leave to retire from active 
service in consequence of his advanced age. In 1758 he was gazetted major 
general, and resided in Boston until his death, which took place on 22nd 
January, 1760. He married Elizabeth Perry, a native of Boston, and left a 
son and daughter. — (Hist, and Gen. Regr. N. S* Documents,) 

The late Judge Foster Hutchinson of Halifax and the late Deputy Commis- 
sary General W. Handfield Snelling were his grandsons. Governor Mascarene 
in his letters to the Secretary of State, &c., complains of the very small remu- 
neration which he received for his long and arduous duties in sustaining 
British authority in Acadia ; never having received any allowance from Gene- 
ral Philipps, the Governor, for his services during the long period he admin- 
istered the Government ; though, after the death of Governor Armstrong, an 
offer of remuneration had been made him by Philipps, which was afterwards 
withdrawn. He mentions having to subsist, in his old days, wholly on the 
half pay of his lieut.-colonelcy. — (Mascarene' * Letters) Nova Scotia Docu- 


here they would soon make an advantage of it, and by the 
numbers of these French Inhabitants at least ten to one 
English they would soon distress this Garrison by cutting off 
the supply of the necessaries of life, keeping it in a continual 
alarm, if not by taking the Fort itself which indeed is in a 
very ruinous condition. The Garrison at Canso is still in 
more danger, as it is not any way defensible and is but two 
leagues from the Island of Cape Breton where the French 
are very powerful. 

I am &c 


Governor Mascarene to Lords of Trade, 

Annapolis Royal 
Right Honorable 

* * * * There being also a necessity for 
some one to be appointed in each settlement to draw writings 
bearing some mark of authenticity, a person was accordingly 
appointed, and it so continued under the name of Notary, who 
is to be accountable for the Kings dues in all sales and aliena- 
tions of lands passed between the Inhabitants, and is commonly 
the receiver of the annual rents eschewing to His Majesty 
as Seigneur or Lord of the Manor. A Messenger also under 
the name of Constable, is appointed as an assistant, who when 
any directions or orders are sent from the Governor or 
Commander in Chief in consequence of minutes of Council to 
the deputies of the Settlements or to the notary as receiver 
of the King's dues, is to assist in the execution of them. 

No farther hitherto has been proceeded in regulations for 
the administration of Civil affairs in this Province, except at 
Canso, where by the resort of English subjects in the Fishing 
season, justices of the Peace have been appointed to settle 
the differences that may arise ; but in winter that place is 
reduced to three or four families, except what belongs to the 
Troops residing there. It is a matter of no small concern 
that in the space of these thirty years past, in which this 
Province has been regained to the possession of the Crown 
of Great Britain, the British interest has not been established 
in a better manner by peopling some part of it by British 
Protestant subjects, which might in time balance the number 
of the present ones of a different religion ; and springing from 
a rival nation in regard to her neighbouring Plantations, Trade 


and other points which is most humbly referred to considers 
tion. I shall transmit as often as opportunity will permit, an 
account of mine and the Councils proceedings. 

I am &c. f 

The Lords Commissioners 
of Trade <fc Plantations. 

This letter is not dated; the original irt the State Paper Cflice, in London, 
it marked " received 19 Nov. 1740." 

Chvernar Mascarene to M. Bes Enclaves.* 

(Gov's Letter Book.) 

Monsieur, — 

The other Point of your letter on which 1 could not ans- 
wer in my last is that in which you mention ye Spiritual to be 
so connected with the temporal as sometimes not to be able to 
be divided. This Proposition requires some Explanation as it 
is what may much contribute to the well or ill being of the 
Inhabitants. Under pretence of this connection the Mission- 
arys have often usurp'd the power to make themselves the 
Sovereign judges & arbitrators of all causes amongst the 
People; for example, a Parishioner complains to the Priest 
that his Neighbour owes him or detains such a thing from 
him, the. Priest Examines the Neighbour in the way of 
Confession. The man denies his owing or detain'g such 
a things unjustly. The Priest doth not stop where he 
should Dut calls & Examines Witnesses & then decides 
in a judicial manner & condemns the party to make resti- 
tution, & to oblige him thereunto refuses to administer, the 
Sacraments, by which if the man is Persuaded that it is 
in the Priests Power to grant or withold the pardon of his 
sins he is in a wofull case & must rather Submit to be de- 

* Jean Bte. Desenclaves came from France to Canada in the year 1728. He 
was parish priest at Annapolis for many years. M. Tasherea, in his M.S. 
notes on Missions in Acadia, quoted by Dr. O'Calaghan in the 10 vol. of New 
York Documents, says he returned to France soon after 1753, worn out by age 
and labour. He was, however, officiating to the Acadians at Annapolis in 1754, 
at appears by his letter of that year to Mr. Cotterell, at Halifax, respecting the 
site of a new Chapel which he was then building. And Governor Fownall of Bos- 
ton, in a letter to Governor Lawrence in 1759, mentions his being then a pri- 
soner with other French Acadians in Massachusetts. M. Desenclaves appears 
in the latter period of his life to have meddled less with secular affairs than the 
other priests in Acadia, and consequently was not much in favour with Lutre 
•and Germaine. 


prived of his goods than to incur damnation as he believes by 
not receiv'g absolution from the Priest. Consider Monsieur 
how this tends to render all civil judicature useless, & how 
easy it will be for the Missionarys to render themselves the 
only distributors of Justice amongst people bred up in ignor- 
ance ; and of what consequence it is for the maintaining his 
Maj'tys authority to restrain that Power which the Priests are 
but too apt to assume upon the foresaid Proposition which can 
at most extend no further than to exhort ye partys to Com- 
pose amicably their differences or to have recourse to the way 
of Justice as it is established in the Government they live 
under, & to abide by what decisions they give according as 
the Rules & Laws by which they are to be try'd prescribe. 
I would enlarge upon this head much more but will not detain 
the bearer at present ; I shall only tell you that this is one of 
the blocks on which I have often forewara'd you not to stumble. 

I am with Esteem 
29 June 1741 
Mons. des Enclaves. 

Govt. Mascarene to Monsieur Des Enclaves. 

(Letter Book.) 


I received your letter of the 21st July N. S. and am glad 
to see that from what I wrote to you, you are sensible of the 
ill consequences that will follow from connecting the Tem- 
poral with the Spiritual. 1 have no desire to Enter on the sub- 
ject of Controversy, if I have done so before it was a kind of 
necessity which Obliged me to it when one of your Brethren, 
who was full of the Prejudices he had been bred up to gave 
me (to speak in our terms) a kind of challenge. I do not be- 
lieve he has any just reason to Glory in the event of that kind 
of Conflict, my only aim is in the Station I am in to keep the 
Missionarys who reside in this Governmt. within the bounds 
of their Duty & to hinder them from Establishing imperium 
in imperio which the Laws of Great Britain will not suffer, as 
for Religion I am of that temper as not to wish ill to any per- 
son whose Persuasion differs with mine, provided that Persua- 
sion is not contrary to the rules of Society & Government 


This in my notion is the bonds of Charity in which we ought 
$o live one towards another. 

I am 


Your most humble servt 
Annapolis Royal 

20th July 1741 
Atonsieur Des Enclaves* 

Qevr. Mascarene is AL Desendcuoes* 

<Govs. Lett. feocfe.) 


I answer yr. letter by ye saane oppa which brot. it to me 
to make you sensible that your Correspondence is acceptable 
to me. Whilst ye Missionaries which shall be allowed residence 
in this Provoe. will contain themselves within the Bounds 
which you acknowledge by yr* Sevl. letters it is requisite they 
should, & pay the regard they ought to the Government they 
will not meet with any impediment in their administrating to 
the people what relates to their Spiritual function* But 
when they shall pretend to require or to settle themselves by 
Buy other authority than what derives from ye King of Great 
Britain who is the Sovereign Lord of this province they shall 
not only incur the Displeasure <fc resentment of this Govern* 
raent but will draw it on ye peoplo whom they may persuade 
to support them in any such unwarrantable proceeding. I 
repeat this often to yon as it is a point on which ye peace and 
tranquility of the Inhabitants so much depends, which those 
who are of your Profession should by aH means endeavour to 
keep them in, rather than make them run tlie risque of losing. 
I have referd Monsr. Lobargett to my letter to you on this 
head & on the behaviour which the Government expects 
from the Missionary, & Desire you will also communicate 
them -to Monsr. De la Goudalie if he ooraes to your parts before 
4ie reaches these, that those Missionaries may not by some 
wrong steps bring trouble where their duty shd, oblige 
them to maintain peace. The affairs in Europe are much em- 
broiled and in case they should occasion a rupture between 
threat Britain <fc France the missionaries must expect to fall 
very naturally under Suspicion, & therefore ought to be the 
more circumspect in their conduct in regard to themselves & 
towards the Inhabitants whom they will draw into inevitable 


ruin if they should in the least encourage them to slight or 
resist the orders of this Govment. to which as Subjects they 
ought to pay obedience. 

I am with esteem 

Annapolis Royal 
Sept 5 1741. 
Monsr. Des Enclaves. 

Governor Mascarene to Lords of Trade. 

Annapolis Royal 
23rd November 1741 
Right Honorable, — 

• • * * * * The proclamation transmitted last 
to Tour Lordships, had so far effect as to oblige the French 
Inhabitants who trade in Vessels along the Coast, and others 
who resort to this Bay, to come here and give Bond for the 
provisions they exported, but could not prevent those of Cape 
Breton who were in great want of these commodities, to 
resort to the iyany uninhabited harbours on our eastern Coast 
and Bay Yerte where by means of a communication by land 
with the settlements of Mania and Chignecto they drew from 
those places whole droves of Cattle and other provisions, ia 
which they were assisted with the French Inhabitants and it 
is strongly presumed were supported by our English Traders, 
whom tne desire of gain prompted to this unlawful, and at 
this juncture so pernicious a Trade. The several difficulties 
the Government here labors under, mentioned at large in the 
representation to your Lordships bearing date 16th Augt. 
1740, arising from the situation of this Country, the nature 
of its Inhabitants and other discouragements are obstacles 
to the preventing this evil, and the want of legal proof for 
fixing it on the offenders screens them from the penalties 
incurred by law. In other respects the French Inhabitants 
continue hitherto to give assurances of their fidelity, and 
behave as well as can be expected, considering the bigottry 
to their religion and other circumstances. 

The want of instructions how to dispose of the increase of 
the Families of these Inhabitants is of no small perplexity. 
It being impossible from the reasons already given to hinder 
them from settling on the unappropriated lands, and as our 


weakness manifestly appears by our not being able to hinder 
them, it makes the several repeated orders to be more and 
more unregarded, and the licence in that respect increase 
more and more. * * * * * 

The Roamish Missionary Priests give no small trouble, all 
care possible is taken to keep them m order by obliging them 
to conform to rules prescribed to them for their behaviour 
and by preventing them from exercising any ecclesiastical 
authority. It is not however possible to ninder the subordi- 
nation these Missionaries lay themselves under to one another 
and to their Bishop, which has been the reason that one who 
was here and had behaved tolerably well, chose to withdraw 
rather than stay contrary to the orders prescribed to him by 
his Ghostly superiors. What has passed in this case in Coun- 
cil and towards putting these Missionaries under more re- 
straint, is contained in the enclosed minute of Council. He 
who calls himself the Bishop of Quebec's Grand Vicar, and 
who is lately returned from France into this Province, having 
been summoned by my letter to him to appear here has ac- 
cordingly submitted to what was prescribed to him. I shall 
endeavour to act in the best manner I am able for the support 
of his Majesty's authority, and for the keeping the peace and^ 
good order among the inhabitants of this Province. Hoping 
your Lordships will afford your assistance in procuring the- 
necessary instructions on the representations laid before your: 

I am, &c.j 


Ghvr. Mascarene to Deputies of Chignecto. 

(Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal 

11 January 1742 
Messieurs, — 

Your district of Chiconecto has. been so long under a 
kind of disobedience that it will not be very easy for you to* 
recover the good will of the Government, — repentance and 
amendment are always necessary to wipe off faults committed 
by disobedience, and 'tis that which you and the Inhabitants 
in your parts must undergo, if you will prevent the sensible 
token of resentment whiph otherwise may soon fall upon you. 
I send you enclosed a. proclamation past in Council, which 


you are to publish to the Inhabitants, you'll see therein that 
your office as deputies, obliges you to see that the orders and 
sentences of the Government be put into execution, and to 
report accordingly, those who submit or disobey thereunto, 
and show at the same time it is not owing to any neglect in 
you that the said sentences and orders are not put in execu* 
tion. Tis by this that good order may be* established- and 
maintained amongst you, unless by continuing in your dis- 
obedience, you will oblige us to make use of force to reduce 
you to your duty. 

One of your Inhabitants named Quasey who is the bearer 
of this, having made some propositions about what is called 
the Lake, the Council has examined what had been done in 
regard to that place. The platt which was taken of it is not of 
the nature required to draw contracts of concessions by ; all 
that can be done at present is to assure those whose names 
are in the petition presented to the Council, and those who 
are included in the resolution taken thereon, that as soon as a 
true plat can be taken by the officer appointed for that pur* 
pose, the right given to the said petitioners and those included 
in the resolution of the Council, shall be confirmed to them 
if they have behaved well and conformed to the orders of the 
Government, unless an express order from Court should 
prohibit the execution thereof , and in the mean time, those 
therein concerned may continue their works, without however 
extending beyond the bounds prescribed in the resolution of 
the Council. It appears that part of that land has been sold 
before the Government had given any assurance of possession, 
that Money seems to have been acquired by fraud, for to sell 
that to which one has no right, is certainly to cheat, which 
will be examined more particularly when contracts of conces^ 
sion shall be granted. As for those who are seated on lands 
for which they have no grants ; if (as at some time since I 
writ to the receiver of the Kings rents,) they have lost their 
deeds of concession, by fire or other casualty, and that they 
can bring proofs of it, the Government may insure them their 
possessions — But for those that have appropriated to them- 
selves the Kings lands contrary to justice, and in opposition 
to orders so often repeated to that end, they may reckon 
themselves as 'having no right to their ill gotten possessions, 
in which a distinction must be made of those who after 
having marked spots of land, have conformable to the order** 
of the Government desisted from improving them, from those 
who contrary to the said orders have persisted on and continued 


their ill gotten Establishments, and others who have even 
gone beyond that, and have seated themselves on the lands, 
marked by those who had desisted according to the foresaid 
orders. If His Majesty therefore will extend his good will 
towards the Inhabitants of this Province, in granting them 
new portions of land besides what they were in possession of 
at their taking the Oath of Allegiance, which confirmed them 
in that possession, 'tis consonant to justice that those who 
have conformed themselves to the orders of his Government, 
may have the preference ; and that those who have disobeyed 
thereto may be treated as their disobedience deserves ; and 
in the mean time it is certain that whatever annual rents they 
may have taxed themselves to, and paid to the King cannot 
give them a just title to an ill gotten possession. It would 
be necessary in order to prepare to remove the difficulties in 
case His Majesty will extend his good will as has been said 
above, it would I say be necessary, that the Deputies with 
the assistance of the Receiver, should send exact lists of the 
Inhabitants who are in the forementioned cases, distinguishing 
them who have grants or deeds of concession that are valid ; 
those who may have lost their deeds and can make it appear 
that they have been in possession of their lands in the time 
of the French Government ; those who have had leave from 
the Government to mark out lands and have conformed to the 
orders given to wait for His Majesty's consent before they 
made improvements on the Lands thus marked ; Those who 
have not conformed to those orders ; and those who have 
gone and seated themselves on lands marked by others, 
wherein must be included those who are on the Rivers of 
Chipody.* If the lists are drawn with exactness and faithful- 
ness and sent here, they may be a means in time to remove a 
great many difpculties. Give a due attention to what is 
expressed in this letter, for, on this depends the Peace and 
the good or ill state in which the Inhabitants may find them- 
selves in time to come. I endeavour in the best manner I 
can possibly do to make you sensible of what may contribute 
to the peace and good order amongst the Inhabitants ; if you- 
do not make that account of it you ought you may in time 
have reason to repent of it. Give your assistance to the 
receiver, that he may receive the rights accruing to the King 
without trouble and communicate this letter to him. It may 
be easily believed that those who have deeds of concession! 

* Cumberland County. 


valid, will not risk their lawful possessions by defrauding ; 
and for those who have no right neither to the produce which 
they have enjoyed which may be required of them at a 
proper season and place. You may assure yourselves that 
as long as you shall behave well I shall be 


Your Friend & Servant 


To the Deputies of Chiconecto ) 
<fec. <fcc. &c. J 

Govr. Mascarene to Mons : de la Ghudalie. 

(Order Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, 16 June 1742. 
Monsieur, — 

I Received your Letter by Grand Pierratt and am Glad 
to hear that you got safe to Menis. Monsr. des Enclaves is 
also arrived here & when Monsr. Laborett is got to Chico- 
necto and Mons. St. Poncy has quitted ye Province which I 
desire may be as soon as possible, the Missionary's will be 
settled according te the Regulation passed in Council wch. 
may be a means to Remove the uneasiness which this last 
Especially has occasioned by his so long Refusing to Comply 
with the orders sent to him. To Prevent any such uneasiness 
for the future it must be remembered that when any of the 
Missionary s who are allowd by the said Regulation causes a 
vacancy by his Death or withdrawing out of the Province, the 
Inhabitts. of that Parish must apply here for leave to send for 
another, and that on such a leave being obtained a new Mis- 
sionary comes in this Provce. he is not to settle himself or 
exercise his function till by Repairing to this place he has ob- 
tained the approbation of the Commander in Chief for the 
time being and of the Council according to the Regulation of 
the Council and is directed from hence to ye Parish appointed 
to him to officiate in. And that no Missionary who is thus 
appointed shall remove to any other Parish without leave first 
obtained from this Govment. This with a Peaceable & good 
behaviour on the part of the Missionarys & their not inter- 
meddling with any Civil affairs but exhortg. the Inhabitants to 
the obedience which they owe as Subjects to His Majesty the 
King of Great Britain and their promoting peace and good 


order in their Parishes, will Establish Ease & quiet whereof an 
opposite conduct will infallibly deprive the Inhabitants of the 
benefit they think they enjoy by having Missionary Priests 
amongst them. I repeat this to you who att your being here 
have heard it often & have ownd the Reasonableness of these 
Regulations I say I repeat this to you, that you may by giv- 
ing notice of it prevent any Priests to come within this Govt, 
without being sent for as mentioned before or settle them- 
selves without approbation or appointment from hence. I found 
you so well dispos'd since I have personally known you dur- 
ing your residence here to conform to those rules established 
for good order & peace that I make no doubt of your con- 
tinuing in the same good intention and that by your example 
& admonitions you will Contribute to keep the Missionarys 
in their Duty to this Govmt. & the Inhabitants in the obedience 
they owe according to the oath they have taken to His Majesty 
the King of Great Britain. I desire you will inquire whether 
the Inhabitants of Menis have purchased of the Indians any of 
the Goods plundered from the New Engd. Vessell belonging to 
Trefry, & particularly of eight or Ten fathoms of Cable 
which were cut off from the anchors left ashore when the Ves- 
sell was carried off which cable must certainly have been cutt 
by some of the Inhabitants near the Place where the anchors 
were left. 

I am with very great esteem 

Your most humble servt 

Monsr. de La Goudalie 
Missionary Priest at Menis 

By His Honour's Command. 

W. Shtreepf, Socty. 

Extracts from a Letter of Gov. Mascarene to His Grace the 
Duke of Newcastle, dated 2Sth June, 1742. 

" The frequent rumours we have had of War being on the 
point of being declared against Prance, have not as yet made 
any alteration in the Temper of the Inhabitants of this Pro- 
vince who appear in a good disposition of keeping to their 
oaths of fidelity, and of submitting to the orders and regula- 
tions of this Government for maintaining Peace, except in the 


matter of settling themselves on the unappropriated lander, 
which irregularity arises from the great increase of their 

u The inclosed papers contain Minutes of CbunciT on the- 
declaration of a Master of a small vessel, who was plundered 
at the upper end of our Bay by some of the roving Indians. 
These minutes and the letters thereunto annexed, will show 
the good disposition of the French Inhabitants and even of 
most of the Indians to maintain the Peace and obviate these 

u The extract of letters expresses the confusion occasioned 
by the disorderly settlement of some families up this Bay, and 
what remedy our present circumstances allow us to afford 
thereto. And the latter part of the said extract shews that 
the Somanish Missionary Priests are- brought to a better 

Governor Mascarene io the Deputies of Chignecto. 

(Order Book.) 

Annapolis Royaltjs, 12 July 1745k 

Messieurs, — 

I received your letter of the 4 July N. S. by the Siew 
Bergerean & read it to ye Council the Marks of yr Submis- 
sion & the sentiments you express in Regard to yow past ill 
Conduct will not be unacceptable provided you do not stop at 
worda only but will shew by your future behaviour that you 
are sincere in what you have expressed therein. Your so 
long persisting in slighting the Orders relating to Monsr.. St 
Poncys withdrawing and many amongst you Settling them- 
selves on the unappropriated lands notwithstanding the many 
repeated orders to the Contrary have left impressions not at 
all in your favour, & which behoves you to endeavour to wipe 
off by Conforming for ye future your actions to the regula- 
tions & orders made for the peace & good order of this Provce. 
As I have endeavourd to make you sensible of ye ease you 
enjoy under His Majesty's Government so I have not faild 
often to remind you of the Danger you may throw yourselves 
in if by continuing in your Disobedience & disorderly beha- 
viour you abuse the patience & forbearance that has been 
shewn to you hitherto. I am willing to hope that you are 
come to a better sense of yr. duty & that you will earnestly 
endeavour to retrieve your past faults by a better conduct for 


the future as you promise in your letter directed to me & 
the Council. It will be requisite as I mentioned to you be- 
fore, that those who have lands granted by the late Signiors, 
but unfortunately have lost their deeds got proofs that may 
be rely'd upon to be laid before me in Council that they may 
thereby obtain surety for their possessions till deeds can be 
given which cannot be till the lands are duly surveyed as I 
have mentioned before, the same for those who had posses- 
sions before His Majesty our King was master of this Pro- 
vince, or before the Inhabitants took the Oaths of Allegiance 
& no orders were given to the Contrary. But for those who 
have taken lands cultivated them & settled on them contrary 
to express orders given & persist in their Unlawfull acquisi- 
tions I must tell them they are in an act of Disobedience & 
ought to expect little or no favour till they return to their 
duty & relinquish what they wrongfully Possess. Grants 
that have been made by Mr. De la Valeire since this Province 
was reducd to ye Crown of great Britain cannot be valid as 
the said Gentleman had withdrawn out of the Province & 
thereby relinquished his right — as for those who have dis- 
putes on their possessions where the titles are lost & can 
bring the Proofs as mentioned above they plead before the 
Council at the usual Sessions which is in answer to the three 
petitions I have received of some of the Inhabitants. I have 
nothing to add at present but to exhort you to do your duty 
as faithfull subjects to his Majesty and to assure you that 
when you do so you shall always find me 

Messieurs, yr. friend <fc servt. 

To the Deputy's of Chiconecto to be 
communicated to the Inhabitants. 

W. Shihreff, Secy. 

Letter from the Bishop of Quebec addressed to Monsieur 

Mascarene Annapolis Royal. 

(Translated from the French.) 

As Mr. De la Goudalio informs me that he is unable alone 
to perform the duties of Grand Vicar in Acadie, and as it 
appears to me important that the people whom you protect 
should have all the assistance they ask for as subjects of his 
Britannic Majesty, I send you the Abbe Miniac a gentleman of 


birth, talent, and experience, who has been for a long time 
Grand Vicar and Archdeacon. 

I shall for my own part be particularly grateful for any 
kindness you may show him, after having made his acquain- 

I am with profound respect, 
Your very humble and obedient servant, 

Registered by command Bishop of Quebec, 

of his honor the president 

W. Shibbeff, Secy. 
Sept 16, 1742. 

Governor Mascarene to the Bishop of Quebec. 

[Translated from the French.] 


I have received the letter which you have done me the 
honor to write to me. Some of the missionaries of the 
Romish Church who have come into this Government have 
caused a great deal of trouble by endeavoring to establish a 
power which is not recognized in the dominions of the King 
of Great Britain and which is repugnant to our laws. This 
government has been obliged therefore to make regulations 
in order to restrain them within necessary limits. These 
regulations are based on the fourteenth article of the peace 
of Utrecht which (while it grants the free exercise of their 
religion to the inhabitants of this province, who by taking the 
oath of allegiance would become subjects of the King of Great 
Britain, and would be entitled to the possession of their 
property) contains the following restricting clause — " So far 
as the laws of Great Britain permit." 

Therefore those who come into this government and who 
presume to exercise any ecclesiastical power of the Romish 
Church, act thereby in opposition to the laws of Great Britain, 
which neither recognise nor permit the exercise of that 
power. It has also been considered necessary by this Gov- 
ernment to declare that no missionary priests shall come into 
this province until they shall have been appointed according 
to the regulations made for that purpose, and that when they 
shall have been thus appointed, they shall conform to the 
prescribed regulations, the design of which is not to restrain 
the people in their public worship but to prevent the coming 
of a greater number of missionaries than that already granted 


to the inhabitants by the indulgence of this government or 
than that settled in tha country when it was reduced under 
the power of the Crown of * Great Britain and at the same time 
to restrain these missionaries within the limits of their duty 
towards this government, whose permission they have to 
discharge the duties of their office. These regulations Sir 
are contained in substance in the enclosed paper in order that 
you may become acquainted with them and thereby prevent 
the trouble which those missionaries will cause, who shall 
come or be sent in opposition to the terms therein expressed — 
an instance of which we have in the case of Messrs Miniac 
and Girard as you may observe by the minute of Council 
which is also enclosed. 

Those even who shall be nominated in conformity to these 
regulations may look forward to the certainty of being ordered 
to leave the Province if they do not act as they ought — by 
giving to the people a good example of obedience to this 
government. I hope Sir that the distinguished reputation 
you enjoy in your Church, will induce you to prevent the 
desolation and ruin which the improper conduct of certain 
missionaries has nearly brought upon the poor inhabitants of 
this province. 

Any other liberty Sir, that you desire to procure for your 
missionaries must be obtained at the court of G. Britain I 
am obliged to act here according to our law and the instruc- 
tions of our court — In everything conformable to these laws 
and these instructions, I shall do my best to show that I havo 
the honour to be, 

With profound respect 
your very humble and obt. servant 


Annapolis Royal 
Dec. 2nd 1742 
To the Bishop of Quebec 

By his honor's command 
Wm Shibreff Secy. 

Gov. Mascarene to Lords of Trade. 

Annapolis Royal 
24th September, 1742. 
Right Honourable 

Having in all my representations mentioned the difficul- 
ties this Government labors under for want of knowing how 


to dispose of the increase of the French Inhabitants ; and as 

these Inhabitants are not qualified to constitute a lower house, 

whereby to form a general Court or Assembly, all transactions 

with them are managed hitherto by messages and letters 

directed to some of them, chosen in the several districts to 

act for the whole. I can therefore not inform your Lordships 

better^ than by enclosing the extracts of letters and answers, 

of the means used to maintain his Majesty's rights and 

authority and prevent the growing disorder, as much as the 

situation we are in can allow of, till new instructions on that 

head can be obtained, which in all my representations for 

these two years and a half past, I have most humbly applied 
f or# ****** 

I am, <fec, 


The Lords Commissioners 
of Trade, &c. <fcc. &c 


(Order Book.) 

Collection of Orders Rules or Regulations in Relation to 
The Missionary Romish Priests in his Britannick Majesty's 
Province of Nova Scotia Extracted from the Council Books 
and Ordered to be here Recorded as by Minute of Council on 
Tuesday the first of March, 174 § : 

Whereas The said Priests have of their own accord Resorted 
hither without acknowledging his Majesty's Sovereignty and 
Jurisdiction in and over this his said Province or paying the 
Least Respect or Obedience to this His Majesty's Government 
and have been Guilty of Sedition and Treachery as in Parti- 
cular Charlemaine, Ignace <fcc. Preferring the authority by 
Which they pretend to be Sent, to that of his Britannick 
Majesty which they have so frequently dispised. 

Ordered that no Priest shall be Permitted into This his 
Majesty's Province But by and with the advice consent and 
approbation first asked and obtained from his Majesty's Gover- 

That if at any time the Inhabitants Belonging to any of the 
Parishes shall want a Priest on account of a vacancy they 
shall be obliged first to Petition this his Majesty's Goverment 
for Leave to have one and Upon Such Leave obtain'd to apply 
where they Please for a Priest. 

That Upon the Priests comeing into this province By virtue 


of the leave obtain'd by the Inhabitants he shall before he 
shall exercise any part of his Priestly fonction present himself 
to the Govr. or Commander-in-Chief and his Majesty's Council 
for Admittance or Approbation. 

That in case any of them thus Admitted shall at any Time 
behave themselves Irregularly and with Cont^npt and disre* 
spect to the rules and orders of this His Majesty's Province 
while they are in it, they may expect to be dismissed the 

That it is agreed upon and expected by the Goverment that 
no Missionary Priest thus admitted shall possess himself of 
nor exercise any part of his Priestly function in any other 
parish than in that for which he was petitioned without the 
Goverment's permission first had and obtained nor is any priest 
so admitted by the Goverment to remove himself from the 
parish allotted to him to another by any authority but by that 
of this Goverment. 

That no Romish Priest of any degree or Denomination shall 
Presume to Exercise any of their Ecclesiasticall Jurisdiction 
within this his Majesty's said Province. 

By order of his Honour the President 

by & With the Advice of the Council 

W. Shibrefp, Secey. 

Governor Mascarene to Secretary of State* 

Annapolis Royal 
3rd December 1742 

My Lord, — 

I have missed no proper opportunity to acquaint Your 
Grace with the transactions here and lately on the 24th Sep- 
tember and 2nd October last, since which I have received a 
letter from the Bishop of Quebec with others from two other 
Priests he has sent into this Province, which, with the 
answers thereunto, and the minute of Council thereon are 
here enclosed. That Bishop pretends to the power of sending 
at pleasure his missionaries into this Government, as pre* 
suming it a part of his diocese and would dignify one or more 
of those with the title of grand Vicars for this Province. As 
this has never been allowed, and would be of bad conse- 
quence, I endeavour in my answer to his letter to make him 


sensible he has no right to it, and in cod sequence of the 
minute of Council, I have ordered the two priests he sent to 
depart the Province. 

I can not answer whether they will obey, and how far in 
such a case, it will be in the power of the Government to 
force them to it. 

The represAitations already made of the nature and incli- 
nations of the Inhabitants, and of the power we have over 
them will show the difficulty this Government labors under 
to enforce the orders given in such cases; but as the yielding 
to that Bishop the power of throwing his Missionaries here at 
pleasure, will be a bar ever to bring these French Inhabitants 
to a due obedience to His Majesty's Government, I have made 
it my constant study to prevent any new Missionaries coming, 
and to keep those I found had been indulged by the former 
Governors and Commanders in Chief into a due regard to 
the Government, and for these twelve months past I have met 
with pretty good success. 

The letters enclosed are in the French language in which 
they were writ, and have been answered, not only as this 
being the last opportunity there is here to write this Winter, 
no time was allowed for translating them and hardly enough 
for transcribing but as it shews I am obliged to make use of 
that language in what Concerns the Inhabitants here who 
understand as yet no other. 

I am &c. 


Gfovr. Mascarene to Alexander Bourg. 

(Order Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, Octobr. 21st 1743. 
Sir — 

Upon the flying Reports of the Savages Behaviour and 
Intention of Causeing Disturbance in the Country, I have in 
Council Advised upon Such means & methods of maintaining 
peace in this Province as I hope will prove effectual, Not- 
withstanding the Troubles that may be Elsewhere. And I 
have sent you the Result of these Consultations Included in 
the Proclamation Herewith sent You which you are to See 
may be Publickly Read in the Severall Districts Within the 
Extent of your Commission after which you are to place the 
ed. Proclamation amongst the Other Records of Your Office 


that Recourse thereunto may be Had as the case at any time 
may Require, So that if the Inhabitants will live in peace and 
have Regard to their True Interest, I doubt not but by Duely 
observeing and Executing the Orders Recommended to them 
that peace will be thereby maintained amongst us Because 
when once the Savages are made Tritely sensible that their 
Depredations will Infalliblv cause the Inhabitants Ruin they 
will be thereby Restraind For I beleive that which Contri- 
butes most to the promoting of these their unwarrantable En- 
terprises is that they think they do thereby Service to the In- 
habitants seeing they find the Inhabitants so much Inclined to 
Receive and Take of their unjust Spoils, which is monstrous. 
We have no News Since I wrote you Last. Gautier is 
Dayly Expected. It will be proper to Signify to the Savages 
that in case war may Ever at any time be Proclaimed Be- 
tween the two Crowns That I shall When it so Happens make 
it Publickly known which when done is not a declareing war 
in this Country Either against the Inhabitants or Savages who 
if they are wise may live in peace in Regard to us, Notwith- 
standing any such Distant Troubles which is what you ought 
to make Both the Inhabitants and Savages fully Comprehend 
for altho' we have not as yet any News of a War Being Pro- 
claimed Between Great Britain & franco Still it is Necessary 
to prepare peoples minds in case any such thing should so 
Happen. I am 


Your friend and Servt. 

To Alexr. Bourg 
Notary &c. at Minas* 

By his Honr. the Presidts Command. 

W. Shirbbpp, Secy. 

Gov. Masearene to M. Goudalie, Priest. 

I am Well satisfied with the assurances you Give me on 
your Side as well as those of the other Missionary's to Act in 
Concert in maintaining the Inhabitants of this Province in 
peace and Tranquility and in their duty towards the Gover- 
ment as the Oath They Have Taken Obliges them to, Mr. 
Laboret is the only one I have a Bad Opinion of and With 
whom I perceive I shall be Obliged to Proceed in such a 


manner as to make him Sensible his Behaviour is no ways 
Agreeable here. What a happiness is it for these Inhabitants 
to have it in their power to Enjoy the Sweets of peace Whilst 
So many others are Afflicted with the scourge of War, and 
how will those answer in this world or in the World to Come 
who by Inoiting these Inhabitants into disorder will naturally 
draw on them the Punishment Due to Rebellious People ! 
My duty to his Majesty in the Post which I am in Obliges me 
to let his Subjects feel the Mildness of his Goverment whilst 
they Render themselves worthy of it besides my Inclinations 
naturally lead me to it wherefore if every one aims at the 
same End we may prevent trouble from approaching Us. I 
called the small Books You sent me Mercurya But find they 
are called Hisstorick Nouvells for the present age which I 
would be glad to have as I already desired the favour of you, 
I shall satisfy Mr. Morrell The Cost he is at Through Your 
hands or by any other means You Think Proper and if he will 
be so good as to Joyn the Mercury Gallaunt to them I shall 
be Under a great obligation to him and You for Your Good- 
ness in procuring them. 

I send you the list of the prisoners & killed and wounded 
in the Last Engagement in Germany it being some satisfaction 
to have an accouut of the fate of Our friends and Relations 
Who suffer in action, We have a particular aocount of this 
action but as they are all in English they would be of no Use 
to You. I Desire you would make my Compliments to Mr. 
Miniac and believe me to be with Real Esteem 

Your most Obedt 

Humble Servt. 

Annapolis Royall, 14 Nov. 1743 

By his, Honor the Presidts Command 
W. Shirreff, Secty. 

Governor Mascarene to Secretary of State* 

Annapolis Royal, 
1 December 1743 

Mt Lord,— 

* * * I beg leave to represent the difficulties 
we shall labour under in case of a rupture with France by 
recapitulating in as brief a manner as I can the substance of 


tay former representations to your Grace with some addition 
in regard to our present condition. 

1st. The Inhabitants of this province except what belongs 
to the two garrisons of Annapolis and Canso are all French 
Roman Catholics who were allowed on their taking the Oaths 
of Allegiance to keep their possessions and enjoy their reli- 
gion. These Inhabitants cannot be depended on for assistance 
in case of a Rupture with France, it is as much as we can 
expect if we can keep them from joining with the enemy or 
being stirred up by them to rebell. To prevent this I have 
used the best means I could since I have had the adminis- 
tration of the affairs of this province especially by making 
them sensible of the advantage and ease they enjoy under 
the British Government, whereby to wean them from their old 
masters, but as to do this effectually a considerable time will 
be required — this province in the meantime is in a worse con- 
dition for defence than the other American Plantations who 
have inhabitants to defend them whilst far from having any 
dependence on ours we are obliged to guard against them. 

2d. Of the two holds we have in this province, Annapolis 
Royal and Canso, the last where four companies are quartered 
and is near to Cape Breton has no other defence than a Block 
house built of Timber by the Contribution of the Fishermen 
who resort there and a few inhabitants settled in that place — 
for the repairs of which the officers have often been obliged 
to contribute, as well as to those of the Huts in which the 
soldiers are quartered. It cannot therefore be expected that 
that place can make any considerable resistance against the 
force the people of Cape Breton may bring against it. As 
for Annapolis Royal, the Fort being built of earth of a sandy 
nature is apt to tumble down in heavy rains or in thaws after 
frosty weather. To prevent this a revestment of Timbers 
has been made use of which soon decaying remedies the evil 
but for a short space of time, so that for these many years 
past there has been only continual patching. The Board of 
Ordnance has sent Engineers and Artificers in order to build 
the Fort with Brick and Stone, but little could be done for 
these two summers past than providing part of the materials 
and making conveniences for landing them, so that when I 
received the above mentioned directions there were several 
breaches of easy access to an enemy, which I immediately 
ordered to be repair'd in which the season has favored us 
beyond Expectation. I shall beg leave of your Grace to make 
two remarks on the rebuilding of this Fort. 


The first, that after the taking of this place, it was judgecf 
that considering the nature of the Inhabitants about us an J 
the compass of the Fort, no less than five hundred men were 
requisite to defend it, which number was accordingly left in' 
Garrison. As the plan agreed to by the Board of Ordnance 
for rebuilding the Fort is to contain the same space of ground/ 
and as the five Companies here consist by Establishment of 
no more than Thirty one private men when complete, the 
number will fall much phort of what is necessary for the 
defence of the Worts in time of War. 

The Second thing I beg leave to remark is that the town 
which consists of two Streets r the one extending along the 
river side and the other along the neck of land the extremities 
whereof are at a quarter of a miles distance from the Fort r 
has no defence against a surprize from the Indians. The 
materials for the new building and the Artificers are lodged 
there, as well as several families belonging to the Garrison 
who for want of conveniency in the Fort, are obliged also te 
quarter there. 

Third, As I was sensible of the many difficulties we should 
here labour under in case of a rupture with France, I writ 
about two years ago the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay 
for assistance in such a case, and tho' what may be expected 
from them may not be too much relied on, yet it has no little 
influence in keeping at least our inhabitants in some awe. * * 

I am &c 


No address. 

Govt. Mascarene to Alexander Bourg, Notary. 

(Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, 27 July 1744. 
Sib, — 

Being Informed That you not only refused to the Inhabi- 
tants of the River Canard a Copy of the Publick Orders of 
Goverment Prohibiting the Exportation of Cattle &c To 
Lewisbourg or any other places for the Supply of the Enemys 
of our master His Britanick Majesty but also as Notary Re- 
fused assisting Those of the Grand Prie and Pisiquid in There 
Association for the preventing all such Abuses By Writeing 
their sd. commendable agreements for Strictly Puting The 
orders of Goverment in Execution, Which giving me an un- 


expected surprise I therefore in Friendship to you Desire You 
may send me your Reasons for sd. Refusall and not giving the 
Deputys of the River Canard a copy of sd. Orders And in 
hope you are not shaken in your Allegiance to our Sovereign 
the King of Great Britain I still subscribe myselfe 


Your friend & Servant, 

To Monsr. Alexr. Bourg, 
Notary at Mines. 

Govr. Mascarene to Lords of Trade. 

Annapolis Royal, 20th Sept. 1744. 

Right Honorable, — 

As it is my Duty, so I humbly think I have neverr 
faiFd laying before your Lordships his Grace the Duke 
of Newcastle & the Secy at war, the true state of this 
his Majesty's Province and Garrison & what we most appre- 
hend in case of a war with France ; & that since the Receipt 
of the Lords of the Regency's circular Letter I had used my 
utmost Endeavours to put the Fort in the best posture of De- 
fence our time & the Circumstances we were in would possi- 
bly permit, & hope your Lordships will pardon the Trouble of 
these frequent & necessary Representations. 

Since 9th June last the Emissarys of the French at Lewis- 
burg have stirr'd up & prevaiPd with the Indians to side with 
them, and accordingly having broke their faith with us, being 
"wholly devoted to the false Tenet of their much more deceit- 
full Priests, came on ye first of July to the number of about 
300 as I have been informed to assault & demand the Fort, 
which was then in a very weak condition for want of materials 
to repair, as well as almost men to defend it ; for the French 
who hitherto had not only furnish 'd us with Timbers, but as- 
sisted us in carrying on the other necessary works, intirely 
left us, by which means they so far gain'd their End as to re- 
tard our fortifying & even to deprive us of Firewood, & con- 
tinued infesting us till the 5th ; that a Reinforcement of 70 
men, upon representation of our state to the Govr. of ye 
Massachusetts arriv'd from that Province, upon which they 
retired to Menis, where they remain'd waiting for news from 
Lewisburg, from whence by way of Bay Avert & Chicanecto, 
some Officers <fc Regular Troops to the number of 200 being; 


landed & having gather'd together several nations of the 
Savages, to about 450 more, as I have been informed, arriv'd at 
the head of our river, amongst whom were also, as it is re- 
ported, some of our Menis Inhabitants, & in two days after 
came nearer to us & never ceased harrassing us both night 
& day. 

We have had two more Reinforcements from the Massa- 
chusetts Governmt. ; the whole they have sent ns being 170 
men, the last are a Company of Rangers under the Command 
of Capt. Gorham, but are too weak to cope with such a 
number of adversarys, who since their Arrival gave out that 
they daily expected a Reinforcement of 250 more, (who for 
ought we know, have join'd them as their fires seem to be 
increas'd) besides a strong Armament by sea, which they 
gave out had also Land forces on Board. This Armament it 
is said to consist of a 70 & a 60 Gun ship with a large 
Schooner with all manner of warlike stores necessary for the 
Reduction of the place, & indeed I must say they are already 
masters of the whole province, except this Port, which I am 
determine to defend to the utmost of my power, had we only 
the common necessarys of Life, which at present are not a 
little wanted, for the lower house of Representatives, tho' 
they have consented to send us men, yet they object against 
the Expence of provisions, pay, arming & Clothing their men, 
who are almost naked, & most without arms, & not having 
above a fortnights provisions, they must enter upon those 
sent for the Regiment or be sent back which will endanger 
.the Garrison. If in this our deplorable state I should, by 
•drawing Bills with the advice of the Officers for the Subsist- 
ence of these auxiliarys, do thereby what may appear irregu- 
lar ; I hope necessity will plead in my behalf, as I have no 
mother views than the publick service by keeping this fort as 
long as I am able with the Officers & men under my command ; 
h& I trust your Lordships will represent the Situation we are 
in, in such a manner to his Majesty as may graciously accept 
*of our best endeavours in maintaining this place to the utmost 
of our ability & power, & the circumstances we are in will 
allow of & that his Majesty may favourably look over the 
mistakes which at this Distance our not knowing how to go 
thro' the proper channells may occasion — I must also acquaint 
your Lordships that Monsr Duvivier, who took Canso & com- 
mands this flying party, hath given it out that he is to remain 
here the winter, with 1200 men & intends, if the Ships before 
mentioned don't arrive, to take us by an assault if we don't 


surrender thro 7 the want of the aforesaid necessarys ; to 
prevent which is my sole motive, thro* the advice of the 
Officers, for keeping the Massachusetts Auxiliary, & to Draw 
as aforesaid, which I hope will meet with approbation, & due 
acceptance ; & as I am told, if the French ships dont come 
this fall, that they will be with us very early in the Spring, 
we live in hopes we shall have the seasonable protection of 
some of his Majesty's ships of war with a reenforcement of 
Troops of a superior force, which is humbly recommended, & 
earnestly Desir'd, by 

Right Honourable 
Yor Lordships most Obdt & hume. Servt 

The Right Honble 

Ye Lords Commissrs 
for Trade & Plants. 

Gov. Mascarene to Lords of Trade. 

RiGBfr Honorable 

Since the foregoing, some of the people who came last 
from New England, having at their Landing & before they 
were thoroughly acquainted with ye place, straggled about 
the Gardens from whence the Enemy has been us'd to annoy 
us they soon brought the French and Indians upon them, & 
thereby a pretty smart Engagement as I was oblig'd to send 
assistance to our men & the Enemy pour'd their partys thick 
on them ; As we had at that time a strong Detachment down 
our Bason to fetch firewood, under cover of the arm'd Brigan- 
tine which convey'd our last Reinforcement, I was loath to let 
the Engagement go too far & order'd pur men to retreat, we 
lost a Sergeant & had a private man slightly wounded ; By 
the Enemy's not advancing <fe ceasing firing, on our men re- 
treating, we have reason to believe the damage we did them 
is not inconsiderable the rather that some of our French In- 
habitants, coming to us for the first time this month past, to 
ask the reason of some of their houses being burnt, which 
happen'd during the time of this last engagement, are since 
return'd to acquaint me that the Enemy was marching up our 
river with an intention as they thought to return to Menis. 

This shews how much the preservation of this place is ow- 
ing to the Reinforcement we have received from the Province 
of the Massachusetts Bay, & how necessary it is to set In- 


dians against Indians ; for tho' our men out do them in Bra- 
very yet being unacquainted with their sculking way of fight- 
ing & Scorning to fight under cover, expose themselves too 
much to the Enemy's shot. * * *• * 

Right Honourable 
Your Lordships 

most Obdt & most humb. Servt. 
Annapolis Royal, P. MASCARENE. 

Sep. 25th 1744. 

M. Du Vivier's order to the inhabitants of Mines, Piziquid r 

River Canard, and Cobequid. 

(Translated from the French.) 

We captain of infantry, commanding the troops detached 
for the enterprise of Port Royal by order of Mr. Du Quenel y 
post captain Knight of the royal and military order of St. 
Louis commanding at Isle Royale and adjacent places, declare 
in the King's name, as follows — 

The inhabitants of Mines comprising the parishes of Grand 
Pr£, River Canard, Piziquid and Cobequid, are ordered to 
acknowledge the obedience they owe to the King of France, 
and in consequence the said parishes are called upon for the 
following supplies : that of Grand Pre, eight horses and two 
men to drive them : that of the River Canard, eight horses 
and two men to drive them: and that of Piziquid, twelve 
horses, and three men to drive them : as also the powder 
horns possessed by the said inhabitants, one only being re- 
served for each house. The whole of the above must be 
brought to me at ten o'clock on Saturday morning at the 
french flag which I have had hoisted, and under which the 
deputies from each of the said parishes shall be assembled, to 
pledge fidelity for themselves and all the inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood who shall not be called away from the labours 
of the harvest. All those for whom the pledge of fidelity 
shall be given will be held fully responsible for said pledge, 
and those T\ho contravene the present order shall be punished 
as rebellious subjects, and delivered into the hands of the 
savages as enemies of the state, as we cannot refuse the 
demand which the savages make for all those who will not 
submit themselves. We enjoin also upon those inhabitants 
who have acknowledged their submission to the King of 
Prance to acquaint us promptly with the names of all who 
wish to screen themselves from the said obedience, in order 



that faithful subjects shall not suffer from any incursions 
which the said savages may make* 

Grand Pr6 

August 27th. 1744. 

[Translated from the French.] 

To M. De Ganne, Knight, Captain of infantry commanding 
the troops and the savages untied, at present in the country. 

We the undersigned humbly representing the inhabit- 
ants of Mines, river Canard, Piziquid, and the surrounding 
rivers, beg that you will be pleased to consider that while 
there would be no difficulty by virtue of the strong force 
which you command, in supplying yourself with the quantity 
of grain and meat that you and M. Du Vivier have ordered, 
it would be quite impossible for us to furnish the quantity 
you demand, or even a smaller, since the harvest has not been 
so good as we hoped it would be, without placing ourselves 
in great peril. 

We hope gentlemen that you will not plunge both ourselves 
and our families into a state of total loss ; and that this con- 
sideration will cause you to withdraw your savages and 
troops from our districts. 

We live under a mild and tranquil government, and we 
have all good reason to be faithful to it. We hope therefore, 
that you will have the goodness not to separate us from it ; 
and that you will grant us the favour not to plunge us into 
litter misery. This we hope from your goodness, assuring 
you that we are with much respect, gentlemen, 

Your very humble and obedient servants — acting for 
the communities above mentioned. 

Mines Oct 10. 1744. 




Mr. Jlex. JBourg, Notary at Mines. 

I am willing gentlemen out of regard for yon to comply 
with your demand. 

Oct. 13. 1744. 

Govt. Mascarene to Frances Belleisle Rctmhau. 

(Letter Book.) 
(Translated from the French.) 

Annapolis Royal, Oct. 13, 1744. 
Madame, — 

When I learned that your father, in the hope of recover- 
ing his 8eigneurial rights, had sided witb those who came to 
attack this fort, I confess I was of opinion that the whole 
family participated in his feelings ; and the more so, as your 
brother was with the first party of savages who came here 
last summer. 

I am agreeably surprised however, and very glad to see by 
your letter that you did not share in those sentiments ; and 
that you have remained true to the obligations which bind 
you to the government of the King of Great Britain, I am un- 
willing that the esteem which I have entertained for you 
should be in any manner lessened. 

With respect to the protection which you ask for your es- 
tablishment on the river St. John, it is out of my power to 
grant it. We can not protect those who trade with our de- 
clared enemies. Therefore you must resolve to remain on 
this side during the continuance of the present troubles, and 
to have no intercourse with the other. Should you come and 
see us here, you will find me disposed to give you all the 
assistance that you can reasonably expect. 

Be assured that I am, 

Your friend and servant, 

Miss Frances Belleisle Robishau. 


Governor Mascarene to Deputies of Mines, Piziquid, and 

River Canard. 

(Letter Book.) 
(Translated from the French.) 

Annapolis Royal, Oct. 13, 1744. 
Gentlemen, — 

I am much pleased to learn by the deputies whom you 
have sent here that the inhabitants in general have remained 
true to the allegiance which they owe to the King of Great 
Britain their legitimate Sovereign, notwithstanding the efforts 
which have been made to cause them to disregard it. You 
have only to recollect what I have so often written to you, to 
perceive that I had partly foreseen what must happen. 

Measures were taken to show the inhabitants the sad effects 
which would have followed their revolt, and it is necesary, in 
order to prevent all the consequences of it r that those who 
are suspected of being implicated in the designs of the enemy, 
vindicate themselves as soon as possible. Amongst the latter 
are those who have been trading to Louisburg — selling, buying 
or transporting cattle or other merchandise for the people of 
this place, as well as those who have employed their vessels 
in the enemy's service or have accompanied them in their 
expeditions, and in general all the private persons who have 
assisted them. Wherefore they must make it appear that it 
was pure violence which compelled them to do this. With 
respect to those who have actually taken up arms, whether 
inhabitants or strangers, the first, being guilty of rebellion 
have no excuse ; and the others must leave the country before 
tranquillity can be restored. For if we shall be obliged to 
send to your neighborhood to drive these strangers away, as 
well as to call to account those who will not come and clear 
themselves from the just suspicions that are entertained con- 
cerning them, those who have done their duty, and for whom 
we have great consideration, must unavoidably share in the 
trouble that military people generally bring with them, and 
which I should like to prevent as much as possible. 

I have not received any deputation from the people of 
Cobequid, but you may inform them of what has been required 
of you, in order that they shall conform to it. 

As to the people of Chicanecto, they are like criminals 
against whom sentence is about to be pronounced ; and, if 
they have any valid excuse to offer, why such sentence should 


be arrested, they would do well to offer it as soon as possible, 
by their deputies. You may make this known to them. I 
send you enclosed a proclamation passed by the council ; also 
a resolution passed by the same with regard to trade, which 
you will have read in public in order that every one shall 
comply with it. It is absolutely necessary for you, in the 
present condition of affairs, to inform me frequently of the 
state of your departments, as too long a delay might prove 
hurtful to you. There are comers and goers enough ; but 
should no opportunity of that kind present itself, you might 
join with the other departments and send an express. My 
feelings towards you are always the same ^ and so long as you 
behave with fidelity towards the King of Great Britain our 
lawful sovereign, and with obedience to his government, you 
will always have in me. 


a good friend and servant 


To the deputies of 

Mines, Piziquid and the river Canard. 

Governor Mascarene to deputies of Chicanedo. 

(Letter Book.) 
(Translated from the Franch.) 

Annapolis Royal Oct. 26. 1744. 
Gentlemen, — 

I send you these lines to inform you that I am in a 
position to execute what I have so often said would happen 
to you, if you failed in the allegiance which you owe to his 
Britannic Majesty. If you wish therefore to avoid the danger 
which threatens you, do as the other departments have done — 
send your deputies, give an account of your conduct, and 
show the submission to which your oath of allegiance to the 
government of the King of Great Britain binds you. In that 
case you shall still have in me a friend and servant. 


The deputies of Chicanecto. 


Extract from a Utter of Gov. Mascarene to the Deputies of 


(Letter Book.) 
(Translated from the French.) 

Before closing I must inform you, that in the petition 
which you have presented to me, you make use of terms 
which require explanation ; for, therein you say " that you will 
adhere to the promise that you have made to take up arms 
neither for nor against the King of Great Britain." I must 
repeat what I have so often told you, that the King of Great 
Britain is your lawful sovereign, by the cession which his 
most Christian Majesty made to him, of the country and of 
the inhabitants who chose to remain here — rendering them- 
selves the subjects of his Britannic Majesty in taking the oath 
of allegiance to him, whereby they were to enjoy their pro- 
perty, and the free exercise of their religion. If in taking this 
oath of allegiance, the government was kind enough to say 
to you, that it would not compel you to take up arms, it was 
out of pure deference, and more than had been stipulated for 
you. In consequence of your oath you owe every obedience 
and every assistance to the King your Sovereign ; and you 
ought to take it as a great favour that he does not compel you 
to take up arms. 

But you owe no assistance, no obedience to any authority 
that does not emanate from his Britannic Majesty ; and you 
have the strongest reason for abstaining from giving any 
assistance to his enemies. 

Reflect well upon this, and upon what I have pointed out to 
you in my preceding letters, in order that you may rectify 
your conduct in those particulars in which you have erred. 

Be assured, that, if you do this, and behave yourselves as 
faithful subjects of the King of Great Britain, you shall have 
in me, 


A friend and Servant. 


Annapolis Royal, Nov. 16, 1744. 

To the deputies of the department of Chicanecto, 
to bo read in public. 


Chvernor Mascarene to Chvernor Shirley. 

Annapolis Royall Deer 1744. 


I have in the course of- this Summer given You an acct. 
of the different states this Garrison has been in butt as I was 
oblig'd to write always in haste, frQm the nature of our busi- 
ness and the dispatch necessary to be given to the Vessells ; 
I could not give you a right notion of our Circumstances. 
The Enemy being now att last withdrawn there is time for 
recollection and therefore I shall give you a larger detail of 
the several Enterprises made against this Place and how they 
have been baffled and att last ended to our advantage. 

On the 18th of May I found a sudden pannick had seiz'd 
the whole lower Town where several Officers and Soldiers 
familys were quarter'd, every body removing their goods to 
the Fort. Upon enquiry I found a rumour nad spread that 
one Morpin a famous commander of a privateer in the last 
Warr, was up our River with five hundred French and 
Indians. Whatever inquiry I could make I could not find the 
author of this report, and tho' We were assur'd the next day 
that this piece of news was false, the impression it had made 
would not however be taken off from most peoples minds. 

The Massachusetts Galley arriv'd soon after with the Chief 
Engeneer and brought us an acct. that by a printed paper 
seen in Boston it appeared Warr was declar'd against France 
tho' the Government there had no orders as yet from Home to 
proclame it. This made several officers take the resolution to 
send their familys to New England and the Galley took accord- 
ingly as many as she would conveniently carry and a little 
while after two Vessells more were freighted with part of 
those remaining and yet we had within this little while above 
seventy women and children left and quarter'd within the 
Compass of the Fort. 

Our Fort as to its Ramparts and Parapets was in a ruinous 
condition, the few materiels we had proper to repair them had 
been iraploy'd in patching the most dangerous Places, upon 
the first notice I had by the Circular letter of their Excellcys. 
the Lords of the Regency. The orders for rebuilding the 
Fort with masonary having made the Old to be for several 
years totally neglected. The Chief Engeneer therefore, till 
he could procure proper materials to repair the old went on 
with the project of the new building, for which stones, Bricks 


& lime had been in part procur'd : butt the news of the taking 
of Canso, and the orders for proclaiming Warr with France, 
made me urge the Engeneer to putt by the project of rebuild- 
ing, and to go in good earnest to the repairs necessary for our 
deffence. The French Inhabitants show'd themselves ready ; 
not only to gett the timber necessary for that kind of work, 
butt to be employ'd in the Repairs, and we had gone on in 
some parts of it when on the 1st of July, the first party of 
Indians consisting of about three hundred came to interrupt 
us. They were no sooner known to be att the upper end of 
the River, butt all the french Inhabitants left us and withdrew 
to their Habitations. 

I had then not a hundred men of the five Companys, Officers 
Included, fitt for duty. The Artificers brought from Old and 
New England tho' most, especially the nrst,have prov'd ready 
on occasion and behav'd with courage and resolution, yet 
could not be expected to be under command in the same 
manner as regular Troops, and some of those from New Eng- 
land declaring they came to Work and not to fight, caus'd a 
backwardness and dispiritedness amongst their fellows. 

In this first onsett of the Indians, we had two men kilPd, 
who contrary to my orders had gone out in some of the gar- 
dens ; and some officers with a number of men who with too 
little precaution went out early in the morning to pull down 
a house in the Governor's grounds according to the orders 
I had given the night before, had like to have been cutt 
off. They all gott in however without hurt. The Enemy 
encourag'd with this success came under cover of some 
Stables and barns to the foot of the Glacis and kept a con- 
tinual fire of small arms, 'till dislodg'd by our Cannon. They 
then went towards the lower town, the extremity whereof is 
above a quarter of a mile from the Fort, and sett fire to the 
houses, which soon gain'd near the Block house situated in 
the middle of the street, butt which by being surrounded with 
garden fences was not without danger of having a share in 
the conflagration. The Sergeant who was with a small guard 
in that Block house att sight of the fire about him sent me 
word of it and desir'd leave to withdraw. As from the Fort 
we were sensible of his danger and I had no immediate means 
to relieve him, I sent him word he might withdraw; But upon 
the proposal of the Engineer to send Mr. How on board the 
Ordnance Tender with some of the Artificers to strengthen 
Her Crew and fall down opposite to the Town and scour the 
street, I sent a detachment under the command of a Captain 


who supported by the cannon of the Tender and Joyn'd by Mf * 
How and the Artificers, replac'd the Guard in the Block 
house, putt the Indians to flight, pulPd up the garden fences 
and sett fire to some houses still remaining too near the block- 
house and thereby affording a cover to the Enemy. I had 
the evening before caus'd to be pull'd down a parcel of hovells 
which by the allowance of former Governrs had been built in • 
a hollow of our Glacis reaching almost to the Parapet of our 
cover way, a dangerous place which long ago I had wanted 
to have filFd up as being from thence the Enemy in former 
times had annoyed us. 

The officers and volunteers amongst whom the Port Major 
and Mr. How returning with the party from the lower town 
propos'd to me to level the Barns and Stables within half 
musquett shot from the Garrison, from whence in the morning 
the Enemy had kept a continual fire and where it was 
expected he would come again and find a constant shelter. 
This Party was in high spirits, I would not baulk them and 
there was no time to call the officers together for their 
opinion and consent. I only desir'd they would spare a house 
on which Captain Daniel had thrown a good deal of expence, 
and which was without musquet shott of the Port, butt this 
has not avaiPd much as the Ennemy has since rifled it and 
our cannon in order to dislodge the Ennemy has pierc'd and 
shatter'd it in many Places. 

The Enemy finding it not easy to aproach our Port kept 
about a mile distance, and gave us no great trouble except in 
stealing some of our Sheep and Cattle. The arrival of the 
Massachusetts Galley with Seventy auxiliaries and a Captain 
& Ensign made this Party of Indians leave us and go up the 
River from whence they proceeded to Manis, one of our 
French Inhabitant Settlements about twenty leagues from this 
Place, where they stay'd till the grand Project hatching att 
Lewisburg would be brought to effect. 

The same Gaily soon after returning brought us forty men 
more with a proportion of officers to form with those come be- 
fore, three Companys. These auxiliaries augmented our num- 
bers butt jcould not be of immediate service, as they came for 
the most part unprovided with arms. Our own had been on 
tryall found for the most part deflective and were putt into 
the hands of the smith for repair. To supply this want I 
ordered out of the Ordnance stores all that could be gott fitt 
for service. With these and our own Arms as they could be 
repair'd I made a shift to arm our own men and our Auxiliaries, 


which was hardly effected, and they lodgM in the Fort, in 
Barracks fitted up with all the dispatch consistent with the 
other Repairs necessary for our Defence when I was informed 
that a Detachment of officers and men from Lewisburg with a 
larger Body of Indians than had come before, amounting in 
all to Six or Seven hundred men were up our River within 
three leagues of us. I made the necessary disposition to 
receive them. After they had rested two days up the River, 
their Journey by Land from Chignecto, where they landed 
from Lewisburg, and from Manis through which they pass'd, 
having been much fatiguing, they march'd down and shew'd 
themselves on the brow of the hill a little more than a mile 
from the Fort, and then pitched their Hutts under cover of it. 
The next morning when they marched down to us under the 
cover of some hedges and fences, with Colours flying, a Gunn 
was pointed att their Colours, and graz'd as we have heard 
Bince between Monsr. Duvivier their Commander and his Bro- 
ther a Lieutenant. They did not then think fitt to proceed 
further, butt soon return'd to their Camp beyond the Mill, and 
choose to come in the night when they could not be much ex- 
posed to our artillery. They came accordingly about the Fort 
keeping a continual fire att our parapets and approaching 
tinder the cover of the hollow, I mentioned, to the edge of the 
Parapet of our cover'd way which is low and has yet no Pal- 
lisadoes round it. This kind of attack kept the whole garrison 
in allarm all night, none being able to sleep when there were 
so many places of our Ramparts of easy access and as the 
whole is revested with firr timber not very hard to be sett on 

It was after several such attacks that Monsr. Duvivier sent 
his Brother with a flagg of truce to deliver me a letter, where- 
in he intimated that he expected a Seventy, a Sixty and a 
Fourty ejunns Shipps, mann'd one third above their compli- 
ment, with a Transport with two hundred and fifty men more 
of regular Troops with Cannon, mortars and other implements 
of warr ; that as he knew we could not resist that Force and 
must then surrender we could expect no other terms than to 
be made prisonners of Warr, butt that out of the esteem and 
regard he had for us if I would enter into articles, in which 
he offered all that could be desirM he would ensure they should 
stand, tho' nothing should be concluded, till the Fleet was in 
the Bassin, and we were sure it was of the strength and pro* 
vided with every thing he mention'd, and that in the mean 
time if our succors arrived the whole should go for nothing, 




adding that as things were he had even a sufficient strength 
with him to take the Fort haviug one hundred and fifty lad- 
ders ready made, with combustible matters <fcc. to force us by 
assault, concluding with a desire that what should pass be- 
tween him and I should go no further till concluded att the 
arrival of the french Shipps. 

After having read the letter by myself, I dismiss'd the 
officer civilly and told him I would send my answer the next 
morning before twelve o'clock, and having detain'd the officers 
whom I calFd together att the reception of the flagg of truce, 
I communicated Mons. Duvivier's letter to them, and the next 
morning my answer to it, containing in substance that we 
were not reduc'd to such straights as to talk of a surrender, 
and that when his fleet should be in our Basin we should consi- 
der what we were to do. The same Officer return'd to fetch 
the answer which I gave to him in presence of the officers 
and dismissed him a la franchise with my compliments to his 
commander. My answer not suiting with his views he sent 
his brother again to desire to see some officer of his acquain- 
tance, proposing in the mean time a truce. This last was 
desir'd on our side to give rest to the officers and men who 
for several nights past had been continually on duty, in which 
I had taken my share, walking our Ramparts most part of the 
night. The officer went and att his return, in presence of all 
the officers of the Garrison he told that Mons. Duvivier 
appear'd in his discourse to have no other design, in what he 
propos'd, than what would be allowed to be for the advantage 
of the Garrison, and that, he said, as nothing was to be con- 
cluded before we were thoroughly sensible of it, we ran no 
risque in accepting of his proposal and that in the mean time 
no hostilities should be committed on either side. 

I found all the officers except three or four very ready to 
accept of the proposal, the dread of being made prisoners of 
warr having no small influence with most. Some things were 
spoke in regard to the- condition of the Fort, the temper of 
our men, the little support or even intelligence we had from 
home with other such as gave me a great deal of uneasiness, 
and as I saw I could not withstand the torrent without endan- 
gering the safety of the Place I gave way to it, reserving to 
my self not to sign any articles without extremity brought 
me to it. Three officers were chosen out of the whole number 

E resent to hear Mons. Duvivier on the purport of his letter, 
utt not to mention anything butt as preliminaries, and before 
I could be brought to give them power to go I desir'd the 

» « 

■ v i 


Officers to sign a representation of the state of the Garrison 
each giving the part that related to the Branch under his 
charge which was accordingly done and the representation 
sign'd by all the Officers of the Garrison. 

The three officers then went and brought a Draught of 
Capitulation from the French commander containing every 
thing we could expect or demand with the restrictions above, 
that is, not to be made good 'till the arrival of their sea force 
as mention'd before, and to go for nothing if our succours 
first arriv'd. I was desir'd and pretty much press'd to sign it, 
butt I absolutely refusM it, and all I could be brought to was 
to allow the commissioners to sign it as preliminaries if they 
thought proper. Butt this not being to the purposs of the 
French Commander, he told the three commissioners that he 
had gone further than he ought, and the Capitulation must be 
signed to him absolutelj r , and that his intention was that the 
whole transaction should have been carried on between him 
and me only and that therefore he could go on no further unless 
we would come to his terms, upon which he produc'd another 
Draught of Capitulation which the three officers absolutely 
refused to bring to me. They then parted and agreed that the 
Truce should continue no longer than the next day att twelve 
o'clock unless I would send to him. This being reportted to 
me, all the officers being present, I shew'd them the French 
officer appeared to have no other intention than to entrapp us 
by sowing division amongst us and after further discourse on 
that head it was unanimously resolv'd to break all parley with 
him and to beginn hostilities att twelve o'clock, which was 
accordingly done on our side by firing two gunns att some 
men drawing too near the Garrison. 

Upon some intimation being given to me that the men were 
uneasy and threatened to seize their officers for parleying too 
long with the Enemy, I was heartily glad to see this spirit 
reviv'd which some officers had told me was entirely depress'd 
in our men. I immediately sent the Fort Major to acquaint 
them with what was past and that all parley being broke off, 
hostilities were agoing to beginn again, to which they ex- 
press' d their assent by three chearfull Huzzas to my great 

The Enemy went on with their nightly attacks and daily 
skirmishes as usual, and became more and more contemptible 
to the Garrison, as we found little more harm accruing to us 
than the disturbance in the night, which I endeavour'd to 
make up for, by keeping as few men as I could for the day 





service, tho* we went on with the works proper for our def- 
fence as opportunity offer'd. 

We had been above three weeks in this scituation when an 
arm'd Brigantine and a Sloop bringing fifty Indians or Rang- 
ers of woods arriv'd from Boston, butt as those before mostly 
without arms. As I could not lodge them in the . Garrison 
there being no barracks fitted up, I was oblig'd to borrow 
arms from amongst our men, there being none in store fitt for 
service, with which I sent them to fetch some fire wood ready 
cutt in the Bassin. Whilst the Rangers supported by the 
Brigantine were on this service and a good many of our men 
unnarnrd on that acct. a wild Indian come with the Rangers 
and left behind, straggled out too farr, was seiz'd and carried 
off by the Ennemy. I sent a party out in hopes to rescue him. 
This brought on a skirmish in which we had a sergeant kilPd 
and a private man wounded, and had some reason to believe 
we had done some Dammage to the Ennemy. I recalPd the 
Party's I had sent out, as a good part of our force in that way 
of fighting and a good part of our arms was down in the 
Bassin. But as in presence of the wild Indian that was taken, 
I had expressed the day before that as soon as the Rangers 
were come from the Bassin I would pay a visit to Mons. Duvi- 
vier in his Camp, I suppose Mons. Duvivier did not care to 
stay for it, for he decampt the next morning in very rainy 
weather marching towards Manis, to which Place he had a 
very wett and fatiguing Journey. The People who Were gone 
for wood being return'd I found the Brigantine had some arms 
to spare. I caus'd the Engeneer and Storekeeper to buy them 
on the office of ordnance's acct. and thereby arm'd these new 
commers. The Brigantine return'd to Boston and carried the 
Chief Engeneer who had a call to New Hampshire to assist 
that Province in Putting itself in a posture of Defence. I 
was sorry att parting with him, as he and his assistant Mr. 
Combrune lodging under my roof were constant company for 
me, and otherwise very assisting to me. The sequel in my 
next. I am, Ac. (Dupplicate.) 

This letter is in the handwriting of Governor Mascarene. 

Govr. Mascarene to 

Annapolis Rotall, Deer. 1744. 


I promised you the Sequel of the French attempts upon 
us and of our transactions here, which is as follows — 


As soon as the French and Indians had left our River the 
Deputies of the Inhabitants came before me in Council and 
represented the dread they had been kept under by the French 
Commander, producing his written orders threatening with 
Death those who should disobey ; They assur'd me however 
that notwithstanding the entreaties and threats of Monsr. 
Duvivier, none of the Inhabitants could be persuaded to take 
up Arms and Joyn the Enemy. They were dismissed with 
some checks for their remissness in their past, and exhorta- 
tions towards their future conduct. A few days after came 
Deputies from Manis, who testified also their having withstood 
the same entreaties and threats and produc'd the same threat- 
ening orders concerning provisions and other assistance 
requir'd from them, as also a representation made by them to 
Mons. Duvivier, on his offering to keep one hundred and fifty 
men with officers at that Place, by which they dissuaded him 
from it and oblig'd him to leave them, and to go to Chignicto. 
The Missionaries also writt to me and made their Conduct 
appear to have been on this occasion farr better than could 
have been expected from them. 

The Deputies from Manig were no sooner dispatch't, than* 
I was acquainted early in the morning by one of the french 
Inhabitants that he had been that night taken out of his bed 
by a party of french and carry'd in the Bassin on board; a* 
Shipp, which he suppos'd to be of fourty or fifty gunns having 
in company a Brigantine of about twenty with Officers and 
Soldiers, which came in the evening before, and took two of 
our Vessells with Stores for the Garrison from Boston, which 
enter'd the Bassin the same tide after them. I calPd the 
Officers together and acquainted them with the information, 
without telling the way I had it, nor the latter part relating 
to our two Vessells being taken, and order'd every one to 
their charge according to the Disposition I had made for our 

The French Commander of this Sea armament finding their 
land force gone did not think themselves strong enough to 
attack us, tho' a Sloop which as I hear'd, had three mortars, 
some canon and other warlike Stores came in the next day. 
After staying three days without doing any thing else than 
taking wood and water they all departed with their two prises 
and once more left us free of Ennemies. I was in no small 
concern for fear one of the Vessells taken by them should be 
freighted with the Provisions I expected from the Contractor 
for the Garrison; but I was taken out of my pain four days 


after the Departure of the French, by the arrival of the 
Massachusetts Galley, Brigantino and Sloop, convoying a 
Schooner loaded with our Provisions. The tryall between 
them and the French if they had Stay'd would have been 
hard, as the Ennemy had a much superior Force, tho' I am 
sure their Commander could neither in conduct or Courage 
have equalPd ours. They had notice att Boston of the French 
sea Armament, butt not a just notion of their Force. Gover* 
nor Shirley who has so vigourously imploy'd himself for our 
relief and to whose indefatiguable endeavours this Place in a 
great measure owes it preservation, had sent this Armament 
not only to Convey our Provisions ; butt also to assist in the 
means of driving the French wholly out of this Province, 
judging, on what I wrote to his Excellency, that they might 
take their winter Quarters att Manis. As by this time I was 
certain they had reinov'd from that Place and gone to Chig* 
nicto, it was thought advisable considering the lateness of 
the Season (November) and the difficulty of navigation for 
such Shipping in that part of the Bay, to postpone the Expe~ 
dition, and in the meantime to send a Small Shalloup with my 
letter to the Inhabitants thereby to know their temper and 
the situation of the Ennemy, whilst the Shipping Stay'd in 
our Bassin to give countenance to my proceedings. Before 
they left us I had the satisfaction to acquaint the Commander 
Captain Tyng, that I had certain information the French were 
gone from that Place back to Lewisbourg, and a few days after 
the Deputies of Chignicto came with a very Submissive letter, 
representing their case pretty near in the same manner as 
.those of Manis, having resisted the entreaties and threats 
Monsr. Dpvivier made them to oblige them to take up arms, 
and having by their Representations contributed to make him 
and his party depart from them. 

Thus were the French with their Clanns of Indians oblig'd 
to leave us att last for this year after making three several 
attempts in which tho' their measures had been well conserted 
att first, yet were baffled att last ; for we have heard since 
that the men of Warr mention'd by Monsr. Duvivier had every 
:thing ready to come to reduce us, butt that on some intelli- 
gence of an English Squadron bound to these Northern parts 
they drop't their Enterprise and sent the Shipping above 

To the Breaking the French measures ; the timely Succours 
receiv'd from the Governor of Massachusetts, and our French 
Inhabitants refusing to take up arms against us, we owe our 


preservation. The first had prepar'd such a Force as in the 
opinion of all, considering the ill condition of this Fort, we 
should not have been able to resist : By the second our men 
were eas'd in the constant Duty the many ruious places in 
our Ramparts requir'd to attend : and if the Inhabitants had 
taken up arms they might have brought three or four thou- 
sand men against us who would have kept us still on harder 
Duty, and by keeping the Enemy for a longer time about us, 
made it impracticable to repair our Breaches or to gett our 
firewood and other things of absolute necessity. 

Another concern of no small importance and under which 
I still labour, is my being obligM to supply with the Provi- 
sions laid in for the five Companys, all the Auxiliaries and 
other additional People for whom Provisions are not laid in 
store, such as Artificers belonging to the office of ordnance 
and others. These have found means since to supply them- 
selves tho' what has been advanc'd to some of them is not yet 
made good to the Stores, by the misfortune happen'd to the 
Vessell which brought it, being one of the two taken in our 
Bassin by the french Shipping. As for the Auxiliaries they 
came victualled only for three months so that from the first of 
October most have had provisions from our Stores and all 
the rest att different periods since. As the Government of 
Massachusetts, who have otherwise been att a great Expense 
for our Relief, may not think themselves oblig'd to answer 
this, nor clothing which it is absolutely necessary to provide 
for their men ; I may find myself oblig'd to engage in that 
Expence, and to answer it give Bills on the Treasury. I hope 
in that case the Governor and you will not be wanting in 
representing the absolute necessity which forces me to 
such a step. 

The Company of Indians or wood Rangers come last from 
Boston have prov'd of great service to this Place, they fell 
soon after their arrival on a family of Indians, kilPd some and 
scatter'd the rest and by their excursions they have kept off 
the Indian Ennemy who in small partys rov'd continually 
about us, which hindred the Inhabitants from supplying of us 
with fire wood, materials and other necessarys we wanted. 
As our regular Troops are not us'd to that way of annoying 
the Enemy, it would be a great advantage to this Place if 
such a Company could be establish'd here in time of Warr,. 
and therefore I desire the Governor may Joyn his Sollicita- 
tion to what may be represented from hence and from the 
Government of Massachusetts for the Establishment of such a 
Company for the service of this Province. 


Our Regimental clothing is not yet arriv'd and our men on 
acct. of the extraordinary fatigue in regard to attending our 
Eepairs and other necessary Dutys are very bare, as are most 
of our Auxiliaries, which has oblig'd me to allow the men as 
the cold season came on to wrapp themselves up in one of 
their Blanketts as they stand Sentry. We impatiently expect, 
tho T the season is farr advanced, some vessells from Boston in 
which I hope will come with the clothing for our men, also some 
and provisions for the auxiliarys, and some letters from Great 
Brittain, for I have butt one dated the 21st of August last 
acquainting me with my being appointed Lieut. Governor of 
this Garrison. 

This letter is also in the handwriting of Governor Mascarene. 

Govt. Mascarene to 

Annapolis Royal, 15th March, 1744-5. 

The foregoing was concluded the latter end of November, 
and a few days after I had the pleasure to see three vessels 
arrive from Boston with Provisions for six months and cloth- 
ing for our auxiliaries, butt none of the latter for our men. 
To make up for that deficiency the Captains had agreed to 
send for Duffills with which were made seven or eight watch- 
coats for each Company to serve the men for a covering whilst 
on Duty, a thing absolutely necessary considering our winters 
here and the ragged condition of our men. I had also prevaiFd 
with the Deputies of the Inhabitants of this River to furnish 
the Engeneer the materials requisite for our Repairs att the 
stated price, which they seem'd to undertake and perform 
chearfully, and tho* the season was farr advanced when the 
Ennemy totally left us, two Bastions have almost entirely been 
revested before the winter satt in, which the old revestments 
being entirely decayed and the Soil with which they are rais'd 
fc meer Sand, would in a little while longer have tumbled down 
and left us all winter naked to the Enemy. The materials 
brought in since by the River, beihg contrary to what gene- 
rally happens, left open since the latter end of January, will 
enable us to revest a Curtain and two flanks remaining still 
very bad, and to pallissadoe our Cover'd way, which is Still all 
open; and the filling up the hollows and esplanading the 
Glacis if the Enemy will allow time for it, will put me in a 
.better condition to receive him, than I was in last year. 


You'll see by the last date above that this is carried to the 
middle of March. The winter has proved milder than gene- 
rally it is here. We have had no Enemy about us and the 
Garrison has been pretty easy, wanting nothing butt their 
clothing which the Watchcoats mention'd before have made 
less Sensible. The French Inhabitants have in general be- 
hav'd well tho' it can not be surprizing the Enemy has crea- 
tures amongst them. I have no news from New England 
since the beginning of last December, nor consequently from 
Great Brittain, other than the letter of the 21st August I 
mention'd before. The winter has not hindered me from Ex- 
cercising our Auxiliaries. ' Their officers left here have tho' 
I am asham'd to say it, shew'd a better disposition to Discip- 
line than Ours. If the French are as good as their Word, they 
are to visit us early this spring and I hope to be able to give 
them a warm reception. I conclude with assuring you that I 
am with great Esteem, 

Your most humble 
and obedient Servant 


At a Council held by order of the Honble. Paul Mascarene 
Esq., President and Commander in Chief, <fcc, at his own 
house, in the fort of Annapolis Royal, on Tuesday the 11th 
December 1744. 

Present — 

His Honour the President, 

William Skene Esq, Erasmus James Philipps Esq, Otho Hamil- 
ton Esq, Edward How Esq, John Handfield Esq, Edward 
Amherst Esq. 
His Honour the President laid before the Board a letter he 
had receiv'd from the inhabitants of Cobequid, brought by two 
Deputies Pierre Terridt and Claude Pectre, sent from that dis- 
trict, who in behalf of their said district, signified their 
having not interfered in the last troubles (none of their in- 
habitants having joined the enemy, nor given them any assist- 
ance but as force obliged them to it) and acknowledging their 
submission and fidelity to his Majesty the King of Great Bri- 
tain, their lawful Sovereign. Being asked by the President 
whether there had not been cattle conveyed to Lewisburg by 
way of Chiconecto and Tadmigouch, they said there had been 


two droves of black cattle and sheep from Menis ; and being- 
asked who drove them, they answered Joseph Le Blanc alias 
Le Maigre and Joseph Dugas ; they were further asked where 
Joseph Dugas was, they answered at Tadmigotish, being come 
from Lewisburg in a shallop. As to the Indians they said 
they were all dispersed, and Mr. De Loutre was at Chipna- 
cady, but they did not know of any number of Indians with 
him ; they were then bid to withdraw, but not to depart, and 
to return on Monday the 17th instant. 

Monday December 17th, 1744. 

Met according to adjournment the same members present. 

His Honour the President acquainted the Board, that by 
the intelligence he had from Minas, that things were pretty 
much in disorder, there being no new Deputies chosen, nor 
answers made to the letter he writ to the old Deputies by 
Peter Allain and Jacque Terriot which he understands is oc- 
casioned by the notary public neglecting to act by reason of 
some check he has received for some past misbehaviour, which 
hitherto he has not cleared himself of to the satisfaction of 
this Board ; and therefore he stops all business on pretence 
of nobody's having any right to transact any public affair but 
himself. It is therefore resolved, that His Honor the Presi- 
dent shall suspend the said Alexander Bourg from the execu- 
tion of his office, as notary public, till farther orders, and to 
appoint in the mean time Benny Le Blanc to execute that 
office. * ***** 


At a Council held by order of the Honble Paul Mascarene 
Esq, President and Commander-in-Chief, <fcc, in the fort of 
Annapolis Royal at his own house on Friday the 21st of 
December 1744. 

Present — 

His Honor the President. 

'William Skene Esq, Erasmus James Philipps Esq, Otho Ham- 
ilton Esq, Edward How Esq, John Handfield Esq, Edward 
Amherst Esq. 

The Deputies of this river having presented a Petition, 
wherein they prayed to be discharged from giving pilots and 
guides to go against the Indian enemy, they were told that 


their Petition contained what might make them appear not 
inclined to assist the Government ; which they answered was 
not their intention, they being always ready except in this 
point, which they desired to be discharged from, and some 
motion being made to return their petition to amend it, they 
were bid to appear on Friday the 28th instant, and then 
adjourned till said day. 

Friday the 28th of December 1744, met according to ad- 
journment, the same members present. 

The Deputies appeared again and being asked for their 

Petition, they said that seeing their demand would not be 

granted, they choose to withdraw it. The Commander in 

Chief repeated to them in substance what he had told them 

before, that it was the custom allowed in all nations when the 

public service required it to take pilots and guides, that he 

could not grant them an exemption from that service, since he 

should not be able to answer it, if the public service should 

suffer by his not giving leave to take pilots and guides when 

they were to be had ; that all he could do, was to leave it to 

their choice either to furnish one when demanded, or that 

such should be pressed when the service should require it. 


At a Council held by order of the Honble. Paul Mascarene, 
Esq., President and Commander in Chief &c, at his own 
house in the fort of Annapolis Royal on Friday the 4th of 
January 1744-5. 


His Honor the President. 

William Skene Esq, Erasmus James Philipps Esq, Otho Hamil- 
ton Esq, Edward How Esq, Edward Amherst Esq. 

His Honour laid before the Board 2 letters he had received 
from the inhabitants of Mines and Pizziquid, acquainting him 
of their having chosen their Deputies according to his orders, 
making many excuses for their not having done it before, and 
promising for the future to pay an exact obedience to the 
orders of the Government. 

Another letter from the inhabitants of Grand Pr6e, river 
Canard and Pizziquid, in conjunction, assuring him of their 
intention to continue faithful subjects to His Majesty King 
George, and having that confidence in him as children towards 


their father, they have a favor to ask, having learnt by indi- 
rect means that several armed vessels were arrived from New 
England, and that they had pressed by violence several inhabi- 
tants of Annapolis Royal to go against the Indians and serve 
them as pilots, and hearing they were coming up the Bay to 
do the same, and to destroy all the inhabitants that had any 
Indian blood in them, and scalp them, that as there was a great 
number of Mulattoes amongst them, who had taken the -Oath, 
and who were allied to the greatest families, it had caused a 
terrible alarm, which made many put themselves on their 
guard, being very much frightened, for which reason all the 
inhabitants being assembled of each district, had sent to him 
to submit themselves to his mercy, and to represent that in 
case they were obliged to make any Sorties or go against the 
Indians, that barbarous and inhuman nation would assassinate 
them every day, while they were at their work and separated 
from one another without being able to have any succour from 
the Government as it was so remote, which they had well fore- 
seen when they reserved in taking the Oath of fidelity a dis- 
pensation from every thing that related to war ; the favor 
therefore that they demand is to know whether the people of 
Boston have a right to force them, and expose them to such 

Another letter from Amand Bugand, inhabitant of Minas, 
giving an account of his voyage to Lewisburg, and being de- 
tained there and afterwards obliged to accompany the French 
in their expedition, acquainting him of the many threatenings 
which has hindered him from coming here as summoned to do, 
being afraid after such great menaces. 

Another from Joseph Le Blanc alias Le Maigre informing 
him that he had done nothing against the King's interest since 
the beginning of the war but by pure force, hoping His 
Honor would not be surpris'd that he did not come (as sum- 
moned) to justify himself, as so many things were falsely im- 
puted to him which made him afraid. 

Another from Alexr. Bourg, containing many excuses for his 
negligence to act in his office. 

The three inhabitants who were chosen by the three dis- 
tricts of the Grand Pre, Pizziquid and river Canard, to bring 
the letter above mentioned, were called in, His Honor there- 
upon signified to them his resolution to give the inhabitants 
his protection, provided they continued steadfast in the pro- 
mises they had made not to do any thing against His Majesty's 
interest, and behaved like faithful subjects to His Majesty 


King George ; and that to prevent any disorders which might 
happen by the New England people's going up the Bay to 
pursue the Indian enemy, he had given positive instructions 
to them not to molest any of the inhabitants who had behaved 
themselves well, and in regard to the notion the inhabitants 
had amongst them that all who had any Indian blood in them 
would be treated as enemies, it was a very great mistake, 
since if that had been the design of the New England armed 
vessels, it might very well be supposed that the inhabitants of 
this river, many of whom have Indian blood in them, and 
some even who live within reach of the cannon, would not he 
suffered to live peaceably as they do, if that ever had been 
resolved upon. 

His Honor further told the three inhabitants that what the 
threo districts had desired to know about the New England 

Eeople making the inhabitants take up arms to pursue the 
adians, and go as guides and pilots to find them out ; the 
first was never intended nor so much as ever thought of, but 
that the latter, of taking pilots and guides from amongst them 
was not in his power to hinder, since it was practiced by all 
nations, and was agreeable to the laws of war ; that therefore 
they must rest satisfied, and whenever they were called upon, 
or forced to go on said service, they were to be faithful to 
them, and not to quit them without leave. 


At a Council held at the place aforesaid, the same Members 
present as on Saturday, May 25th, 1745. 

Five of the Deputies only appearing, His Honor asked them 
why the rest had not also made their appearance, <fcc. To 
which they answered that two were sick, and the other, Law- 
rence Grandyer must have been detained by some impedi- 
ment, having promised to be here, and having been here on 
the Saturday before, being the first time any of the inhabit- 
ants came to the fort since the enemy went away. 

They were then asked concerning the enemy's behaviour 
towards the inhabitants ; to which they answered, it had been 
very harsh, that the enemy coming in the night sent men to 
every house whilst they were buried in sleep, and threatened 
to put any to death that should stir out or come near the fort ; 
that they had been ordered to furnish weekly a certain quan- 
tity of cattle, to bring their carts and teams, the orders being 
most of them on pain of death. 


At a Council held at the aforesaid place the same Members 
present, on Wednesday 19th June 1745. 

One of the Deputies of Pisaquid, Pierre Landry, appeared 
before the Council, and Joseph Le Blanc, in behalf of the 
Grand Pre6, but not a Deputy, with one of the Deputies of 
the river Canards, Joseph Hebert with Melanson not a Deputy, 
and all the Deputies of this river, to whom after the Com- 
mander in Chief had taken notice of some of the districts not 
sending the proper persons they ought to have done, (as being 
no Deputies), represented that it was notorious that there 
were several among them that had been officious towards the 
enemy, and had gone so far as to discover even all the effects 
that belonged to the English, by which means the enemy were 
enabled to possess themselves of these said effects, and by 
giving them intelligence of the circumstances of the garrison, 
and other means whereby the enemy had been encouraged on 
some attempts to the prejudice of the garrison, especially 
surprising some of the Company of Rangers on Goat Island. 

That it besides was known that all the plunder the enemy 
had made by seizing the two schooners which came from 
Boston (the property of His Majesty's British subjects) was 
dispersed and bought up by the inhabitants of Mines ; upon 
which Joseph LeBlanc said that what was bought up by the 
inhabitants of Mines was in order to be returned to the British 
proprietors, as well as the three prisoners they had redeemed 
out of the hands of the enemy, which they offered to bring 
and surrender here. ***** 


At a Council at the place aforesaid the same Members pre 
sent, on Thursday, 27th June, 1745. 

Appeared before the Commander in Chief and His Majesty's 
Council for this Province, Jean Terriot and Jean Potier, Depu- 
ties of Chignecto, bringing a letter signed by several of the 
inhabitants of said place, importing in substance that as they 
prepared themselves according to the orders received last 
fall, to come here the beginning of this year, they were hin- 
dered by the arrival of a detachment of Canadians and Indians, 


Commanded by the Sieur Marin, who forbid them to Come on 
pain of corporal punishment. * 

After several questions on the time of the arrival of said 
Sieur Marin, of his stay amongst them, and that when the 
inhabitants sent to fetch some grain at Mines, they did not 
send advice that the enemy was amongst them, it was enjoined 
by His Honor (with the advice and consent of the Council) to 
the said inhabitants of Chignecto by means of their said Depu- 
ties Jean Terriot and Jean Potier, to discover those amongst 
the inhabitants of the said place, who, contrary to the fidelity 
they owe to the Government, have favoured and assisted the 
enemy in their undertakings, that those who are innocent may 
be acquitted ; that the effects appertaining to His Majesty's 
British subjects seized by the enemy and left amongst the 
said inhabitants, bo returned ; not to suffer any person to 
reside amongst them, but such as by the Oath of fidelity, taken 
by them or their fathers, are become subjects to the King of 
Great Britain ; to make use of all the means in their power, 
to make Monsieur Dugay speedily to quit the country, and to 
send here within a month two Deputies to give notice of the 
state in which the said place of Chignecto shall be at that 
time, and to bring the wife of one of the carpenters of the 
Garrison taken by the enemy, who is now in the hands of one 
of the inhabitants there. 


• From a letter of Messrs. DeBeauharnois and Hocquart to Count DeMaurepas, 

dated at Quebec, 12th September, 1745. 

N. York Col. Documents, Vol. x. 

As regards the disposition of the inhabitants towards us, all, with the excep 
tion of a very small portion, are desirous of returning under the French 
Dominion. Sieur Marin and the officers of his detachment as well as 
the Missionaries have assured us of this; they will not hesitate to take 
up arms as soon as they are themselves at liberty to do so; that is, as 
soon as we shall become masters of Port Royal, or they have powder, and 
other munitions of war, and will be backed by some sedentary troops 
for their protection against the resentment of the English. If, not- 
withstanding this preliminary, any settlers should still be found to hesi- 
tate declaring themselves, all difficulties would be overcome by the employment 
of menaces and force. The reduction of Louisburg has, meanwhile, discon- 
certed them. M. Marin has reported to us that the day he left Fort Royal all 
the inhabitants were overpowered with grief; this arose only from the appre- 
hension of remaining at the disposition of the enemy ; of losing their property, 
•nd of being deprived of their missionaries. The English might probably have 
recourse to such policy, or at least adopt measures to keep them in a strict and 
severe subjection. 

* * * * We liave just explained the conduct the English will probably 
observe towards the Acadians. We cannot imagine that they could entertain 


Extract from a Letter of Governor Paul Mascarene to 

Governor Shirley. 

Annapolis Royal, 6th April 1748. 

At the reduction of this fort, no capitulation was made 
but for the Garrison and the inhabitants of the Banlieue (a 
league round the fort) ; these had leave to withdraw with 
their effects, and to dispose of those they could not carry with 
thein, for the space of two years. The rest of the inhabitants 
all over the Province made terms that winter with the then 
governor Vetch, who received them on their submission, but 
no oath was required of them, except of the inhabitants of the 
banlieue, for the time of the capitulation. In 1714, Mr. 
Nicholson came over governor and commander-in-chief over 
the Province, and proposed to the French inhabitants the 
terms agreed on for them at the treaty of Utrecht, which were 
to keep their possessions, and enjoy the' free exercise of their 
religion, as far as the laws of Great Britain do allow, on their 
becoming subjects to the crown, or to dispose of them, if they 
choose to withdraw, within the space of a twelvemonth. They, 
to a man, chose the last, having great promises made to them 
by two officers, sent here for that purpose from Cape Breton, 
then beginning to be settled by the French. But these not 
sending vessels to fetch away the inhabitants, they remained, 
and though often required to take the oaths of fidelity, they 
constantly refused it. 

Extract from a Letter of Governor Mascarene to Govt. Shirley, 

April, 1748. 

Governor Philipps having formed the council, issued a 
proclamation, summoning the French inhabitants to take the 

the idea of removing those people, in ortier to substitute Englishmen in their 
stead, unless the desertion of the Indians would embolden them to adopt such 
a course, utterly inhuman as it may be. The Acadians have not extended 
their plantations since they have come under English dominion ; their houses 
are wretched wooden boxes, without conveniences, and without ornaments, and 
scarcely containing the most necessary furniture ; but they are extremely covet- 
ous of specie. Since the settlement of lie Royale they have drawn from Louis- 
burg by means of their trade in cattle, and all the other provisions, almost all 
the specie the King annually sent out ; it never makes its appearance again, 
they are particularly careful to conceal it. What object can they have, except 
to secure for themselves a resource for an evil day ? Already many of them 
have caused inquiries to be made whether they could find lands here to settle 
on, and whether they would be admitted to enter on them. We have avoided 
aU answer. 


oath of allegiance on the same terms offered them as before, 
though the time prescribed had so long ago been elapsed. 
But these inhabitants in general still refused it, alledging that 
they had been detained contrary to their desire, which indeed 
was partly true, as General Nicholson had declared that they 
should not depart in vessels being built on English ground, or 
English bottoms, and that it belonged to the French to come 
and fetch them in their own. Governor Philipps wrote home 
for fresh instructions how to act in this emergency applying 
for more forces to prevent the French inhabitants from going 
away in a tumultuous or disorderly manner, or for bringing 
them into a due subjection ; for which he desired if I remem- 
ber right, two regiments besides the four Companies of his 
own, then at Annapolis Royal, with proportionable shipping to 
transport these troops as occasion should require, and this in 
a time of profound peace, and when these inhabitants were 
not above a third of the number they are now increased to. 
In answer he was directed not to use any violent measures, 
but to endeavour to keep the people easy till, at a proper 
time, it might be resolved how to proceed in this case. 

The Governor went home in 1722, and things remained in 
this situation, under the administration of Mr. Doucett, lieu- 
tenant governor of Annapolis Royal, and President for the 
time being over the province, till Mr. Armstrong, having been 
made lieutenant governor over the whole Province, returned 
in 1725, and found means to bring the inhabitants to take the 
Oath to the Government; but on governor Philipps returning 
some years after, these inhabitants complaining that this oath 
had been extorted by undue means, his Excellency brought 
them at last to take it willingly, and the same was tendered, 
and taken, in general, by all the men of competent age, in all 
the settlements of this Province ; the tenor of this Oath is 
inserted in the papers inclosed. The word true being inter- 
preted fidele has made it to be called the oath of fidelity. 

The French inhabitants intending to have a clause, not to 
be obliged to take up arms against the French, which, though 
not inserted, they have always stood was promised to them ; 
and I have heard it owned by those who were at Minas when 
the oath was administered at that place, that such a promise 
was given. 

Their plea with the French, who pressed them to take up 
arms, was their oath, their living easy under the government, 
and their having no complaint to make against it. 

To keep up some form of government among the French 



inhabitants, governor Philipps ordered them to choose a cer- 
tain number amongst them, under the name of deputies, to 
act in behalf of the people, in publishing his orders, and 
making applications when their occasions should require ; 
which was accordingly obeyed. This river, divided into eight 
districts or hamlets, has eight deputies ; the other settlements, 
mostly, four each; in all I reckon twenty-four. They are 
every year newly chosen on the tenth of October, the anni- 
versary of the King's coronation, and of the taking of this fort. 
They are invested with no judiciary power, but are appointed 
often as arbitrators in small cases, where, if any of the par-, 
ties are not satisfied, appeal is made to the governor or Com- 
mander-in-chief and council. 

At a Council held at the place aforesaid, on Friday October 
25th 1745. 

His Honor proposed, that it would be advantageous to this 
Government, if means could be found to suppress the inhabit- 
ants from having anv intercourse with the enemy, by supply- 
ing them with goods or provisions in lieu of their furs, in 
order to effect which, proposed that it might in some measure 
be done by restricting the inhabitants from purchasing more 
goods than is requisite for their own proper and immediate 
use ; and also prohibit the buying and selling of all furs or 
skins, but such as have either been purchased before the war, 
or are killed by the inhabitants, which they should be obliged 
to declare upon Oath before the Deputy Collector, before they 
should dispose of the furs in way of truck or otherways ; and 
that these two clauses should be inserted in the intended 
proclamations ; which upon debate was found for several 
reasons not necessary at this time ; but endeavour to prevent 
as much as possible that no powder, ball, strouds or blancoat- 
ing be disposed of to the French inhabitants, and to enforce 
former orders prohibiting all trade with the enemy. 


Govr. Mascarene to Deputies of Mines. 

(Letter Book.) 

Annapolis Royal, 
28th Oct., 1745. 
Gentlemen, — 

Being inform'd by several people lately arriv'd from yor. 
parts that abt. 11 or 12 Indians had the Boldness to stop them 


& the Liv^e Stock they were bringing hither which is no small 
taiatter of surprize considering yor. force & numbers ; how can 
you expect any assistance or supply of yon wants from hence 
when you so shamefully permit such things to be committed 
amongst you ? Take care you be not ye means of Depriving 
yor. selves of all manner of succour from hence, <fc Draw In- 
evitable Ruin upon yor. selves : for your pretended Cloak of 
fear will not, you may assure yorselves, hold you always Inex- 
cusable ; but rather in such Cases as this witness against you, 
for yor. passive Obedience to the Enemy will appear an actual 
Disrespect to His Britannick Majesty's Governmk to which 
you have Sworn Allegiance. 

You all know I have frequently forewarn'd you of the Evil 
yor. Disobedience may Draw upon you & yor. families, which, 
if you would avoid, remember to do your Duty as faithful! 
•Subjects, & Despise holding any Correspondence with Mr. 
Delatre & ye Indians who have Declared themselves Enemys 
to the Crown & Subjects of Great Britain the Penalty of so 
doing has been frequently told you ; I must also acquaint you 
that I am inform'd there are some among you, that in order to 
come hither with any manner of necessarys, which we here 
want, that you apply for yor, so doing to Priest Deluter for 
his permission as if he was the Governour & Protector of this 
Province : Such Practices being expressly contrary to His 
Majesty's Declaration of War against ye French King & His 
Subjects, at your perils practise any such method, or pay him 
any such Respect : for we here want nothing that may be 
obtainM through any such base & Disrespectfull means ; These 
things I again Recommend to yor. Consideration & strictly 
order & command you to Regulate yourselves accordingly ; & 
I have for yor. further Information of what regards the Public 
affairs in yor. part, herein sent you Inclos'd an Ordr. for Paul 
Beaujeau to deliver to Petr. Allain one of ye Present Deputys 
all the Publick Papers, Orders & Letters of the Government to 
be kept in his the said Allain's Possession for yor. Perusal ; 
Remember therefore ye station you bear in this Governmt. & 
acquit yourselves like Honest men & from time to time advise 
me of what Passeth amongst you, & in so doing you may be 
assur'd you will in ye End serve yourselves. 

I am 

Your Friend 

To ye Deputy's of Menis. 


Govt. Mascarene to the Acadian Deputies. 

(Letter Book.) 

30 August 1748 


If you are capable of Reflection you must needs imagine 
that notwithstanding my Silence upon severall Subjects of late 
entirely contradictory to many General Instrnctions and my 
repeated Orders with my best and Friendly advice to you the 
Deputys and your Respective districts wch, your repeated 
promise of strict Obedience to his Britannick Majesty our 
most Gracious Sovereign do clearly Evidence I say you must 
needs Imagine that I cannot possibly avoid being moved to 
find so small a Correspondence between your words and 
actions wch. may undoubtedly Cause the Sincerity of your 
Promises to be much suspected and consequently render all 
my Endeavours to promote your happiness abortive, and of 
no Effect wch. I once more recommend to your consideration 
to prevent if possible the wofull and Contrary Effects that the 
Contempt and Disobedience of some amongst you will its to 
be feard in Time bring to pass and therefore remember that 
as men will be Judg'd upon the Conformity of their Words 
and actions and that as the latter will be Esteemd the Stan- 
dard that if yours comes to be compared andjustly Weighd 
your fruitless Words and promises will turn Witness against 
you and prove to your Disadvantage. 

By what I have now said you may easily perceive that I 
mean and point at a General Contempt of orders and your 
late Disrespect thereby shown to His Britannick Majesty your 
sole most Gracious Sovereign my Master. 

You may perhaps Fancy that this is all surmise, but if jrou 
do you will only thereby involve yourselves the more into 
inextricable Difficulty's wch. I advise you to Avoid in Time by 
Distinguishing yourselves as you ought. 

I know there are Divisions amongst you and that you live 
as if you were an Independt. State but what will that avail 
either of you while your disputes contribute nothing to the 
Common Weal by strengthning the Hands of this Govmt. 
which you ought to support to lay hold on those Turbulent 
and unruly Disturbers of the peace, Especially such as are 
prescribed and their upholders who perhaps sooner than they 
expect may meet with the same fete. Be not deceiv'd, I 
kuQw perhaps more of these Affairs that you Imagine, not- 
withstanding your Secresy wch. mpy in time prove to your 
eondemnation for, whoever consenteth to and concealeth a 


Thief may be Reckoned with him a partaker and Consequently 
Liable to the Like punishment but ta Descend to a few par- 
ticulars. What can be a greater piece of Contempt than op- 
posing the publishing of the proclamation issued by his Ma- 
jesty's Express command the stopping of my Pakett with one 
therein Enclosed for Chicanecto and throwing the address into 
the fire the Harbouring & Entertaining all those mentiond in 
said Proclamation in Defiance of his Majesty's authority and 
concealing so far as in you lies the Chief and principal abet- 
tors of such a Rebellious Faction does not your concealmt of 
these things bespeak you guilty in consenting to and yeilding 
to their Ways and that you are thereby much greater foes 
than friends to the Govmt. to which you have sworn obedi- 
ence and upon a strict scrutiny may you not in some Respect 
be charged with perjury as well as with Contempt of his Ma- 
jesty's Bounty, if you should tacitly suffer such proceedings 
amongst you and yeild Obedience to that Banditti who are 
surely seeking your ruin as well as their own by involving 
you thus Insensibly in their guilt. 

Let me therefore prevail with you if you have any Love for 
your selves or Regard for your posterity to recollect my Re- 
peated advice and avoid those mischiefs wch. that Banditti 
thro hope of assistance from France are Endeavouring to draw, 
upon you. 

But further why came you either to suffer or Employ Alex.. 
Bourg to act as Notary from which Employ you all know he- 
was some years ago dismissed for his unwarrantable proceed- 
ings in that office, he seems indeed to be cloathed with the 
Heighth of Insolence to assume that title and to pass Deeds 
under that name. I therefore desire to know his Authority 
and that you the Deputies do inform me forthwith by whose 
Commission and Appointment he thus holds that office of 
Notary Publick and that you immediately see that he pays all 
the fines of Alienations and other His Majesty's dues on that 
accot. into the hands of the proper person Reno Le Blanc who 
was chosen by my self and his Majesty's Council to act in 
said office and to receive the fees accordingly; and I further- 
more require you the Deputies that you acquaint the said 
Alex. Bourg that I expect that he will as receivor immediately 
send me a Just & Exact accot. of all His Majesty's Quit Rents 
since he sent me in his first accot. and also Rene L'Blanc of 
all fines of Alienations <fc of Deeds made by him as Notary 
Publick that I may give any Farther Directions thereupon. 

I might hereunto add a further accusation against you and 


the Community in General, nqt only the kind reception & En* 
tertainment you give our Deserters, but your furnishing them 
as also the Indians with Arms Powder & Ball and Cloath'g 
them with your own apparall &c. but having already Commu- 
nicated that by another Way I shall at present conclude with 
a desire that you will duly Consider what I now and have fre- 
quently told you that by an amendment I may have some room 
for subscribing myself 

Messrs, yr„ H. servt. 


Cfovr. Mascarene to Duke of Bedford. 

Annapolis Royal 

&th September, 1748. 
My Lord, — 

# * * # His Majesty's Ship Portmahon stationed here 
went up the Bay to Manis about a month ago with two armed 
Schooners to convoy a Sloop with effects sent by order of 
Governor Shirley from New England to pay off the expenses 
of the detachments of New England Troops quartered at 
Manis in the Winter of the year 1746. There was at that 
settlement a faction composed of those Inhabitants who by 
having appeared too openly in the Enemies interest were 
' exempted from the benefit of a declaration of Governor Shirley 
drawn up pursuant to orders received from home and sent 
to be dispersed amongst the French Inhabitants of this Pro- 
vince. This faction being supported from Canada Encouraged 
and sheltered the Soldiers deserting from this Garrison and 
by the assistance of the roving Indians kept the French Inha- 
bitants up the Bay from paying due obedience to the orders 
of Government, the force sent up especially at this juncture 
when they can not expect succours from Canada or France 
will I hope reduce or disperse this faction and enable those 
who may be well enclined amongst the Inhabitants to reasume 
a proper influence over the rest. 

It will require time and good care to bring these French 
Inhabitants to be good subjects and to wean them of that 
inclination they naturally have for the French interest from 
their ties of consanguinity and religion. 

I am &c. 

The Duke of Bedford 

. Secretary of State, Ac. Ac. 



A Declaration with relation to the French Subjects of His 
Majesty King George Inhabiting Nova 8cotia f sent to the 
Acadian French by Govr. CornwaUis on the formation of 
the Civil Government at Halifax in 1749. 

(Gott. CornwaUis' Letter Book.) 

By His Majesty's Command. 

A Declaration of the Honble. Edward Cornwall© 
Esqr. Captn. Generall and Governor in Chieff in 
and over his Majesties Province of Nova Scotia 
or Accadia in North America. 

Whereas for the better Peopleing this his majesties Pro- 
vince of Nova Scotia and improving and extending the trade 
and Fishery thereof, His majesty lias thought fit to cause 
a considerable number of British subjects to be forthwith 
settled in the said province. In order therefore that his 
majesty's subjects the French Inhabitants of this province 
may give all countenance, assistance and encouragement to 
the said settlers, I doe hereby declare in his majesty's Name 
that his majesty altho. fully sensible that the many indul- 
gences, which, he and his Royall Predecessors have shewn to 
the said inhabitants in allowing them the entirely free exer* 
cise of their Religion and the quiet and peaceable Possession 
of their Lands, have not met with a dutifull Return, but on 
the Contrary divers of the said Inhabitants have openly 
abetted or privately assisted His majesty's Enemies in their 
attempts, by furnishing them with quarters, Provisions and 
Intelligence and concealing their designs from his Majestya 
Governor insomuch that the Enemy more than once appeared 
nnder the walls of Annapolis Royall, before the Garrison had 
any notice of their being within the Province, Yet His 
Majesty being Desireous of showing further marks of his 
Royall Grace to the said Inhabitants in hopes thereby to 
induce them to become for the future true and Loyall Subjects, 
is Graciously pleased to allow that the said inhabitants shall 
continue in the free exercise of their Religion, as far as the 
Laws of Great Brittain doe allow the same as also the peace- 
able possession of such lands as are under their cultivation ; 
Provided that the said Inhabitants do within Three moAths 
from the date of this Declaration take the oaths of Allegiance 
appointed to be taken by the Laws of Great Britain and like- 
wise submit to such Rules and orders as may hereafter be 
thought proper to be made for the maintaining and supporting; 


His MajeBtys Government ; and Provided likewise they doe 
give all possible countenance and assistance to such Persons 
as his Majesty shall think proper to settle in this Province. 

And I doe hereby in his Majesties Name Strictly Charge and 
forbid all Persons whatever from possessing themselves of any 
cultivated land within this Province without a Grant for the 
same under the seall of this Province first had and obtained 
as also that no Person or Persons whatever do Export out of 
this Province to any Foreign Settlement whatever any corn 
cattle or Provisions of any kind without especiall leave for 
that purpose. Given at Chebucto the 14th July 1749. 

Countersigned by order 
of his Excellency 


At a Council holden on board the Beaufort Transport, on 
friday the 14. July 1749. 


His Excellency The Governor 
Paul Mascarene Esqr 
* Edward How Esqr 
John Goreham Esqr 
Benjamin Green Esqr 
John Salisbury Esqr 
Hugh Davidson Esqr. 

His Excellency opend & read His Majesty's Commission & 

Instructions particularly the Instructions relating to His 

Majesty's French Subjects — & the Declaration to be issued by 
His Majesty's Order. 

* Edward How was a member of His Majesty's Council at Annapolis in 
1744. He was with Colonel Noble in the affair at Mines (Horton) in 1747, 
when that officer was surprised and killed by the French under DeRamezay. 
Mr. How was severely wounded and taken prisoner on that occasion, but was 
sent home on his parole, and afterwards exchanged. He came down to Che- 
bucto with Governor Mascarene, and took his place next to him in the Council. 
He was frequently employed in difficult and important negotiations with the 
Indians and the French authorities. He was treacherously and barbarously 
murdered at the instigation of LeLutre, the priest, near Beaubasin in 1751. — 
See letter from Louuburg and one from Capt. CottereU \n subsequent pmges. 

Captain How left a widow, who afterwards made a claim on Government for 
a large sum of money advanced by her husband for the public service. 
Captain Richard U. How, late of the 81st Regt., formerly of Halifax, was one 
• of his descendants. 


Gol. Mascarene read the Oath the French Inhabitants have 
hitherto taken, Copy of which he delivered to His Excellency 
Subscribed by the French Inhabitants ; 

« Je promets & Jure sinc&rement, en foi de Chretien, 

que Je serai entterement fid&le & ob6rai vraiment Sa Majesty 
Le Roi George le Second que Je reconnois pour Le Souverain 
Seigneur de l'Acadie ou nouvelle Ecosse 

Ainsi Dieu me Soit en Aide." 

Col. Mascarene informed the Council that the French pre- 
tended that when they took this Oath it was upon Condition, 
that it shoud be understood that they shoud always be 
exempted from bearing Arms, therefore it was moved to add 
to the Oath this Clause, & Ce Serment Je prens sans reserve. 
But the Council was of opinion, that as no Conditions appear 
in the Oath they have hitherto taken & subscribed, which 
Oath is as strong as any Oath of Allegiance can be. it woud 
only be necessary to let the French know that they must 
take the Oath, without any Conditional Clauses understood or 

any reservation whatever Accordingly three French 

Deputys, viz Jean Melancon, from Canard River 

Claude LeBlanc, from Le Grand Pr6 
Phillipe Melancon from Piziquid 
who were come to wait upon his Excellency were called in, & 
after reading His Majesty's Declaration to them, & the fore- 
said Oath, His Excellency assured them of all manner of 
Protection & Encouragement but informed them He expected 
the Inhabitants woud take the Oath of Allegiance to his 

Majesty in the same manner as all English Subjects do 

The Deputys being asked if they had any thing to offer from 
their several Departments answered, they were only sent to 
pay their Respects to His Excellency & to know what was 
to be their Condition henceforth, & particularly — whether 

they shoud still be allowed their Priests His Excellency 

assured them they shoud always have them provided that no 
Priest shoud officiate within the Province without a License 

first obtained of His Excellency Copys of His Majesty's 

Declaration, & of the Oath were given to the Deputys to issue 
to the Inhabitants, & they were commanded to return within 
a forthnight & to report the Resolutions of their several 

Departments They were also ordered to send to the other 

French Settlements to let them know His Excellency desired 
to see their Deputys as soon as possible. * * * 

Hugh Davidson. 


Minutes of a Council Add on board The Beaufort, on Monday 

the 31st of July 1749. 


His Excellency The Governor 
Peregrine Thomas Hopson Benjamin Green 
Paul Mascarene John Salisbury 

Robert Ellison Hugh Davidson \- Esqrs. 

James Francis Mercer William Steel 

*Capt. Gorham 

His Excellency nominated John Horseman, Lieutenant 
Colonel of Col. Warburton's Regiment of Footy & Charles 
Lawrence, Major, members of His Majesty's Council, & admin- 
istered to them their Usual Oaths. 

Deputys from the several French Districts having arrived 
the 29th according to Orders from His Excellency, viz. 

Alexander Habert ) r , i. 

Joseph Dugad \ from Annapolis 

Claude Le Blanc V from La Grand Pr& 

Jean Melancon j- Riviere de Canard 

Baptiste Gaillard i p- • *j 

Pierre Landry \ ^ 

Pierre Gotrau V Cobequid 

Pierre Doucet ) nu - , 

Francois Bonrg } Chinecto 

Alexr. Brossart }~ Cbippodre 

They were called in before the Council & asked what 
resolutions The French Inhabitants had taken in Consequence 
of His Majesty's Declaration. 

Jean Melancons deliverd to His Excellency a letter where- 
in he said was contain'd their Answer. 

* Colonel John Gorham was a native of the Province of Massachusetts. In 
1745 he was stationed in command of a party of provincial troops at Annapolis, 
which place being threatened by the enemy, he was sent to Boston to raise 
troops for its defence. While there he was induced to join the expedition then 
fitting out against Cape Breton. He was appointed Lt. Colonel ol his father's 
regiment, and, on the death of his father at Louisburg, was promoted by Genl. 
Pepperell to be full Colonel. In one of his letters to Sir William Pepperell, 
he than k s him for the appointment, and requests a letter of recommendation to 
assist him in carrying through his memorial, then before the Massachusetts 
Legislature, to be reimbursed lor outlays made by him In the public service. 
Colonel Gorham returned to Annapolis after the capture of Louisburg, and was 
placed by Governor Shirley in command ot the Boston troops sent to Minas 
with Colonel Noble ; but was not present at the engagement with the French at 
Grandpre, where Noble was killed. He afterwards had command of a com- 
pany of Rangers, composed of Indians, raised in New England for service in 
Acadia. Mr. Gorham came from Annapolis with his Rangers to Chebucte 
in 1749. It is probable that he was one of the five members of the Council 


Which Letter being read in French & English, the Council 
was of opinion that with regard to their Priests & religion, 
They might be assured of the Free & public Exercise of their 
Religion, & of being allowed a sufficient number of Priests, 

Erovided that no Priest shall presume to officiate without 
licence first obtained of the Governor or Commander in 
Chief of the Province, & without taking the Oath of Alle- 
giance to His Majesty. With regard to the second Article in 
their letter demanding an exemption from bearing Arms in 
time of War, It was the unanimous Opinion of the Council 
that no Exception should be granted them, but that they 
should be told peremptorily That they must take the Oath of 
Allegiance as offerd them, For that His Majesty would allow 
none to possess Lands in His Territorys whose Allegiance & 
Assistance in case of need could not be depended on. And 
That such as should behave as true Subjects ought to do will 
be supported encouraged & protected equaly with the Rest 
of His Majesty's Subjects. That His Excellency will send 
Persons as soon as possible to the French Districts viz, to 
Annapolis River, to the Grand Pr6 & to Chinecto, to adminis- 
ter to the Inhabitants the Oath of Allegiance. And that all 
such as are willing to continue in the possession of their 
Lands &c & to be faithful Subjects to His Majesty must ap- 
pear & take the Oath before the J| of October which will 
be the last day allowed them. That in the mean time His 
Excellency had appointed two ot the Council at Chebucto, & 
the Lieutenant Governor or Officer commanding at Annapolis 
Royal to administer the Oath to such as shall chuse to come to 
either of these Places. 

Ordered, That a Declaration of this Tenour be drawn up 
& presented to the Council to morrow. 

Hugh Davidson. 

who accompanied Governor Mascarene to Chebucto, having been assigned by 
Cornwalli8 a place at the board, above those gentlemen who came from Eng- 
land. This is, however, uncertain, as there is no list of the names of the Coun- 
cillors between 1745 and 1749 to be found in the Annapolis records. Mr. 
Gorham is styled captain, in the Council Books, and several commissions from 
Cornwallis were addressed to him by that title. That of colonel was provincial 
rank only. Governor Mascarene mentions, in his last letter to the Plantation 
Office in 1748, a proposition of Captain Gorham to settle a number of families 
from New England on a tract of land to be laid out to him, on the eastern 
coast of the province. He does not appear-to have remained long in the pro- 
vince; it is probable he retuYnjed to^irnome in New England, as his name 
does not appear on the Council Boolcs after 1752. His brother, Joseph Gorham, 
held the rank of Lieut. Col. in the regular army. — N* S. Documents; Marshall's 
Life of Pepperell; iV. Y. Col. Documents, $c. 


At a Council held on board the Beaufort on Tuesday the 
1st of August 1749— 


His Excellency The Governor,- 

Peregrine Thomas Hopson Charles Lawrence " 

Paul Mascarene John Gorham 

John Horseman Benjamin Green 

Robert Ellison John Salisbury 

James Fr. Mercer * Hugh Davidson 

William Steele 


The Declaration orderd yesterday was read before the 
Council & approved of, & orderd to be read to the French 
Deputys & Copys of it to be delivered to each of the Deputy s 
for their several Districts. 

Accordingly the Deputys being called in the Declaration 
was read to them. They asked whether if they had a mind 
to evacuate their Lands, they woud have leave to sell their 
Lands & Effects. His Excellency answered, that by the 
Treaty of Utrecht there was one Year allowed them from the 
Surrender of the Province wherein the French Inhabitants 
might have sold their Effects, but that at present Those that 
shoud chuse to retire rather than be true Subjects to the King 
coud not be allowed to sell or carry off any thing. 

The Deputys beg'd leave to return to their Departments & 
consult with the Inhabitants. Upon which they were warned 
that whoever shoud not have taken the Oath of Allegiance 
before the ££ of Octr. shoud forfeit all their possessions & 
rights in this Province. They then asked leave to go to the 
French Governors & see what Conditions might be offerd 
them. His Excellency's Answer was, That whoever Shoud 
leave this Province without taking the Oath of Allegiance 
Shoud immediately forfeit all their Rights. 

The Council proposed to His Excellency to order all the 
Priee ts to come to Chebucto as soon as possible. Accordingly 
the Secretary was orderd to write to Messrs. Denclaves, 
Chevreuil & Gerard to repair hither. 

Hugh Davidson. 

* Colonels Hopson, Ellison, Horseman, and Mercer, came from Louisburg 
with the army in July, 1749. 


[Translated from the French.] 

In the King's Name. 

A Declaration of His Excellency Edward Cornwallis, Cap* 
tain General, Governor in Chief, and Vice Admiral in me 
King 1 8 province of Nova Scotia or Acadie, Colonel in His 
Majesty's Service, and Gfentleman of his chamber. 

Having received by the deputies, a letter from the French 
inhabitants of this province, dated August 1st, newstyle, in 
which they ask us to grant them priests, and the free and 
public exercise of their religion, and also that they shall not 
be obliged to take up arms in case of war, even should the 
province be attacked. 

We, Edward Cornwallis, Captain General, Governor in 
Chief, &c. <fcc. by and with the advice of the Council, publish 
and declare, that, provided the said inhabitants be and con- 
tinue faithful subjects of the King of Great Britain, we will 
grant them priests and the free and public exercise of their 
religion; provided always that no priest shall presume to 
officiate, without having obtained permission from the Gover- 
nor or commander in Chief of the province, , and without 
having taken the oath of allegiance to the King. 

We hereby give notice by order and in the name of the 
King, that His Majesty is not willing that any of his subjects, 
who enjoy the privileges and advantages of his Government, 
and who possess habitations and lands in this province, shall 
be exempted from an entire allegiance or from the natural ob- 
ligation to defend themselves, their habitations, their lands, 
and the government under which they enjoy so many advan- 

Accordingly, in order to execute the orders of his Majesty, 
we will send, at the earliest opportunity, some officers of the 
King to the French settlements, viz. to the Annapolis River, 
to Grand Pr6, and to Chicanecto who shall administer the oath 
of allegiance to the said French inhabitants ; and we com- 
mand all those who wish to enjoy their possessions under the 
happy government of his Majesty, to present themselves in 
order to take the oath of allegiance before the J£ October, 
which will be the last day granted by us. 

Until we can send persons to those settlements, we have 
named two members of Council at Chebucto, and the Lieu- 
tenant Governor or officer commanding at Annapolis Royal, to 
administer the oath to the inhabitants who shall present them- 
selves at those places. 


We declare at the same time, and promise by order and in 
His Majesty's name, that all those who shall take the oath of 
allegiance, and who, in consequence of that, shall continue 
faithful and good subjects of the King of Great Britain, shall 
enjoy the same privileges equally with the subjects of his 
Majesty, and shall be aided, assisted, and protected against all 
those who may endeavour to molest them. 

Given at the Port of Chebucto, in the 
23rd year of the reign of his Ma- 
jesty, August 1st, N. S., 1749. 


It is His Excellency's order that this decree be published 
in each department as soon as possible, that no person may 
pretend ignorance of the same. 

C. S. 
Hugh Davidson. 

At a Council held on board the Beaufort on Wednesday the 
6th of Sept. 1749. 


His Excellency the Governor 

John Horseman John Salusbury \ 

Charles Lawrence Hugh Davidson > Esqrs. 

Benj. Green Wm. Steele j 

Deputies from the French districts presented the following 
letter from the French inhabitants signed by one thousand 

(Translated from the French.) 

To his Excellency Edward Cornwallis, Captain Genera], 
Governor in Chief, and vice Admiral in the King's 
Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie, Colonel in the 
service of His Majesty, and Gentleman of his 

We cannot sufficiently thank your Excellency, for all the 
kindness you were good enough to show us on your arrival, 
whether in the gracious reception you gave our deputies, or 
in the term of three months which you have given us, to con- 
sider the course we are to pursue, with respect to the oath 


which His Majesty requires of us. We are very contrite, Sir, 
Avhen we consider the privileges which were granted to us by 
General Philipps, after we had taken the oath of allegiance to 
his Majesty ; which said Mr. Philipps secured to us the full 
enjoyment of our property, and the free exercise of our relk 
gion, in giving us as many priests as We required. 

Two years ago also, His Majesty was pleased to grant us 
letters, in which he grants us the enjoyment of our property. 
We have received all these promises as coming from his 
Majesty. We have encouragingly relied upon them ; and 
have rendered service to the Government of his Majesty, 
never having had the wish to violate our oath. We believe, 
Your Excellency, that if His Majesty had been informed of 
our conduct towards His Majesty's government, he would not 
propose to us an oath which, if taken, would at any moment 
expose our lives to great peril from the savage nations, who 
have reproached us in a strange manner, as to the oath we 
have taken to His Majesty. This one binding us still more 
strictly, we should assuredly become the victims of their bar- 
barous cruelty. 

The inhabitants in general, Sir, over the whole extent of 
this country, have resolved not to take the oath which Your 
Excellency requires of us ; but if Your Excellency will grant 
us our old oath which was given at Mines to Mr. Richard 
Philipps, with an exemption for ourselves and for our heirs 
from taking up arms, we will accept it. 

But if Your Excellency is not disposed to grant us what we 
take the liberty of asking, we are resolved, every one of us, 
to leave the country. 

We take the liberty, Sir, one and all, to beg Your Excellency 
to tell us whether or not His Majesty has annulled the oath 
given by us to General Philipps. What causes us all very 
great pain, is the fact that the English wish to live amongst 
us. This is the general sentiment of the undersigned inhabi- 

Thereupon, we hope, Sir, that you will take notice of our 
humble supplications, and that Your Excellency will allow 
yourself to be moved by our miseries, and we, on our part, 
will exert ourselves to the utmost in praying to God for the 
preservation of your person. 

This letter having been read and considered in Council, His 
Excellency made them the following answer. 


(Translated from the French.) 

Gentlemen, — 

We have cause to be much astonished at your conduct. 
ThiB is the third time that you have come here from your 
departments, and you do nothing but repeat the same story 
without the least change. To-day you present us a letter 
signed by a thousand persons, in which you declare openly 
that you will be the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, only 
on such and such conditions. It appears to me that you think 
yourselves independent of any government ; and you wish to 
treat with the King as if you were so. 

But you ought to know, that, from the end of the year 
stipulated in the treaty of Utrecht for the evacnation of the 
country, those who chose to remain in the province became 
at once the subjects of the King of Great Britain. 

The treaty declares them such The King of Prance 

declares, in the treaty, that all the French who shall remain 
in these provinces, shall be the subjects of His Majesty. 

It would be contrary to common sense, also, to suppose 
that one can remain in a province, and possess houses and 
lands there, without being subject to the Sovereign of that 

Therefore, Gentlemen, you deceive yourselves if you think 
that you are at liberty to choose whether you will be subject 
to the King or no. From the year 1714, that no longer 
depended upon you. From that moment, you be.came subject 
to the laws of Great Britain, and were placed precisely upon 
the same footing as the other Catholic subjects of His 

Being then undoubtedly the subjects of his Britannic 
Majesty, you ought to have taken the oath of Allegiance to 
your king the moment you were required to do so. You 
have always refused, Gentlemen, to take this oath without an 
unexpressed reservation. You tell me that General Philipps 

S -anted you the reservation which you demand; and I tell you, 
entlemen, that the General who granted you such reserva- 
tions, did not do his duty. I ten you further, Gentlemen, 
that this oath has never in the slightest degree lessened your 
obligations to act always and in all circumstances, as a subject 
ought to act, according to the laws of God and of your King. 
Gentlemen, you allow yourselves to be led away by people 
who find it to their interest to lead you astray. They have 
made you imagine it is only your oath which binds you to 


the English. They deceive you. It is not the oath which a 
King administers to his subjects that makes them subjects. 
The oath supposes that they are so already. The oath is 
nothing but a very sacred bond of the fidelity of those who 
take it. It is only out of pity to your situation, and to your 
inexperience in the affairs of government, that we condescend 
to reason with you; otherwise, Gentlemen, the question would 
not be reasoning, but commanding and being obeyed. His 
Majesty himself, in his printed declaration, has guaranteed to 
you your possessions and your religion. Just think of what 
you are doing on your part. You talk a great deal of the 
services you have rendered to the government since my 
arrival in the province. What proofs have you given of your 
attachment and your zeal for your king. 

I should be delighted to be able to say to his majesty that 
you are acting as good subjects, and that you have done all 
in your power to assist this colony. If, instead of your fre- 
quent consultatipns — your messages to the French governors — 
your letters signed by a thousand persons, you had sent me a 
hundred of your inhabitants to work in the service of his 
majesty, you would have done much better, and would have 
found it very much to your advantage. Gentlemen, you have 
been for more than thirty-four years past, the subjects of the 
king of Great Britain, and you have had the full enjoyment of 
your possessions and your religion. Show now that you are 
grateful for these favors, and ready to serve your king when 
your services are required. On your return you will find a 
detachment of his Britannic majesty's troops at Mines. I 
have sent them for your protection. When I hear from them, 
I hope to hear that you have aided and assisted them as much 
as you could. I have ordered them to pay for everything in 
ready money, or in certificates which I shall cash immediately 
at sight. 

Manage to let me have here in ten days, fifty of your inha- 
bitants whom I shall employ in assisting the poor to build 
their houses, to shelter them from the bad weather. They 
shall be paid in ready money, and fed on the king's provisions. 

Extract from a letter of Oov. Corntivattis to the Board of Trade, 

dated Chebucto. llth Sept., 1749. 

# # # # The frcnch deputies have been here with us 
this week ; they came as they said with their final answer j 


your Lordships will see from the enclosed Copy of their Let- 
ter which was signed by a thousand Inhabitants, that they 
are, or say they are, resolved to retire, rather than take the 
Oath of Allegiance. As I am sure they will not leave their 
Habitations this season when the letter was read to the Coun- 
cil in their presence, I made them answer without changing 
any thing of my former Declaration, or saying one Word about 
it. My view is to make them as useful as possible to His Ma» 
jesty while they do stay. If, afterwards, they are still obsti- 
nate, and refuse the Oath, I shall receive in Spring His Majes- 
ty's further Instructions from your Lordships. As they stayed 
to have copies of my answer in writing, I saw them in the 
afternoon by myself, and exorted them to be faithftil to His 
Majesty, to renounce all connection with Prance, and give all 
the assistance in their power to this Colony, as what must 
turn out greatly for their interest. They went home in good 
humour promising great things. 

At a Council held in the Governor's Apartment on Sunday 
Octr 22. 1749— 


His Excellency The Governor 

John Horseman John Salusbury \ 

Charles Lawrance Hugh Davidson > Esqrs 

Benj. Green Will. Steel ) 

His Excellency informed the Council that the French 
Deputys were come to acquaint him of the Election of new 
Deputys for the ensuing Year & to present them for his 
Approbation, & to give them an opportunity of making their 
Submission, as well for themselves as for those of the more 

distant districts who could not come so soon It was observed 

in Council that it was not altogether regular for men to have 
any Office, whatever in any of nis Majesty's Dominions, with- 
out taking the Usual Oaths. Yet considering that these 
Deputys are without Authority or Power. & in no ways to be 
looked upon as Magistrates, & in the present State of that 
part of the Province they may be useful. The Council was 
unanimously of Opinion to continue the Custom as formerly 
until some Regulations coud be made & Magistrates appoint- 
ed for those Parts. Accordingly they were ordered to be 
brought in. 



(Translated from the French.) 

Halifax, Dec. 13, 1749. 

^Ttiis day appeared before me Hugh Davidson, member of 
Ins Britannic Majesty's Council for the province of Nova 
Scotia or Acadie. Honore Gautrol residing at Grand Pr£, 
•who swore upon the Gospel, that the undernamed inhabitants 
were with the savages, when they came, and attacked the fort 
•of Captain Handheld, that they carried arms with the savages 
and assisted them in everyway. 

Joseph Clement 
Charles Hebert 
Francois Le Prienco 
"Claude Le Prience 
M. La Gorne 
CI. La Gorne 
Petit Jean la Gorne 
Renauchon Ancoin 
Joseph Vincent 
J?ran<jois La Vache 
Charles La Got ne (Junr.) 

AH residents of the river Gembert at Pizziquii 

Sworn to before me 

Hugh Davidson. 

'(Translated from the French*) 

By his Excellency Edward CornwallIS, Captain Gene- 
ral, Governor in Chief and V"ice Admiral of Nova 
Scotia or Acadie, Colonel in the service of his 
Britannic Majesty and Gentleman of his Chamber. 

Whereas we are informed that certain subjects of his Bri- 
tannic Msyesty, living at Pitfiquid, did join themselves to the 
Savages, take up arms and assist them recently when they 
♦came and attacked the fort of Captain Handfield, we have sent 
CJaptain Gorham, member of his Britannic Majesty's Council, 
to seize said rebellious inhabitants and to bring them here that 
they may undergo their trial according to law. 

Given at Halifax the 23rd day 
of December, 1749. 



(Order Book.) 

By His Excellency Edward Cornwallis,- Captain 
General, and Governor in Chief, in and 
[L.S.] over bis Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia 
or Accadia. 

To Captain Sx&vanus Cobb, — 

Having certain information that one LeLontre* a French 
Priest at Chiriecto is the author and adviser of all the disturb- 
ances the Indians have made in this Province, and that it is 
he, as their chief, excites, directs and instructs them and 
provides them from Canada with arms, amnnition and every 
thing necessary for their Purpose. 

You are hereby ordered to apprehend the said Priest Le 
Loutre, wherever he may be found, and deliver him up to me 
at Halifax or into any English Port where he may be secured, 
that he may answer the crimes laid to his charge* 

As all the Inhabitants of Chinecto, thro' his instigation, 
have harbored and assisted the Indians, and have never 
given the least Intelligence to the Government, forgetting 

* Louis Joseph De la Loutre was sent to Canada, by the Society of Foreign 
Missions at Paris, in the year 1737. We find kirn acting as Missionary to the 
Micmac Indians in Nova Scotia, as early as 1740-1, — Governor Mascarene 
having addressed a, letter to him in January of that year. He was a most 
determined enemy of British Authority in Acadia, and continued to act in con- 
Junction with Father Germain and others, as emissary and correspondent of the 
French Governors at Quebec, until his departure from the country in 17&5. He 
appears to have been constantly engaged in instigating the Savages to acts of 
hostility against Mr. Mascarene's Government. In 1743-4, he headed a body 
of Abenaqui Indians in an attack on the fort of Annapolis Royal, " treacher- 
ously surprising and killing all the English whom he caught without the fort, 
destroying their cattle, and burning their houses," until prevented by the arri- 
val of a reinforcement to the relief of the Garrison.— Mascwrenfs Utter t* 
Secretary of State. 

He wentio Canada in the summer of 1745 and returned to his mission in Sep- 
tember, having first visited the River St. John to incite the Indians there to 
'-hostilities. About this time he , received directions from the Government of 
.Canada, to communicate with the French fleet, then off the const of Gcadia, by 
signals furnished him. Despatches from the commander of the fleet were on 
.that occasion entrusted to his care. Large sums of money, fire arms, am- 
munition, and other supplies were frequently furnished him by the French Go- 
vernment, for distribution among the Indians and Acadian French Inhabitants. 
His principal residence was at Missiquash, near Fort Lawrence, in Cumber' 
^and, from which he was in the habit of proceeding down the Bay, and by the 
river Shubenacadie to Cbebueto, where he communicated with Due D'AnrviUe's 
fleet which toe* refuge there in 1746.— JV. F. Paris Doc. 

In March, 1746, by means of his Indians, he intercepted the letters of the 
Governor of Louisburg to Governor Mascarene at Annapolis, and sent them 
$o Quebec; and, in July following, he assisted the officers of a French Frigate, 


every duty they owe their Sovereign; Yon are hereby ordered 
to seize and secure as many of the Inhabitants as you can, or 
in case they quit their houses upon your approach, you are 
to seize and secure as many of their Wives and Children as 
you think proper, and deliver them to the first English Fort 
you shall come to, to remain as Hostages of their better beha- 
viour. You will likewise search their Houses, and the House 
of the Priest Le Loutre for papers, arms or amunition and 
Warlike Stores of any kind, which you will take or destroy ; 
and for so doing and executing everything contained in these 
orders, this shall be to you and all others concerned, a suffi- 
cient warrant. 

Given under my Hand & Seal at Halifax 
the 13th of January 1749. 

By His Excellency's Command. 
Hugh Davidson. 

At a Council held at the Governor's on Monday the 5th of." 
March 1749-50. 

then on the coast of Acadia, in the capture of several small vessels laden with , 
supplies and provisions for the British forces. The same summer he devised a 
plan for laying siege to Annapolis Royal, and we find him conferring with De • 
Kamezay and others on that subject. 

He held the office of Vicar General of Acadia, under the Bishop of Quebec, 
a copy of whose letter, remonstrating with him on his departure from his 
•acred functions, is etill extant. By means of his office, he contrived to obtain* 
an influence over Daudin, Germain, Manach, (or Miniac) and other priests, who< 
became his agents in reducing the Acadians and Indians to the most abject « 
submission; and even over the French Canadian commanders at Beausejour, 
River St. John, &c, he is said to have exercised a controlling influence. The 
support which he received in his evil practices from Vaudreuil and Galissoniere, . 
Governors of Canada, enabled him to hold his position, and carry on his 
machinations, in disregard of his clerical superiors and the remonstrances of 
the British authorities ; and he appears to have had the confidence and support 
of the latter nobleman, not only while Governor of Canada, but after his re- 
turn to France. By means of the large sums of money which he frequently 
received from France for the support of his mission, he was enabled to con- 
struct an aboiteau at Cumberland, whereby a considerable tract of land was re- 
claimed from the sea. — Collections Hist. Soc, Quebec, vol. 1833; French Docs., 
relating to Acadia, N. S. Archives, 

On the establishment of the British Colony at Chebucto in 1749, he became 
• most active disturber of the new settlement, by intercepting dispatches, and 
encouraging Jean Baptiste Cope, the Indian Chief of Shubenacadie River, and 
his Micmacs, in their attacks upon stragglers and those who ventured beyond 
the limits of the fortifications to procure firewood. He was also the means of 
capturing a number of prisoners, some of whom the Government at Halifax 
were compelled to ransom with large sums of money. — Governor CornvtaUis's 
U&Ur to Secretary of State. 

He formed the project of seducing the French inhabitants to leave the conn- 


Present — 

His Excellency the Governor, 

John Horseman John Salusbury 

Charles Lawrence Hugh Davidson 

Benjamin Green William Steel. 

M. Girard Priest & the four Deputies of Cobequid, viz. Jean 
Hebert, Jean Bourg r Joseph Robichaux & PieTre Gaudrot,were 
brought before the Council & examined with regard to Pierre 
Aucoinh being stop'd when he was sent by the Governor with 
Letters, & Loutrea being there in Winter f & the Deputies not 
coming to Halifax to make their Submission as usual— 

Their Examinations were ordered to be kept on File — 

Jean Bourg having answerd plainly & honestly <fe to the 
Satisfaction of the Council, & having come voluntarily instead 
of a Deputy that was Sick. He was immediately set at liberty* 

The three Deputies were to be recommitted to Custody 
during His Excellency's Pleasure. 

The Council were of Opinion that Girard should remain 
here till the Courier be sent back by Loutre. 


try for Canada ; and threatened them with an Indian- massacre unless they 
obeyed his injunction*. 

He is said to hare caused the death of Edward How, one of Cornwallis'* 
Council, by the most horrible treachery. Having deceived that gentleman by 
protestations of friendship-, he clothed in a French officer's uniform John Cope, 
the Indian Chief before mentioned, and laying an ambuscade of Indians near 
the English fort at the Isthmus, he sent Cope to k, carrying a white handker- 
chief, which was the usual token* for a conference. Captain How, supposing 
him to be a French officer, came out, when the Indians from- the bnsh imme- 
diately fired a volley and shet him through the back. His object in perpetrating 
this bloody deed, is supposed to have been jealousy of How's influence with 
the French and Indians. — See Copt, OottereXVs letters to Capt. Murray; Letter from 
Loutsbvrg in subsequent pages; French Doc. relating to Acadia, N. S. Archives. 
He at length became so obnoxious* to the British authorities, that a reward of 
£100 was offered by Governor CornwaHis for his head. — Letters to Board of 

An article in the Collections ot the Historical Society of Quebec says : "Pride 

and vanity were his predominant failings* Afcer ruining the Acadian French 

by his unwise eounsels, he abandoned them in the moment of their distress. 

For fear of falling into the hands of the British, he left Fort Beausejour in 

■■ disguise, before it surrendered to Monekton — erossed to the River St. John, 

and went thence to Quebec, where, instead of a welcome, he received bitter 

• reproaches from bis Bishop." He embarked for France the following August f 

but on the passage the ship was captured by the British, and the Abbe de la 

Loutre was taken prisoner, and sent to Elizabeth Castle, in Jersey, where he 

remained eight years in confinement. He returned to France at the conclusion* 

-of the peace in 1763, and probably died in obscurity, as nothing further is> 

■ known of him. — Proceedings of the Hist. Society of Quebec ; Knox's Journal r 

ivol. 1, p. 144, quoted by Dr. O'Callaghan in his notes to the JV. Y. Col. Doc* 


(Order Book.) 

By His Excellency Edwabd Cornwallis, Captain 
General & Governor in Chief in and over 
his Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia or 

To Captain John Gorham, — 

You are to march with your company on Monday morning 
to Piziquid, * to establish yourself there, you are to take the 
properest post you can to Dispose of your company to the 
best advantage, till you can erect a Block house, for your 
security, you are to take possession of the house of these men 
who took up arms & have since absconded, to take their cattle 
for the use of the company & publish their being confiscated 
to his Majesty's use, for their audacious and Insolent beha- 
viour. You are to find out whose house the three Englishmen 
were at, who those Rebels with 2 Indians have carried off & 
send the person to me to ansr. for his behaviour. You will 
keep a correspondence with Captain Hanfield that you may 
assist each other as necessity shall require. You are as far 
as lies in your power to prevent any of the Inhabitants that 
leave the Country trom carrying off their cattle or destroying 
their houses. You are to keep good order and discipline 
among your men, and not suffer them to pillage the Inhabi- 
tants, they will have orders to assist you with all necessaries 
paying the reasonable prices, as likewise to assist you in 
making your Block house. You are as often as opportunity 
happens, to acquaint me with your proceedings ; upon anything 
Extraordinary happening you are to dispatch a messenger 
to me. 

Given at Halifax the 12th Day of March 1749- 


Govr. CornwaUis to Duke of Bedford. 

Nova Scotia, 
Halifax, March 19th, 1749-50. 
My Lord, — 

* * * * I had resolved upon no account to weakem 

the Settlement or to give the Savages an occasion to gaiik 

advantages by our sending out small parties to any distance*. 

I had often thought that something good might be done by 

* How Windsor. 



sending a vessel to Chinecto, and fall upon them, scattered 
and unguarded. 

As soon as I found that the thing was practicable, I resolved 
to try it. I had reason to hope that at least Loutre would be 
taken, and if the Indians should have marched, their wives 
and children might be brought off, and the Deputies of 

I found one Cobb,* a settler, who is thoroughly acquainted 
with every Harbour and Creek in the Bay, and knows every 
house in Chinecto, a man very fit for such an enterprize. I 
took his Sloop into the service, and sent him to Boston with 
letters to M. Phips, desiring him to assist Cobb to arm and 
man his Sloop, with all possible dispatch. This, I chose, 
because it could be done there without suspicion. 

By the first vessel from Boston, after Cobb's arrival, I heard 
that the Council had been assembled, Apthorp and Hancock 
called before them, and the whole affair known all over Boston. 
My first letter from M. Phips contained the most extraordi- 
nary advertisement ever published. 

The affair being managed in this manner, and known here 
and in New England, must, of course, reach both the French 
and Indians. So 1 judged it prudent to order Cobb not to 
proceed. I enclose my Instructions to Cobb, my letter to M. 

* Silvanus Cobb was a native of Pljmouth, N. England; born 1709. He was 
chosen captain of the company of Col. Gorham's regt. of provincial troops, which 
was raised in Plymouth in 1745, for the Expedition against Louisbargh, where 
he served with credit. He commanded a small armed vessel, employed by 
Govern men v to cruise in the Bay of Fundy, in 1747 and 8. After the estab- 
lishment of the Government in Chebucto in 1749, he continued in the public 
service as master of the sloop York, under Governors Cornwallis, Hopson and 
Lawrence, until 1757 or 8. He was a brave man, much confided in, and well 
acquainted with the harbors around the coast of Nova Scotia. He served at 
the second siege of Louisburgh under Boscowen and Amherst in 1758, and 
was chosen by Gen. Monckton to conduct Gen. Wolfe to a reconnoisance of the 
fortress previous to its capture. As they neared the shore under a heavy fire, 
the General and Cobb alone standing on the deck, the latter at the helm, 
" General Wolfe observed that they had approached as near as he wished for 
his purpose ; but Cobb made yet another tack, when Wolfe remarked, " Well, 
Cobb, I 8 hall not doubt but you will carry me near enough." — Russell's Hist, 
Plymouth, 189. 

Capt Cobb returned to Plymouth after the campaign, and removed, with his 
family, to Liverpool, N. S., where he is said to have built a house. Previous 
to the year 1755, he had a house at Chignecto, where he occasionally resided 
in winter. He was afterwards employed in the Expedition against Havana in 
1762, where he died of the epidemic which there prevailed, expressing his 
regret that he had not met a soldier's death at the cannon's mouth. He left an 
only daughter, who married Col. William Freeman, of Liverpool, N. S. The 
•descendants of Mrs. Freeman are numerous in Queen's County. His younger 
brother, Jabez Cobb, also settled at Liverpool and left descendants. — Qover- 
mot's Letters, iV. S. Document* — Murdoch 1 * Hist. N. 5., $c. 



Phips,* and his answer to me, with the advertisement for 
your Grace's Perusal. 

The French Inhabitants who returned here to work about 
the middle of Feby, told me that there had been all winter 
a Party of thirty Indians at Cobequid. I had sent a Courier 
there, a month before, with a letter to the Priest, one Gerard, 
who had not returned. 

I sent a Detachment under Capt. Bartelo's command, to try 
to surprise those Indians and to bring Gerard and the depu- 
ties, to answer for their conduct. Gorham has declared that 
it was impracticable to march there in Winter. Gorham is no 
officer at all ; Capt. Bartelo, I can confide in as a good officer, 
and an honest man ; he returned Saturday last, They found no 
Indians but brought the Priest and Deputies. 

On Monday they were examined before the Council, and the 
Priest's papers read over. What appears material from these 
examinations and papers is as follows : 

1 . That ever since the suspension of Arms, M. la Galissoniere 
had resolved, whether of himself or by orders does not appear, 
to secure the possession of Chinecto, or Beaubassin, at all 
events ; 

That the detachment at St. John's River last summer was 
sent there, in order to be ready to march to Beaubassin, when 
required ; and that the governor of Louisburg had orders to 
send men, amunition and provisions to Beaubassin, imme- 
diately upon his arrival. 

2. That the Micmacs go every year to Canada, to be 
clothed to the expense of the French King. 

3. That M. la Corne has made the Inhabitants of Chinecto 
take the oath of allegiance to the French King. 

This, the priest told me in private, he had it from Loutre 

4. That Loutre was three or four days at Coboquid, in 
Janr. last, where he was paying the damage done the Inha- 
bitants by the Savages. That some savages along with him, 
at the Church door in the presence of both Priests, forbid the 
Inhabitants to pass the River Chebenacadi upon pain of 

* Spencer Phips, Lieut. Governor of Massachusetts- This gentleman's name 
was originally Bennett. He was the son of Dr. David Bennett of Rowley, 
Massachusetts; his mother's name was Spencer. Mr. Spencer Bennett on 
being adopted by his uncle, Governor Sir William Phips, who left no male 
descendants, took by Statute the latter name. He was elected Councillor of 
Massachusetts in 1722, and Lieut. Governor in 1783, and continued to hold that 
office until his death in 1757. — Williamson's Hist. Maine, Vol. 2, page 161, note. 
Jiiuofs Hist. Mass., Vol.1. 


5. That the Courier I sent to the priest, was carried away 
by some of the rebel French to Chinecto. I have likewise 
intelligence that may be depended on, that the French have 
actually raised some kind of Fort at Chinecto upon the River 

Your Grace will be more and more convinced of the neces- 
sity of securing that Isthmus, by a Fortress, and a strong- 
garrison. It would have been happy for this Province, if it 
had been done last Summer. 

I shall follow His Majesty's Instructions, with regard to the 
Inhabitants taking the Oath of Allegiance ; but I propose to 
defer pressing them upon that head, till we see what can be 
done at Chinecto, and what settlers came from England ; by 
that time, I hope to have a good blockhouse at Piziqaid ; then 
I will demand a peremptory answer. 

If the French Inhabitants remain in this Province, I shall 
desire, above all things, that some method may be found of 
supplying them with Priests from Germany or Italy. The 
French missionaries, paid by Franco, will do every thing ia 
their power, to alienate the minds of the People. * * * 

I am &o 


His Grace the 
Duke of Bedford. 

Part of a letter from- Abbe Maillard to Girard, dated at Beaubassin, 3 May 
1749. On juge a propos de prendre des Precautions pour se maintener eik 
possession de Beaubassin Messrs de la Galessoniere and Bigot ont envoye a 
cet effet uu Detachement de Francois et des Sauvages hyberner dans la 
riviere de St Jean pour etre a portee de se rendre en terns et lieu a Beaubassin. 
Ce detachment est command par Boisbert. Les ci-dessus nonmes ecrivent au 
Commandant Futur de Louisburg pour envoyer aussitot que faire se pourra 
munitions, Provisions et Hommes.* 

* Antoine Simon Maillard was sent out to Canada by the Society of Foreign. 
Missions at Paris, about the year 1734, and afterwards became a missionary to- 
the Indians and French of Acadia and Cape Breton. He received a written 
approval from Governor Cornwallis as a cure in the Province in October, 1749. 
He was Vicar General at Louisburg for several years ; and after the capture of 
that place in 1758, he remained among the Indians and French at St. Peter's* 
in Cape Breton, and in the eastern part of Nova Scotia, until 1759, when he 
was invited by the Government to settle at Halifax* and to use his influence to 
quiet the Micmacs, for which service he received an annual stipend. Though- 
in early life he united with the other priests in opposing British authority, he 
afterwards became a strenuous supporter of the Government under which he 
lived, and was much respected at Halifax, where he lived on terms of friend- 
ship and intimacy with the principal inhabitants, particularly with the Rev* 
Thomas Wood, assistant minister of St. Paul's, to whom he imparted a kaow~ 


At a Council held at tho Governor's on Thursday the 19th 
of April, 1750. 

His Excellency being indisposed & obliged to retire into his 
Chamber ordered the Secretary to read to the Council the 
Petition of the French Inhabitants delivered by the Deputies 
of the Districts of La Riviere de Canard, La Grand Pre & 
Piziquid, desiring His Excellency's Leave to evacuate the 
Province & carry off their Effects. As likewise the Answer 
in writing which he proposed to make them, if approved of by 
the Council. Which being accordingly read, was unanimously 
approved of and ordered to be minuted in the Council Book. 

(Translated from the French.) 

My Friends, — 

I am not ignorant of the fact, that since my arrival in the 
province, every means has been employed to alienate the 
hearts of the French subjects of his Britannic Majesty. I 
know that great advantages have been promised you else- 
where, and that you have been made to imagine that your reli- 
gion was in danger. Threats even have been resorted to in order 
to induce you to remove to French territory. The savages 
are made use of to molest you. The savages are to cut the 
throats of all those who persist in remaining in their native 
country, attached to their own interests, and faithful to the 

By the manner in which this scheme has been carried out, 
you yourselves will judge of the character of the directors 
and of their designs. You will judge whether those deserve 
your confidence, who sacrifice their own honor, the honor of 

ledge of the Micmac language. He died at Halifax in 1768, and a short time 
before his death, having sent for Mr. Wood, deposited all his papers with him ; 
and then collecting around him a number of Indians, and several of the French 
inhabitants, he commended them to the care of Mr. Wood, who, at his request, 
read to him the office of the sick from the Church of England prayer book. 
He was buried in the old English burial ground at Halifax. The Governor 
and Council and the principal inhabitants, both military and civil, attended his 
funeral. Mr. Wood succeeded M. Maillard in the confidence of the Indians ; 
and from his papers, was enabled to construct a Micmac grammar and prayer 
book, which he sent to the the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in 
London, but which was never published by them. At this period, the Indians 
frequently attended divine service at St. Paul's, where the Church Liturgy 
was on several occasions, read to them in their own language. — Reps, Society 
P. G.; N. S. Col. Documents; iV. York Col. Doc, vol. x. 


their sovereign, and of their nation to lead yon to your ruin. 
You know that certain officers and missionaries, who came 
from Canada to Chinecto last autumn, have been the cause of 
all our troubles during the winter. Their entrance into this 
province and their stay here are directly contrary to the 
treaties which exist between the two crowns. Their conduct 
has been horrible, without honor, probity, or conscience, and 
such as they dare not acknowledge themselves. They are 
doing every thing by underhand dealings, and by means 
of the savages, whom they will disown in the end. It was 
these, Gentlemen, who induced the savages of the river St. 
John to unite with the Micmacs, the day after a solemn treaty. 
They induced the Micmacs to commence their outrages, and 
furnished them with every thing necessary for their war. 
Finally, since the peace they have been engaged in intrigues 
and enterprises for which an honest man would have blushed 
even during the war. These same Gentlemen are doing their 
best to cause you to leave the country, and to transfer your- 
selves to French territory. They have endeavoured to give 
you very false ideas which you will not fail to declare to us. 

Their aim is to embroil you with the government. They 
have told you that you will always have the privilege of the 
year stipulated by the treaty of Utrecht for the evacuation of 
the country. Perhaps they have made you believe that you 
would have the liberty of selling your effects or of carrying 
them with you. 

You do not expect that we are to reply to all their insolence. 
Before commmunicating my sentiments to you with reference 
to your request, I must inform you of my astonishment that 
french officers and missionaries have had the audacity to med- 
dle with the affairs of this province. I will not believe that 
they are authorized to do so by the Court of France, that 
being quite contrary to the good faith and the friendship es- 
tablished between the two crowns. And you understand very 
well that Kings and States, as well as private persons, are to 
regulate themselves by the laws of honor, and the dictates of 

But I am still more surprised that inhabitants like you 
have been weak enough to listen to the speeches and messages 
of those persons, and that you have allowed yourselves to be 
led astray by their counsels. 

It is not for subaltern officers and missionaries to explain 
the treaties of Kings, and to meddle with the politics and the 
affairs of government. If their counsels and the propositions 


which they make to you proceed from the French governors, 
why do they not themselves appear in all that. It is true 
that they would be acting very badly to intermeddle at all 
with the affairs of this province, or with the subjects of his 
majesty settled here. If we do anything contrary to the 
treaties they have only to complain of it to the two courts. 
I represented some time ago to the king my master, all these 
intrigues of which I speak, and I do not doubt that you will 
see that the court of France will disavow them, and will issue 
an order on the subject for the future. 

We have good reason to complain of your having recourse 
to the counsels of the French governors their officers and 
missionaries. If you had grievances, it was to us and to the 
council that you should have applied for the remedy, and 
after us to his majesty himself. 

For once more my friends, you are the subjects of the king 
of Great Britain, and not of France. It is true that you 
refused to take the oath of allegiance to our king last autumn 
after the declaration which I published by the king's com- 
mand ; I informed you then that neither your situation nor 
your duties as subjects were at all changed by that act. It 
was at that time that you were indebted to us for not having 
made you leave the country even during winter. 

But after having passed the winter in the province and com- 
menced to prepare the lands in the spring, it is ridiculous to 
come and tell me that you will not sow having resolved to 
withdraw. My friends, you must go and sow your lands in 
order that they may be left in that condition in which they 
ought to be at this season. Without that you will have no 
right to expect the least favor from the government. When 
you have done your duty in this respect, I will give you a 
more precise reply to your request. 

In the mean time as it is my determination to act always in 
good faith with you and not to flatter you with vain hopes, I 
will now let you know my sentiments on two important 
articles. I declare to you frankly that according to our laws 
nobody can possess lands or houses in the province, who 
shall refuse to take the oath of allegiance to his king when 
required to do so. As to those who shall leave the province, 
the order of no government permits them to take with them 
their effects. All their goods are confiscated to the king. I 
have just issued my orders to the effect that all shall be 
arrested and brought back who are found carrying off such 


The deputies that presented the petition were Jacques 
Teriot from Grand Pr6; Francjois Granger from the river 
Canard ; Batiste Galerne & John Andre from Pizziquid. 


At a Council held at the Governors on friday the 25th of 
May 1750. 


His Excellency The Governor 
John Horseman John Salusbury 

John Gorham Hugh Davidson 

Benjamin Green William Steel 

His Excellency read a Petition from the Inhabitants of the 
District of Annapolis Royal desiring leave to retire. Charles 
Pregian & Jaques Michel who presented the petition were 
called to explain some parts of it that were new & extraordi- 
nary particularly where they say that they never considered 
themselves as Subjects of the King of Great Britain (whom 

they stile in the Petition King of New England) 

Charles Pregian & Michel seemed not to understand the 
Petition themselves, & being asked when where & by whom 
the petition was wrote they coud & would make no Answer- 
Being asked why the Deputies chosen for this Year and 
approved by His Excellency did not present the Petition 

themselves, they said they did not know They were 

orderd to retire His Excellency read two Petitions from 

the Districts of Minas, one desiring leave to retire, another 

requesting M. Girard for a Priest to assist Mr. Chevreuil » 

He likewise communicated to them the Scroll of an Answer 
he proposed to make to these Petitions, which being duly 
considerd & some alterations proposed <fe agreed to, it was 

ordered to be minuted in the Council Book. 

With regard to Mr.^Girard It was resolved to permit him to 
go & officiate as Priest, provided he would take the Oath of 
Allegiance & give his Word of Honour to the Governor that 

he would not leave the Province without his Permission 

Mr. Davidson having acquainted M. Girard with this Resolu- 
tion, he agreed to it, came before the Council took the Oath 
of Allegiance & gave his Word that he would not leave the 
Province without Leave from His Excellency The Depu- 
ties of Annapolis Royal, Grand Pre, Riviere de Canard & 
Piziquid being called in, His Excellency made the Answer to 
their Petitions as agreed to as follows 


[Translated from the French. J 

Mr Friends, — 

Wo promised to give a precise reply to the inhabitants, 
with respect to the permission they ask to leave the province 
when they shall have sown their lands ; and as it appears that 
you have obeyed our orders in that particular, we will explain 
to you our sentiments on that very important affair, with the 
same sincerity that we have always made use of toward you. 

As to the petition of the inhabitants of the Annapolis Royal 
river, it should have been presented to us by the deputies of 
the department whom we approved of. 

The sentiments declared in that petition hardly agree with 
the idea that we had formed of their feelings. 

There are things in it that we do not understand. It is 
presented to us by persons who do not understand it, and who 
do not know when, by whom, or how it was written. 

My friends, the moment that you declared your desire to 
leave and submit yourselves to another government, our deter- 
mination was to hinder nobody from following what he 
imagined to be his interest. We know that a forced service 
is worth nothing and that a subject compelled to be so against 
his will, is not very far from being an enemy. 

We frankly confess, however, that your determination to 
leave gives us pain. 

We are well aware of your industry and your temperance, 
and that you are not addicted to any vice or debauchery. 
This province is your country ; you or your fathers have cul- 
tivated it ; naturally you ought yourselves to enjoy the fruits 
of your labour* Such was the design of the King our master. 
You know that we have followed his orders. You know that 
we have done everything to secure to you not only the occu- 
pation of your lands, but the ownership of them forever. 

We have given you also every possible assurance of the 
enjoyment of your religion, and the free and public exercise 
of the Roman Catholic religion. When we arrived here, we 
expected that nothing would give you so much pleasure as the 
determination of his majesty to settle this province* Cer- 
tainly nothing more advantageous to you could take place. 
You possess the only cultivated lands in the province ; they 
produce grain and nourish cattle sufficient for the whole 
colony. It is you who would have had all the advantages for 
a long time. In short we flattered ourselves that we would 
make you the happiest people in the world* We are very 


sorry to find in our government, persons, whom it is impossi- 
ble to please, and upon whom our declarations have produced 
nothing but discontent, jealousies and murmurings. We must 
not complain of all the inhabitants. We know very well that 
there are ill-disposed, interested and mischievous persons 
among you, who corrupt the others. Your inexperience and 
your ignorance of the affairs of government and your habit of 
following the counsels of those who have not your real inter* 
ests at heart, make it an easy matter to seduce you. In your 
petitions, you ask for a general leave. As it is impossible 
that you could alt meet at a certain rendezvous in order to set 
out all together, with all your families, one must understand 
by the expression tl cong6 general " a general permission to 
set out whenever you shall think proper, by land, or by sea, 
or by whatever conveyances you please. In order to effect 
this, we should have to notify all the commanders of his ma- 
jesty's ships and troops to allow every one to pass and repass, 
which would cause the greatest confusion. The province 
would be open to all sorts of people, to strangers and even to 
the savages. They have only to dress themselves like you in 
order to render it difficult to distinguish them from you. 

The only manner in which you can withdraw from this pro- 
vince, is to follow the regulations already established. The 
order is, that all persons wishing to leave the province, shall 
provide themselves with our passport, to be shown to the ves- 
sels or troops they may meet. And we declare that nothing 
shall prevent us from giving such passports to all those who 
ask for them, the moment that peace and tranquillity are rees- 
tablished in the province. 

In the present state of the province, we are astonished that 
you thought of asking for such leave. 

You know that the savages are assembled at Chignecto fur- 
nished with everything and protected by a French detach- 
ment. You know that you will have to pass these French 
detachments and savages, and that they compel all the in- 
habitants who go there to take up arms. 1 am to presume my 
friends that you pay no attention to this. 

It is a demand which I can by no means grant. On the 
contrary, it is already some time past since we forbad all of 
his majesty's subjects to carry on any business whatever in 
the Bay of Fundy, and we have issued an order to seize all 
the English vessels that shall be found there. 

Two schooners have just been seized in the Basin of Mines. 
I must also inform you of another important thing, which is, 


that you are going to be deceived, and that instead of estab- 
lishing yourselves in French territories, you will find that 
you are in the territories of His Britannic Majesty.* 
« For, at present, against every treaty and every right, they 
have detachments in the heart of the province. 

When you pay attention to what I have just pointed out to 
you, you. yourselves will see that you have been badly 
advised to choose this time to ask for your leave (cong6). 
So it is impossible for us to grant you passports when we 
refuse them to all his majesty's subjects, and to everybody 
without distinction. 

Gentlemen from the district of Mines. Recently, we have 
good reason to complain of your deputies ; they have been 
wanting in respect for the orders of the government. We 
have been obliged to make prisoners of them. Some inhabit- 
ants have complained of that proceeding in a very impudent 
manner. A letter has just been shown to me full of imperti- 
nence, without signature, addressed to the deputies, and 
another to the commander. 

The custom of having deputies was introduced for good 
reasons at a time when there were no other magistrates or 
officers of His Majesty in your departments. They were to 
publish decrees and to assist in the execution of the orders of 
Government. But when the deputies fail to respect the 
orders, and when the inhabitants treat their deputies with so 
much contempt, it would be better to put an end to a useless 

You have at present, at Annapolis Royal, and at Mines f 
Commanders who belong to his Majesty's Council. You could 
apply to them in case ot need ; and they would find means to 
have the orders of the Government published, and to get 
them executed. Should it happen that you think you have 
cause of complaint against them, it is to us, and to the Council 
that you should apply. As it is not our wish, that those depu- 
ties who have failed in their respect to the Commander, and 
whom you yourselves treat so unworthily, should continue in 
that capacity, we advise you to choose no more of them, or 
only to make choice of those, who will do their duty properly 

* The Government of Canada at this time, while the two nations were at 
peace, had taken possession of all the territory now known as the Province of 
New Brunswick, by fortifying the isthmus of Chignecto and the mouth of the 
River St. John, wilder pretence that the peninsula of Nova Scotia only had 
been ceded to Qreat Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht ; and French emissaries 
were inducing the Acadians to remove to the opposite side of the Bay of 

192 KOtA SCOTIA f>OcmfENT8. 

and for whom you yourselves will have more regard. Ths 
commanders will name from time to time persons to be neatf 
them, who shall be paid for their services. And as we are 
not ignorant of the bad consequences of those frequent 
assemblies, where, often the most honest people are led 
astray by some seditious persons, we positively forbid* for the 
future, all assemblies of the inhabitants, except for some im* 
portant business, when they shall have the permission of the 
commander and when he or some one for him shall be present. 
I recommend you to remain quietly in your settlements, occu> 
pied about your own affairs, until we shall see the present 
disturbances settled. 
I know that the troops put you to some inconvenience at 

{►resent, as your custom is to leave the houses where they are. 
t is a matter of necessity which you must endure for some 
time. That will pass away and you will find it to your advan- 
tage. In the meantime you can rely upon our word, that as 
soon as tranquillity is reestablished in the province, we shall 
give passports to all those who shall ask for them. We have 
already given you to understand, that no government permits 
those who withdraw from it to carry with them their effects. 
Therefore to give such permission would be directly con* 
trary to the declaration of his Majesty published here on our 

You ask for Mr. Girard to assist Mr. Chettvreuil in the 
department of Mines. As it is impossible for a priest to serve 
the whole department, and as it is our wish that you should 
have the full enjoyment of your religion, and as there is no 
probability that one will be allowed to come from the French 
colonies at present, we consent to allow Mr. Girard to officiate 
among you. He has given us his word of honour not to leave 
the province without our permission. 


At a Council held at the Governor's on Sunday, the 27 May 


His Excellency the Governor, 

John Horseman John Salusbury 

John Gorham Hugh Davidson 

Benj Green William Steel 

His Excellency laid before the Council A Letter from M*yor 


Ijawrencd acquainting with his having recovered nine of the 
Deserters from Philips Regiment who in their Examinations & 
Trial had informed him what Incouragement & Assistance they 
liad from thfe French Inhabitants in their Desertion, & that 
*noney had been advanced to every one of them. That he 
had likewise taken one Joseph Le Blanc who was evidently 
the principal Instrument -of the Enemy in those Parts, who 
had confessed the whole. (As doth more fully appear from 
the Major's Letters & the Examinations & trial of the Deser- 
ters, & the Examination of Le Blanc himself preserved on 

His Excellency acquainted the Council that he had a War- 
rant ready to send to Major Lawrence for the immediate Exe- 
cution of Joseph Le Blanc, but desired to know their Opinions 
'which would probably have the greatest Effect, a sudden Ex- 
ample of Justice, or a fair trial before the General Court with 
the other Prisoners in Custody now at Minas. 

Resolved, That Joseph Le Blanc, Labrador & the two men 
taken in the Bay by Hill, J«an Battiste Petre & Pierre Rem- 
bour be brought to their Trial before the General Court in the 
Beginning of August next, 


From M. Lovtre to M. Bigot* Commissary of New France, 
dated Bay Verte, 15th August, 1750, 

(Translated from the French.) 


I send you the ship London. M. de Bonaventure is to 
write to you by this opportunity to ask you for .provisions, not 
being able to get any from Louisburg for the subsistence of 
the refugee families. If the four vessels that you promise us 
had arrived, we would have sent some flour to Isle St. Jean ; 
but for the present we cannot do so. We have here a great 
'many people to support, and in the autumn we shall have an 
increase of more than sixty families from Beaubassin, and the 
rivers which are beyond our claims, who have not sown at all, 
in order to withdraw to our territories. 

The inhabitants of Cobequid are to decide as soon as they 
hear from France. They will make the number one hundred 
families. Perhaps we shall have some from Mines if they can 
escape. You see Sir that we require provisions ; and it would 
be exposing these families to perish, not to be in a condition 



to help them. We are impatiently expecting every day news 
from France. We hope that there will be some regulation. 
If the limits are not regulated, at least we shall know what to 
depend upon, and we will despatch a courier to you, with as 
detailed a memorandum of our wants as can be made. The 
Canabas, who were on the Chebucto road, have seized the 
letters of the English who were writing to Mines and Port 
Koyal. I will have them sent to you by the first courier. 
We learn that the English are getting ready to come and settle 
at Chinecto. Captain Rous with two other ships is to go to 
Bay Verte. We are always in expectation of having the 
English on our hands. If all our savages were Frenchmen 
we should not be embarrassed; but the wretches get tired 
and will perhaps leave us in our greatest need. They are 
getting tired at not hearing from France ; and it is very sur- 
prising that there are no letters for us, although a vessel has 
arrived at Louisbourg with three hundred soldiers on board. 

The two vessels which passed each other on the banks have 
arrived at Louisbourg. It is said that we are threatened with 
an approaching war. It is reported that they are recruiting 
the regiments and calling out a large militia force. 

Our gentlemen expect to be relieved. If that be true it 
would be necessary to make one's arrangements for the maga- 
zines either at Echedack or at the river Gasparos in Bay 
Verte for the houses and lodging of soldiers and militiamen* 

We are waiting here only for news from France to decide 
upon oux course. 

The foregoing letter was found in a French Sloop captured by Captain Le 
Cras, of H. M. Ship Trial. 

Mctract from a Letter of Gov. Cornwallis to Duke of Bed- 
ford, dated Novr. 27, 1750. 

I have now an affair of a more extraordinary nature to 
inform you of. Captain How was employed upon the Expedi- 
tion to Chignecto as knowing the' country well and being bet- 
ter acquainted both with the Indians and Inhabitants, and poor 
man, fancied he knew the French better and personally those 
villain La Corne* and Le Loutre. His whole aim and study 

* Chevalier Pierre La Corne, one of the most active disturbers of the peace 
of this country, was son of Capt. La Corne, who was Town Major of Quebee 
in 1719. Bis first service was with Sieur Joncaire, on an embassy to 
the Indians of Niagara, in 1720. He, in conjunction with M. St Pierre, 
defeated the Indian incursion at La Chene Rapids in 1747, and was the 
same year sent to Acadia with De Ramezay. He was in the action at 
Grand Pre, and took command of the French force on De Ramezay'a 


was to try at a peace with the Indians and to get our prison- 
ers out of their hands. For which purpose he had freauent 
conferences with Le Loutre and the French Officers unaer a 
flag of Truce. La Corne sent one day a Flag of Truce by a 
French officer* to the waterside a small river that parts his 
People from our Troops. Captain How and the officer held a 
Parley for some time across tho river. How had no sooner 
taken leave of the officer, than a party that lay perdue fired a 
volley at him and shot him through the Heart. An instance 
of treachery and barbarity not to be paralleled in history, and 
a violation of a flag of Truce which has ever been held sacred 
and without which all faith is at an end, and all transactions 

with an enemy. 

•■— ^ ^^™» 

Extract from a Document entitled, "A short account of what 
passed at Cape Breton, from the beginning of the last 
War until the taking of Louisburgh in 1758, by a French 
Officers f 

It was very wrongfully, and with the greatest injus- 
tice, that the English accused the French of having a 
hand in the horrors committed daily by Loutre with his Indians. 
What is not a wicked priest capable of doing ? He clothed in 
an officer's regimentals, an Indian named Cope, whom I saw 
some years after at Miramichy in Acadia, his hair curled, 
powered, and in a Bag; and, laying an ambuscade of Indians 
near to the Fort, he sent Cope to it, waving a white handker- 

being wounded. On that occasion he attacked and carried the house occupied 
by Col. Noble, the English Commander, who was killed in its defence. From 
Grand Pre, he returned to Beaubassin, and thence proceeded to Canada, where 
he remained on active service, until 1749, when he was again sent to Beaubassin, 
to engage, in concert with Le Loutre the prie|fc, # in seducing the Acadians from 
their allegiance. He had directions from Jonquiere, Governor of Canada, to 
take possession of all Acadia north of the Bay of Fundy and the Isthmus, and 
to induce the Acadians to remove thither. , ^t this time he was said to be in 
command of about 2500 men, some of whom were supposed to be Acadians. 
This step was taken by the Governor of Canada while the two nations were at 
peace. After the failure of this enterprise, he returned to Canada, where he 
appears to have been actively employed for ten years. He was wounded in the 
action at the Rapids, Lake Ontario, in 1769 ; and the same year, his name ap- 
pears in the dispatches as having distinguished himself at the siege of Quebec, 
m command of a Battalion of Colonial troops, when he was again wounded. 

M. La Corne, like Le Loutre, possessed an intimate knowledge of the Indian 
languages, by means of which he was enabled to afford valuable service to his 
employers at Quebec. — Nora Scotia Documents. N. Y. Colonial Documents. 

* The French officers denied this statement, and charged [the crime on Le 
Loutre the priest. 

t French Documents relating to Acadia, among N. S. Archives. 


chief in his hand, which was the usual sign for the admittance? 
of the French into the English Fort, having affairs with the 
commander of the Post. The major of the Fort, a worthy 
man, and greatly beloved by all the French officers, taking 
Cope for a French officer, came out with his usual politeness 
to receive him. But he no sooner appeared than the Indians 
in ambush fired at him and killed him. All the French had 
the greatest horror and indignation at Loutre's barbarous 
actions ; and I dare say, if the Court of France had known 
them, they would have been very far from approving them ; 
But he had so ingratiated himself with the' Marquis de la 
Galissoniere, that it became a crime to write against hirti. It 
is needless to explain further Abbe Loutre's execrable conduct. 
Cruelty and inhumanity has ever been sacerdotal from all 
ages. The English Garrison at length, exasperated, and 
losing patience, after a long series of such priestly scenes, 
besieged Beausejour, which, being very weakly defended, 
they took it in the spring of the year 1755. It would have 
been, nevertheless, more conformable to equity and justice, if 
the English had endeavoured to catch Abb6 Loutre and hang 
him as the sole author and actor of these abominations. 

Extract from a Letter of the Lords of Trade to Governor 

Cornwallis, dated March 22d 1750-1. 

You judged very right in refusing Leave to the French 
Inhabitants of the district of Menis and Annapolis to withdraw 
upon their Application to you for that purpose ; We are 
extreamly glad to hear, that so few of the better sort of those 
Inhabitants have withdrawn themselves, and have no doubt 
but that if you shall bo able to prevent their abandoning 
their Settlements just at this time, when the ffrench are par- 
ticularly industrious to draw them off from their Allegiance 
to the Crown of Great Britain, and the Province is contending 
against all the Disadvantages to which a New and disputed 
settlement can be exposed, You will be able hereafter by a 
good Correspondence with them and making them feel the 
Advantages of the Settlement to remove their Prejudicse* 
iand firmly unite them to the British Interest. 


Extract from a letter of Governor Hopson* to Lords of Trade, 

dated Halifax, 10th December, 1752. 

-I 8honld be glad to have your Lordships opinion 

as early in the Spring as possible, concerning the Oaths I am 
to tender to the French Inhabitants as directed by the 68th 
article of my Instructions. 

Mr. Cornwallis can thoroughly inform your Lordships how 
difficult, if not impossible, it may be, to force such a thing 
upon them, and what ill consequences may attend it. I 
believe he can likewise acquaint you that the inhabitants of 
Chignecto (who had taken them before with General Philipp's 
conditions) made it a pretence to quit their Allegiance and 
retire from their lands, tho* it was not otherwise offered to 
them than by issuing the Kings Proclamation to that effect. 

As they appear to be much better disposed than they have 
been, and I hope will still amend and in a long course of time 
become less scrupulous, I beg to know from your Lordships 
in the Spring how far His Majesty would approve my silence 
on this head till a more convenient opportunity. 

Mr. Cornwallis can inform your Lordships how useful and 
necessary these people are to us, how impossible it is to do 
without them, or to replace them even if we had other settlers 
to put in their places and at the same time will acquaint you 
how obstinate they have always been when the Oaths have 
been offered. 

(Order Book.) 

Extract from Instructions to the Officers Commanding the Fort 

at Vieux Logis f and Fort Edward. % 

You are to look on the French Inhabitants in the same 
light with the rest of His Majesty's Subjects, as to the protec- 
tion of the Laws & Government, for which reason nothing is 
to be taken from them by Force, or any Price set upon their 
goods but what they themselves agree to ; and if at any time 
the Inhabitants should Obstinately refuse to comply with what 
His Majesty's Service may require of them, You are not to- 
redress yourself by Military Force, or in any unlawfull manner* 

* Peregine Thomas Hoppon succeeded Governor Cornwallis in August, 1752L 
Mr. Cornwallis returned to England in the Summer of that year. 

t Old Barracks at Minas. J At Pisiquid. 


but to lay the case before the Governor A wait His Orders 
thereon. You are to cause the following orders to be stack 
np in the most Pnblick part of the Fort, both in English & 
French : 

1. The Provisions or any other commodities that the Inhabi- 
tants of the country shall bring to the Fort to sell, are not to 
be taken from them at any fixed price, but to be paid for 
according to a free agreement made between them & the 

2. No Officer, non-Gommissioned Officer, or Soldier, shall 
presume to insult or otherwise abuse any of the Inhabitants of 
the Country, who are upon all occasions to be treated as His 
Majesty's Subjects, & to whom the Laws of the Country are 
open, to protect as well as to Punish. 

At the Season of laying in fuel for the Fort, You 
are to signify to the Inhabitants by their Deputys, that it 
is His Exclly's pleasure they lay in the Quantity of Wood that 
you require, & when they have complyed, you are to give 
them certificates specifying what Quantity they have furnish- 
ed, which will entitle them to payment at Halifax. 

Halifax 15. Deer. 1752. 

Governor JBopson to Lords of Trade. 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax 23d July 1753. 
My Lords, — 

Since my arrival in this Government, I have used my 
utmost endeavours to come at an exact knowledge of the 
State of the Province, by which means I might be able to 
shew Your Lordsps. whence our difficulty arise that you may 
from thence judge what would be the most probable means of 
removing them, and of making this Colony more advantageous 
& less expensive to its Mother Country. I have not succeeded 
as yet in my endeavour, so perfectly as I would have wished 
as intelligence is so difficult to be had, but I shall proceed to 

five your Lordships the best account I can procure of ye 
rench Inhabitants and Indians. 

There are of the former, according to the best Computation 
we can make, about 973 families in the whole, the chiet part 
and those we have the most commerce with reside at Pisiquid, 
Uiver Capard, Mines and Annapolis Royal, the other settle- 


ments which are Cobequid, Rimchigue, Tatmagouche and 
Cape Sable containing among them all only 63 families with 
whom we have very little communication. As the almost 
continual war we have with the Indians, prevents our mixing 
any English Settlers with these Inhabitants or instituting any 
sort of civil Jurisdiction among them, they have been hitherto 
left open to the insinuations and evil practices of French 
Priests & other Emissaries that are sent amongst them from 
Canada and the French Fort at Beausejour, who have at all 
times been endeavouring to prejudice them against an English 
Government, and to persuade them that the Country they live 
in will very shortly fall into the hands of the French either 
by negotiations or by force of Arms. Tho' these doctrines 
would not fail of their desired effect with so ignorant and so 
bigotted a people, yet no event happening in all this time 
towards the accomplishment of their predictions, the Inhabi- 
tants began to suspect they were deceived, and even some few 
of those who had deserted their lands returned again into the 
province, and I have been privately informed the Inhabitants 
went so far as to hold consultations whether they should not 
throw themselves under the protection of the English Govern- 
ment and become subjects to all intents and purposes ; but 
there arose a very considerable objection to their taking this 
step, which was that as they live on farms very remote from 
one another, and of course are not capable of resisting any 
kind of enemy, the French might send the Indians among 
them and distress them to such a degree that they would not 
be able to remain on their farms, which apprehension they 
were soon confirmed in by the arrival of the Abb6 Le Loutro 
at Bay Verte, where he has just now assembled the Indians 
whose numbers I have omitted no pains to learn, but could 
never succeed in obtaining any certain account ; it is gene- 
rally estim'd there are about 300 families of the Mickmack's, 
but I could never yet find that any person who has been 
among them has ever seen two hundred men under arms 

Your Ldships may perhaps be somewhat surprised that I 
should have anything to apprehend from so inconsiderable and 
contemptible a body when I have the command of so many 
troops ; but exclusive of the difficulty that attends marching 
after Indians in a country like this, I assure your Ldships that 
the troops are so divided in keeping the different posts of 
Chignecto, Annapolis Royal, Mines, Pisiquid, Lunenburg, 
Dartmouth, George's Island, Fort Sackville and Halifax, thai 


I have not at present a detachment to spare from hence even 
upon the most urgent occasion. In fact what we call an 
Indian War here is no other than a pretence for the French to 
commit Hostilities upon his Majesty's subjects. 

Your Ldships may judge how greatly I am mortified in not 
having it in my power to chastise such insolence and breach 
of Public faith, and at the same time how happy I should be 
If I could with success assert and maintain his Majesty's 
rights in this province, for I am now fully convinced that very 
little progress can be made in the service I have the honor to 
be employed in, until the French Flag is removed out of this 
Province by some means or other ; when that happens I have 
hopes that the Indians when their allies are withdrawn will 
no more be able to disturb us, and that they will then make 
proper submission to His Majesty's Government, and live 
under it in Peace and quietness ; that the French inhabitants 
will take the Oaths, and, giving over all hopes of any change, 
enjoy the benefit of English laws and Liberty, and that Agri- 
culture will flourish and enable us not only to maintain our- 
selves, but to carry on a very large and advantageous fishery 
at a reasonable rate. ***** 

They have a strong fort at Beausejour and are every day 
adding new works to it ; of this, indeed, I can speak with 
some certainty as their fort is in sight of ours. At the Port 
they have on the River Oasparo, near Bay Verte, and about 
fifteen miles from the Fort at Beausejour, they never had 
above 12 or 14 men at most. No certain account of the 
number of the Inhabitants could ever be procured. On their 
Festivals upwards of 300 have been seen about the Mass 
House who were supposed to be the Inhabitants of about six 
or seven miles in circumference, they have all arms and am- 
munition and orders to repair to the Fort upon any alarm. 
The original Inhabitants on that side are pretty well settled 
having good houses gardens and other ground which those 
who went from our side have not, but are kept in hopes by 
promises from time to time of being settled in some other 

Your Lordships may imagine how disagreeable it is to me 
to see his Majesty's rights encroached on and these encroach- 
ments openly abetted avowed and supported by the Governors 
of Canada and Louisbourg, when it is not in my power to pre- 
vent it, as I have barely a sufficient force to protect tho 
settlers from the Insults of an Indian war under a pretence of 
which the French take an opportunity to commit Hostilitys 


upon his Majesty's subjects. I have been informed that 
French have often been mixed among them in their expedi- 
tions and am convinced past doubt that they are clothed, fed, 
protected from our pursuits and encouraged to disturb us as 
openly and in as great a degree as in time of war. 

I am, <fec. <fec. 

To the Right Hon. 

the Lords Commrs. 

of Trade & Plantations, 
<fcc. <fec. 


At a Council holden at the Governor's in Halifax on Wed- 
nesday the 12th Septr. 1753. 

Present — 

His Excellency the Governor, 
The Honbls. 

Charles Lawrence, 
Benjm. Green, 
William Steele, 
Willm. Cotterell, 
Robt. Monckton, 

The following petition was read. 

(Translated from the French.) 

Mines, this 4th 7bre 1753. 

To His Excellency Peregrine Thomas Hopson, Esq., 
Captain General and Governor of Nova Scotia 
or Acadie, &c. Ac. <fcc. 

The inhabitants of Grand Pre, River Canard, Pisiquid, 
<fcc., take the liberty of presenting their very humble petition 
to your Excellency, begging you to remove the difficulty which 
presents itself with respect to the missionaries who come here, 
by exempting them from the oath of allegiance which is re 
quired of them. 

We hope sir, that your Excellency will be kind enough to 
grant that favour, inasmuch as, when we took the oath of alle- 
giance to his Britannic Majesty, we took it only on condition 
that we should be allowed the free exercise of our religion, 
and a sufficient number of ministers to perform the services. 


It appears, sir, that we would be deprived of this last article, 
if the government were to force them to tako this oath, be- 
cause the missionaries would certainly not remain among us 
on terms which they cannot agree to ; we should therefore 
see ourselves deprived of the main point granted to us. 

Moreover Sir, when we submitted on the terms by which 
the practice of our religion is granted to us, it was by no 
means specified that our missionaries should be obliged to 
take this oath. That is proved by the two missionaries who 
were present when we took the oath, and who were also en- 
trusted with our affairs, without its being thought necessary 
to exact of them what is now required of them. 

Notwithstanding all the expense we have incurred in endea- 
voring to get them at Beaubassin, at Louisbourg, and even at 
Quebec, the difficulty of this oath prevents them from settling 
amongst us. Mr. Daudin, who has lately taken the trouble to 
repair hither for the purpose of instructing us, has determined 
to return should this oath be demanded of him. 

His departure would affect us the more sensibly, as we 
should see ourselves deprived of the resource of that which 
we so much require, seeing that my Lord of Quebec is not at 
all disposed to send us missionaries. He has apprised us of 
this himself by the inhabitants whom we sent to him ; and 
this is on account of the oath which is demanded of the mis- 
sionaries. We hope sir, that you will do us the favour to 
grant us that liberty which we so earnestly ask of you ; and 
to believe that we are most respectfully, Sir, 

Your very humble and obt. servants, 

Signed by about 45 of the French inhabitants. 

Which being considered, the Council were of Opinion that 
by the Orders, it appears the French have given to the Mis- 
sionaries not to take any Oaths, They have made a pretence 
of the Resolution of Council of the 31st of July, 1749, Order- 
ing them to take them, to prevent the Inhabitants from having 
any Priests; and we, having from repeated Instances, the strong- 
est reasons to apprehend they propose by this means to induce 
the Inhabitants to leave the Province on account of their 
being denyed the free Exercise of their Religion. — In order, 
therefore, as much as may be to prevent any inconveniences 
from arising on this Account, and to frustrate any evil Inten- 
tions the French may have to delude away the said Inhabi- 
tants, to the great detriment of this Province, — The Council 
came to a Resolution to allow the Inhabitants a Number of 


Priests sufficient for the free Exercise of their Religion, pro- 
vided the. said Priests complied with the Terms His Excellen- 
cy is Ordered by His Majesty to Exact from them, in the 71st 
Article of bis Instructions, and that in that case the Petition 
be granted. 

Jno. Dupobt, Sec. Cone. 

At a Council holden at the Governor's house in Halifax on 
thursday the 27th September, 1753. 

His Excellency the Governor. 

The Honbles. 

Charles Lawrence " 
Benj. Green 
Willm. Steele 
John Collier 
Wm. Cotterell 
Robt. Monckton 


His Excellency communicated to the Council the following 
petition : 

(Translated from the French.) 

To His Excellency Peregrine Thomas Hopson, Esq., 
Captain General, Governor and commander in 
Chief of Nova Scotia or Acadie, Vice Admi- 
ral and Colonel of a regiment of infantry in 
the service of His Britannic Majesty. 

We the inhabitants formerly settled near Megoguich, beg 
to inform you that the reason which caused us to leave our 
property, was the new oath which his Excellency Mr. Corn- 
wallis wished to exact from us, desiring to break and revoke 
the one granted to us on the 11th of October 1727 by Mr. 
Eobert Wroth, ensign and adjutant of the troops of the king 
of England, in the name of his said Majesty King George the 
Second, and by the honorable Lawrence Armstrong Esqr. his 
lieutenant, & commander in chief of this province. Having 
learned since our departure, that if we were willing to return, 
we should have the same favours that were granted to us for- 
merly, viz. — the said 11th day of October 1727. 


This new oath we can only accept under these conditions 
and on these terms. 

" Je promets et jure sinc&rement que jo serai fidele k Sa Ma- 
jeste le Roi George Second, et 4 ses successeurs. Dieu me 
soit en aide." 

" I sincerely promise and swear that I will be faithful to 
His Majesty King George the Second and to his successors. 
So help me God." 

This is the oath we can sign. 

Your Excellency is requested to consider that being situ- 
ated as we were and now returning to our property, it is im- 
possible for us to sign any other on account of the savage na- 
tions, as we have stated on several occasions to his Excellency 
Cornwalli8. If he had travelled through our country, he 
would have seen for himself that it was impossible for us to 
sign any other than that which we have signed. 

Now, in the oath which we bind ourselves to sign, we ask 
your Excellency to be pleased to grant us the following arti- 
cles which were granted to us by Mr. Philipps. 

1st. That we shall be exempt from taking up arms against 
any one whatever, whether English, French, Savages, or peo- 
ple of any other nation ; and that neither we nor any of our 
descendants shall be taken to pilot or go where we would not 
wish to go. 

2d. That we shall be free, we and our descendants, to with- 
draw whenever we shall think proper, with high head (la tete 
Uvie) and to carry away our property or to sell what we 
cannot carry away ; and that we shall be beyond the control 
of the king of Great Britain. 

3rd. That we shall have the full and entire enjoyment of 
our religion, and as many priests catholic, apostolic, and 
roman as shall be thought necessary, without any oath of 
allegiance being required of them. 

4th. That we shall have the entire enjoyment of our pro- 
perty without being disturbed by any one in the world ; and 
that the lands occupied by the English shall be restored to 
those to whom they formerly belonged. 

We hope that these articles will be granted to us by your 
Excellency, and even ratified by the court of England, so that 
those who may succeed your Excellency shall not make the 
pretext that His Excellency Cornwallis made in saying that 
Mr. Philipps had no authority from the court of England for 
the oath which he granted us. 


As the demands which we make appear to us to be just, we 
hope Sir, that you will grant them as promptly as possible, in 
order that toe may be enabled to have our property valued, 
being almost ruined by the abandonment of it for the last 
three years. 

These being granted we shall feel constrained to continue, 
and even increase our prayer for your Excellency's health and 

It was observed that the Petition was not signed by any 
body, and the two Frenchmen who brought it being called in 
declared that they were deputed by the French Inhabitants 
who had deserted their Lands at Chignecto, aiid produced a 
Paper Signed by about fourscore of the said Inhabitants au- 
thorizing them to Act for them here. 

The Council then took the said Petition under Considera- 
tion and came to a Resolution that the Oath to be tendered to 
the said Inhabitants should be in the following Words, viz. 

" Je - - - Promets et Jure sincerement que Je serai fidele, 
et que Je porterai une Loyaute parfaite vers Sa Majeste le 
Roi George Second. 

Ainsi que Dieu me Soit en aide." 

And that such of the said Inhabitants as shall, on or before 
the 20th day of November next, take and Subscribe the fore- 
going Oath, before George Scott Esq. One of His Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace and Commandant at the Garrison of 
Chignecto, shall be admitted to Return to a peaceable and 
quiet Possession of their Lands at Chignecto, (Reserving the 
Land on which the Fort Stands and such a further Quantity 
round the same as shall be thought necessary for His Majes- 
ty's use) and that they shall have the free Exercise of their 
Religion, and a sufficient number of Priests allowed them for 
the Exercise thereof in the same manner as the rest of the 
French Inhabitants, and shall Enjoy all the privileges granted 
them by the treaty of Utrecht. 


John Duport, Sec. Coun. 

Governor Lawrence to Board of Trade. 

Halifax, 5th December, 1753. 
My Lords,— 

I take the earliest opportunity of doing myself the 
honour to write to your Lordships, tho* hardly anything worth 
your notice has happened since Governor Hopson's departure# 


* * * * I come next to the French Inhabitants who 
are tolerably quiet, as to Government matters, but exceeding 
litigious amongst themselves. As this spirit of litigation 
shews the value they set upon their possessions, it is so far a 
favourable circumstance. But, as there is no regular method 
of administering Justice amongst them, they grow very un- 
easy at the decision of their disputes having been so long put 
off from time to time. To give them a hearing in our Courts 
of Law would be attended with insuperable difficulties ; their 
not having taken the oath of allegiance is an absolute bar in 
our La, to their holding any landed possessions, and your 
Lordships may imagine how difficult it must be for the Courts 
to give judgment in cases where the proprietors' claims are 
far from being ascertained, and where the disputes commonly 
relate to the Bounds of Lands that have never as yet been sur- 
veyed that we know of. The Council, as your Lordships will see 
by the enclosed copy of their Minutes, have determined some 
few cases for them in which His Majesty's interest could pos- 
sibly suffer no detriment, which is all we could do for the 
present. I shall endeavour to send some proper persons up 
the Country in the spring, to adjust, as well as possible, the 
differences amongst them, relating to their lands; and to 
enquire into, and ascertain their claims and rights with 
respect thereto, as well as circumstances will admit. 

The french Emissaries still continue to perplex these In- 
habitants with difficulties about their taking the Oath of Alle- 
giance ; and tho' they have not been in the least pressed to it 
of late, yet they seem to think we only wait a convenient 
opportunity to force it upon them, as they every day magnify 
to themselves the difficulties they should lie under with the 
Indians, if they take the Oath ; as well as the notion that it 
would subject them to bear arms. I should think it would be 
of great advantage, both to them and us, that this matter was, 
one way or other, cleared up to them as soon as possible, be- 
cause when they were sure of the situation they were to 
remain in, it would naturally produce a spirit of improvement 
amongst them, the advantages of which they would soon be 
sensible of, and thereby become more attached to an English 
Government than they have hitherto been. * * * * 

I am Ac. 


The Lords Commrs. 

for Trade & Plantations. 


Extract from letter of Lords of Trade to Governor Lawrence, 

dated Whitehall, March Uh, 1754. 

We are sorry to find that the French Inhabitants, tho' in other 
respects quiet, are so much engaged in Litigation and Contro- 
versy amongst themselves, and We are the rather concerned 
for it, because, as you rightly observe, it will be impossible 
to come to any judicial Determination upon these Disputes 
without admitting a legal Right in them to the Lands, con- 
cerning which the Disputes have arisen, and to which by 
Law, by the Treaty of Utrecht, and by His Majesty's Instruc- 
tions, they have in fact no Right but upon condition of taking 
the Oath of Allegiance absolute and unqualified with any 
Reservation whatever ; such a state of Suspence and Inde- 
cision is certainly an Obstacle to the Industry and Quiet of 
these People, but We cannot see how their Disputes can be 
decided for the Welfare of the Province without an entire 
compliance on their parts ; and therefore it would be proper 
to represent to them, whatever Inconvenience they feel from . 
a delay of that Decision arises from their own Obstinacy in 
refusing to accept this Condition. 

We have no Objection to the Method you propose of 
sending proper Persons amongst these People, to endeavour 
to quiet them by examining into and hearing their Complaints; 
but We apprehend it' will be impossible for them to enter 
into a judicial Course of proceeding, since great Care must be 
observed, that thev do not take any Step, which may in any 
degree seem to admit a right in these People to their Lands 
before they have accepted the Condition of the Oath of 

The more We consider this Point the more nice and difficult 
it appears to us : for, as on the one hand great Caution ought 
to be used to avoid giving any Alarm, and creating such a 
Diffidence in their Minds as might induce them to quit the 
Province, and by their Numbers add Strength to the French 
Settlements, so on the other hand We should be equally 
cautious of creating an improper and false Confidence in them, 
that by a Perseverance in refusing to take the Oath of Alle- 
giance, they may gradually work out in their own way a Right 
to their Lands, and to the Benefit & Protection of the Law, 
which they are not entitled to but on that condition. 

It gives Us great Satisfaction to find, that you seem to be 
of the same opinion with Us with respect to this delicate and 
important Question, by refusing to admit the deserted French 
Inhabitants to return to their Lands, Unless they take the 


Oath without any Reservation. We sincerely hope their? 
Circumstances are such as will induce them to accept the 
Condition, and that their Example will be followed b£ all the 
other French Inhabitants. 

We always considered the having a iWt at Minas as a thing 
necessary to check and restrain the Inhabitants, and prevent 
them from carrying supplies to the French ; but as it appears 
from your Account, that the Fort is in such a ruinous Con* 
dition as to be incapable of Repair, and as you seem to think, 
that the Purpose will be as well answered by strengthening 
the Garrison of Pisiquid by the Adition of that at Minas, We 
have no Objection to your abandoning it, desiring, however, 
that a watchful Eye be kept upon the Inhabitants, and if 
there be any Appearances of Disaffection or attempt to send 
Succours to the French, that a Redoubt be built to awe and 
restrain them, and Boats stationed in the Basin as you 

Mr. Cotter ell* to C6L Sutherland* 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office, 18 March 1754* 
Dear Sir,— 

Your favour of the 15th I have Received and laid before 
the Col.f who approves much of every thing you have done. 
Captain Floyer desires me to acquaint yott that he has 
given a pass to three Frenchmen to go to Lunenburg, under 
a pretence of Hunting, but he has reason to suspect they are 
employed by Le Loutre to entice away the Germans, and 
therefore thought this intimation might be usefull to you. * * * 

I am 

To CoL Sutherland. 

Mr. fJottereU to Captain Scott. 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office 12th Aprl 1754. 
Dr. Sir,— 

Your dispatches by Cobb were most welcome to us, as 
We very much fear'd some unhappy accident had prevented 

* Capt. Cotterell was the first Provost Marshal. He was succeeded in that 
office by Cap. Foy. He was appointed a member of Council 23d Oct., 1752* 
fie was at this time acting Provincial Secretary. 

f Governor Lawrence* 


Viis arrival so early as his usual alertness made him expected, 
I shall deliver your accompts to the Treasurer and proceed to 
nnswer the matter contained in your Letter to the Colonel*. 
And first as to the Inhabitants in regard of their priests, as 
they seem to think we do not give them a proper denomina- 
tion, you are authorised to Change it to Catholick, Apostolick, 
and Roman 5 but they can have no other assurances given 
given them of not bearing arms except a verbal intimation 
that we have no such design at present as arming them, and 
that the nature of our constitution makes it both unsafe & 
unprecedented to trust our cause in the Hands of people of 
of their persuasion ; if they are sincere in desiring to return 
to their possessions they will not start at Trifles, & if not they 
will be a proper example to all french Inhabitantants that 
have thought of listing under the Banner of Le Loutre. 

The Colonel highly applauds your conduct towards the 
Inhabitants in the wood affair, and would be glad they could 
be made to supply the Garrison, if they could do it so early 
in the year as to assure you of your wood before it could be 
too late to make other provision in case they should fail you. 
I mean if they will lay in next year's wood this Summer, as 
<5heap as you mention, Mr> Dyson need not be employed next 
year, and you will bo sure of your wood. 

I am ordered to acquaint you that if Mr. Arbuckle or any 
<*ther person should offer to supply the French Garrison at 
Beau Sejour with Provisions, that you are directed to take all 
measures to prevent it, as we well know that the French buy 
tip such provision for the use of the Indians in order to encou- 
rage and enable them to make war upon his Majesty's Subjects 
in this Province. 

The Colonel approves of your endeavouring to get Maillardf 
according to Mr. Hopson's Instructions, and does authorise 
you to offer him such temptations & encouragement as you 
know it will be in the Government's power to comply with. 

Your intercepting one of Le Loutre's Spies would be very 
acceptable. I join with you in thinking that Imprisonment 
at Chignecto and a Journey here, would stop that practice. 

Captain Cox will send you by this opportunity a French de- 
serter who is to be delivered up according to the Cartel. * * * * 

I am &c. WM. COTTERELL. 

To Capt George Scott 

Comg. Chignecto. 

* Colonel Lawrence, then administering the Government as President of the 

t The priest at Chignecto. 14 


Mr. GottereU to Capt. Hamilton. 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office 3d June 1754. 

I am to acknowledge the Commander in chiefs receipt of 
your Letter of the 28th May last. He is obliged to you for 
the trouble you have taken in copying Mr. Loutres letter tho' 
he cannot help differing from you much in his opinion of Le 
Loutres sincerity and good intentions, Having so often expe- 
rienced his proneness to all manner of mischief and Iniquity, 
& I can for my own part assure you that he made the very 
same proposal almost verbatim, that you have now transmitted, 
to Captain How and me at Chignecto, about three days before 
he caused that horrible Treachery to be perpetrated against 
poor How, who was drawn into it under a pretence of confer- 
ring with Le Loutre upon this very subject. However Sir, 
when you answer his letter you may if you please acquaint 
him, that he cannot be ignorant that we are by no means the 
aggressors or in any way desirous to begin or continue a war 
with the Indians if they would demean themselves as they 
ought to do towards his Majesty's subjects; that for from 
having any objections to the proposal he makes, we did before' 
assent to it, and even ratify it by a Treaty with Cope which 
has indeed since been broke through on their part, of which 
Transaction Mr. Le Loutre can probably give a better account 
than we. 

In short if the Indians, or ho in their Behalf have anything 
to propose of this kind, about which they are really in earnest 
they very well know where & how to apply. ***** 

I am &c. 
To Captain Hamilton ) WM, COTTERELL. 

Annapolis Royal, j 

Mr. CottereU to Copt. Flot/er. 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office, 15 June 1754. 
Dear Sir, — 

I am favored with yours by Mr. Daudin's Messengers, you 
will please to acquaint that Gentleman that the Colonel re- 
ceived his letter, in which he has not related his business at 
Annapolis; however you are desired to send for him, & in 
the presence of some of the Inhabitants to acquaint him that 


if his business there is to fulfill any of the dutys of his Func- 
tion, you will give him a Pass, as it is the intention of this 
Government that the French Inhabitants should have all the 
Spiritual assistance it is in their power to furnish them with, 
and Mr Daudin will never be prevented going on any such 
errands if he makes regular application, but when he went 
before we cannot imagine he went to exercise his Function 
as he went without a Pass, more especially as there was at 
that time M. Desenclaves upon the spot. You will please to 
acquaint him with this in the presence of some of the Inha- 
bitants least he should insinuate, that we had intentions to 
deprive them of the Free Exercise of their Religion. 

I am Dr. Sir 


To Captain Floyer WM. COTTERELL. 

Commanding at 
Fort Edward. 

- Councillors. 

At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax, on 
Fryday the 21st day of June, 1754. 


Charles Lawrence, Esq., President. 

Benj. Green, 
Wm. Steele, 
Jno. Collier, 
Wm. Cotterell, 
Robt. Monckton, 

The President informed the Council that he had received a- 
letter from Capt. Scott, Commandant at Chignecto, acquainting 
him that on the fourteenth of June inst., the deserted inhabi- 
tants of that district, who had petitioned for leave to return 
to their lands, came and brought him their answer in relation 
to the resolution of Council of 27th Sept. last, which was 
that unless the President would assure them from under his 
hand, or allow the Commandant there to do it in his name, , 
they should remain neuter, and be exempt from taking up . 
arms against any person whatsoever ,* it would be impossible • 
for them ever to think of returning, as they would every day 
run the risque of having their throats cut and their cattle » 
destroyed, and this they gave as their first answer. Whereon, 
it was resolved that nothing further could be done than aa.. 
resolved by the Council on the said 27th of September* 


The president also acquainted the Council that notwith* 
standing the French Inhabitants of Annapolis, Minas, and 
Piziquid had been refused liberty to go and work for the 
French who have established themselves at Beaubassin, Yet 
many of the said inhabitants had presumed to go there to the 
number of three or four Hundred ; wherefore the president 
desired the Opinion and advice of the Council what would be 
necessary to be done on this occasion. 

The Council having taken the same into mature considera- 
tion, did advise that a proclamation should be forthwith 
issued, ordering the said Inhabitants to return, a& they shall 
answer the contrary at their peril, and that the deputies should 
be ordered to report the names of all those who were gone to 
Beau Sejour to work as aforesaid. * * * * 


John Duport, Sec. Cone. 

Eoctract from { Instructions to Captain Matthew Floyer, for his 
Conduct in dismantling the Fort at Mines. 

(Order Book.) 

If you find on your arrival at Minesthe Quarters in the Fort 
there not Sufficient to accommodate the addition of your De-^ 
tachment you must quarter it on the Inhabitants of Grand Pr& 
in the Houses most contiguous to the Fort & most convenient 
for that purpose, taking especial care that no irregularities are 
committed by the Troops, nor damage done to the Inhabitants j 
but on the Contrary, that every thing furnished by them is 
fairly paid for, and AH Justice done them. 


Halifax, 1. August 1754. 

Eoctract from a Letter of Governor Lawrence to Lords of Trade. 

Halifax August 1st 1754. 

It gives me great pleasure that your Lordships look upon 
our French Inhabitants in so just a light, as any alteration in 
their affairs might be of the highest importance to this Pro- 
vince. They have been long the object of my most serious 
attention, which, with the frequent experience I have had of 
them in the course of my duty, has enabled me to form an 
^opinion of them and their circumstances that I shall now take 


the liberty to lay fully before your Lordships, together with 
such measures as appear to me to be the most practicable 
and effectual for putting a stop to the many inconveniences 
we have long laboured under from their obstinacy, treachery, 
partiality to their own Countrymen, and their ingratitude for 
the favor, indulgence and protection they have at all times so 
undeservedly received from His Majesty's Government. 

Your Lordships well know, that they have always affected 
a neutrality, and as it has been generally imagined here, that 
the mildness of an English Government would by degrees 
have fixed them in our Interest, no violent measures have 
ever been taken with them. But I must observe to your 
Lordships, that this lenity has not had the least good effect ; 
on the contrary, 1 believe they have at present laid aside all 
thoughts oi taking the Oaths voluntarily, and great numbers 
of them are at present gone to Beausejour to work for the 
French, in order to dyke out the water at the settlement I 
informed your Lordships they were going to make on the 
North side of the Bay of Fundy, notwithstanding they were 
refused Passes which they applied for to go thither. And 
upon their complaining that they could get no employment 
with the English, they were acquainted that as many as would 
come to Halifax should be employed, tho', in reality I had no 
employment for them, but I proposed to order them to widen 
the Road to Chibenaccadie, as I very well knew if I could 
get them once here it would put off their journey to Beause- 
jour, and would be no expence to the Government, as I was 
sure they would refuse the work for fear of disobliging the 
Indians. But as they did not come, I have, by the advice of 
the Council issued a Proclamation, ordering them to return 
forthwith to their Lands, as they should answer the contrary 
at their peril. 

They have not for a long time brought anything to our 
markets, but on the other hand have carried everything to 
the French and Indians whom they have always assisted with 
provisions, quarters, & intelligence, and indeed while they 
remain without taking the Oaths to His Majesty (which they 
never will do till they are forced) and have incendiary French, 
Priests among them, there are no hopes of their amendment.. 
As they possess the best and largest Tracts of Land in this. 
Province, it cannot be settled with any effect while they 
remain in this situation, and tho' I would be very far from* 
attempting such a step without your Lordships approbation^ 
vet I cannot help being of opinion that it would be much 
better, if they refuse the Oaths, that they were away. 


The only ill consequence that can attend their going, would 
be their taking arms and joining with the Indians to distress 
our settlements, as they are numerous and our troops so much 
divided ; tho 7 indeed, I believe that a very large part of the 
inhabitants would submit to any terms rather than take up 
arms on either side ; but that is only my conjecture, and not 
singly to be depended upon in so critical a circumstance. 
However if your Lordships should be of opinion, that we are not 
sufficiently established to take so important a step, we could 
prevent many inconveniences by building a Port, or a few 
Blockhouses on Chibenacadie River. It would hinder in a 
great measure their communication with the French, entirely 
prevent their supplying them with cattle, put a stop to deser- 
tion of the Germans, and cut off the principal Pass by means 
of which the Indians have hitherto annoyed us. 

The Chignecto inhabitants as your Lordships will see 
by the enclosed Minutes of Council, have repeated their 
application for a re-admission to their lands, but were again 
refused and acquainted that it was useless to think of it 
without an absolute compliance on their parts. I was pri- 
vately informed that at their return they were in a very ill 
humour with Le Loutre the Missionary and with the French 
Commandant, and that they represented to them the hardships 
they laboured under in not being suffered to accept the propo- 
sals of the English in a remonstrance that I am told was very 
little short of a mutiny. 

Mr. CottereU to Colonel Sutherland. 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office, 24. August, 1754. 
Dr. Sir, — 

* * * * The Bearers hereof being in all twenty-five 
persons are just arrived here from Louisbourg from whence 
they made their Escape to avoid starving. Some of them 
were formerly Inhabitants of this Country, and are nearly 
related to old Labrador ; they have all taken the oaths ; the 
Colonel desires you would treat them kindly, ordered them to 
be Vituelled, to have tools given them, and Land laid out for 
them where you shall see most convenient. 

I am Dr. Sir 

Yours Ac. 
•To Col. Sutherland, WM. COTTERELL, 

commanding at Lunenburg. 


Paul Boutin, Julian Bourneuf, Charles Boutin, Francois 
Lucas, Sabastien Bourneuf, Joseph Gedri, Pierre Gedri, Pierre 
Erio, Claude Erot. 

At a council holden at the Governor's house on Monday, the 
9th day of September, 1754 

Present — 

Charles Lawrence Esqr. President. 
Benj. Green, ] 
John Collier, \ n .« 
Willm. Cotterell, V Compilers. 

Robt Monckton, 

The President communicated the following letter from Mr. 
Le Loutre. 

(Translated from the French.) 


I have had the honor of being acquainted with Captain 
Hamilton for several years. He knows my way of thinking, 
& the real desire that I feel for the continuance of the good 
harmony that exists between our sovereigns. 

He wrote to me some time ago from Port Royal, and 
and informed me, that he would come to our neighbourhood, 
and propose a reconciliation between our savages and the 
English. Since his arrival at Port Lawrence, of which he 
advised me, he was pleased to accept the invitation to dinner 
which I gave him on our part. 

It was then, that we had a conversation as to the means to 
be employed to bring about this reconciliation. He wrote to 
you on the subject, Sir, and you have since given your orders 
to Mr. Hussey, who commands at Port Lawrence. The latter 
wrote to me on the 17th of the present month, about evening, 
to inform me that your wishes & those of the council at 
Halifax were, that I should repair with the chiefs of the 
savages to Halifax, to treat upon the proposed peace, and 
offered me a passport. 

I could not, on account of the Sunday, repair to Bay Verte 
where there is a very large number of Savages. 

I went thither on Monday, and after having assembled 
them, I communicated and interpreted to them Mr. Hussey's 
letter. They held a council, and it was resolved to depute 
two of their captains to come with me for the purpose of 
making propositions to the commander. 


I notified him on Wednesday last of the step these two 
deputies were about to take. He wrote to me that he would 
expect me & them in the afternoon. We repaired thither ; 
we went in a boat from the other side of the river, Mr. 
Hamilton having gone from ours. Mr. Hussey was in a sort 
of little waggon from which he did not get down and received 
us haughtily enough, which offended our Savages. The con- 
versation was short. He told me that he was forbidden to 
treat either with me or the Savages ; that you & the council 
had reserved that affair to yourselves ; that we would have 
to go to Halifax to treat directly with the Government & 
labour for peace. 

Our savages appeared displeased at not having an oppor- 
tunity to explain themselves, or to make their representa- 
tions, after having taken the trouble to come so great a 
distance. They complained of this even to Mr. Hamilton. 
Saturday last — a Saint's day with us — Mr. Hussey wrote to 
inform me that he was going to send a boat, & offered to 
forward my letters to you ; but two hours after, Captain 
Baptiste Cope arrived from Cobequid ; he had gone to Bay 
Verte, and had informed the village of savages in that place 
that a hundred of the English had leit Halifax and crossed 
the woods as far as Chigabenakady, the place of my mission ; 
that they would have been much to be pitied had they not 
found houses of the inhabitants, where provisions such as 
beef, mutton &c. were furnished them. 

I confess, Sir, that the savages are much surprised at this 
step, and that it should be taken at a time when it is proposed 
on both sides to treat of a durable peace. But what astonishes 
them still more, is the document which Mr. Hussey gave to 
some of the refugees on the tenth of the present month. This 
document states that he, Mr. Hussey, is ordered by you Sir, to 
declare to all the French inhabitants who have abandoned 
their habitations, and to v all the others who have taken the 
oath of allegiance to his Britannic Majesty, that their oath 
continues in force as it has always done, and that nobody can 
annul it without the permission of the king of England, and 
that, if they be taken in arms against his Britannic Majesty 
in any place whatever, they shall be treated and punished as 
criminals. This document, which it does not suit my pur- 
pose just now to discuss, having come to the knowledge of 
our savages, this Baptiste Cope, another mikmak who speaks 
French, and Toubick, chiefs of the Medoctek savages of the 
river St. John, undertook on Sunday last, after high mass, to 


inform all these refugees, that, if any of them should be bold 
enough to return to the habitations which are now under 
English rule, they, the savages, speaking in the name of the 
whole nation would look upon them as enemies, and would 
treat them as such. 

To day, Monday, all these different savages assembled and 
held a council. 

This, Sir, is the result, and what they request me to com- 
municate to you. 

Primo : They have determined to continue in peace, and 
to commit no act of hostility against the subjects of Great 
Britain, until the reply which you, Sir, and council are to give 
them on what they propose to you in writing, shall reach 

Secundo : They agree to give no insult to those of the 
English whom they shall meet travelling on the high way ; but 
that those, who shall depart from it, for the purpose of going 
into the woods, as the detachment did which came lately to 
Chigabenakady, which they consider an infraction, shall be 
treated as enemies. 

Tertio: That in order to arrive at a solid and durable 
peace, there shall be ceded to them a certain space of terri- 
tory which they only shall enjoy, suitable for hunting and 
fishing, and for the establishment of a village and a mission as 
a parish. 

Quarto : That this space of territory shall extend from the 
south of Bay Verte, comprising Fort Lawrence and lands de- 
pending on it, to the entrance of Mines, thence ascending into 
Cobequid as far as and comprising Chigabenakady, and leav- 
ing this latter place, formerly my mission, in ascending and 
descending afterwards as far as the river Mouskedaboveck ; 
and from this place which is on the coast of the east to about 
eight leagues from Halifax, passing by the bay of all islands, 
Saint Mary's bay, and Moukoudome as far as Canceau, and 
from Canceau by the passage of Fronsac to the said Bay 

Quinto : That within this space of territory, to which they 
restrict themselves, and which they consider very moderate 
and very limited in view of the immensity of land they did 
possess, and of the amount at present in their possession, the 
enjoyment of which they demand for themselves alone, with 
all possible tranquillity, there shall exist neither fort nor 
fortress belonging to the French or the English. 

* These limits would comprise the whole Eastern half of the Province. 


Sexto : They most earnestly request, that the replies or 
decisions concerning the above articles be given to them be- 
tween St. Michael and All Saints, that is to say in the course 
of the month of October next. 

I do not doubt, Sir, that you and the counsel will find the 
proposals of these Savages susceptible of diminution; but if 
you consider the actual state of a whole nation, compelled for 
a long time to change too frequently their suitable places of 
abode, and knowing no longer where to make choice of places 
in which to live with any sort of stability, besides driven to 
extremities by a too pressing misery, which they foresee will 
be still further augmented, you will find in them nothing but 
what is just. The lands which they leave you are immense 
in proportion ; whereas these people, living only by hunting 
and fishing, would still require a much larger extent of terri- 

It was not for me Sir, to induce any of their chiefs to betake 
themselves to Halifax in order there to propose the above 
articles. Their course will depend upon the reply that shall 
be made there ; and if there is any likelihood that what they 
propose will be accepted, you Sir, and the council can send 
here some one with whom we can treat, and arrange at least 
the preliminary conditions. 

They beg me to add Sir, that if their proposals are accepted, 
which they do not doubt, the treaty which will be made in 
consequence, shall be communicated to their allies, by whom 
they will have it signed and approved, as well as by them and 
their missionaries in order to invest it with every necessary 
formality, and to render it more authentic, so that it may be 
the more solid and durable. 

As to myself, Sir, I shall omit nothing on my part to have 
this very important business crowned with the desired suc- 
cess. I shall make it my especial duty to contribute to it. 

I have the honor to be 

with the most perfect consideration 

your very humble and obedient Servant, 

(Signed) P. LeLOUTRE, 

ptre. g. v. 
Beaus&jour, August 27th, 1754. 

To Mr. Lawrence, Commander in chief at Halifax. 

Which being read and considered, the Contents appeared 
too insolent and absurd to be answered through the Author 


nevertheless, It was Resolved that the Commanding Officer of 
His Majesty's Port at Chignecto be wrote to, to acquaint the 
Indians that if they have any serious Thoughts of making 
Peace, that they may, as they have been already informed, 
repair to Halifax, where they will be Treated with on reason- 
able Conditions.* 

Jno. Duport, Sec. Cone. 

By Charles Lawrence Esqr. President of the Council, and 
Commander in Chief for the time being, of His Majesty 1 8 
Province of Nova Scotia, or Accadie, Lieutenant Gover- 
nors of Annapolis Royal, and Lieutenant Colonel of one 
of His Majesty's Regiments of Foot 


Whereas it has been represented to me and His Majesty's 
Council, that the Exportation of Corn from this Province, is 
not only of the greatest ill Consequence to the Inhabitants 
thereof, but that such Corn is frequently carried to foreign 

I do hereby, by and with the Advice and Consent of His 
Majesty's Council, strictly forbid any Masters of Vessels 
trading to this Province, to Ship on board their Vessels any 
Corn, without a Permission in Writing signed by myself, 
tinder the penalty of Fifty Pounds Sterling, and a forfeiture 
of the Corn so shipped, One half to the Informer the other to 
the use and Support of His Majesty's Government in this 

And I do hereby require and enjoin all Officers, Civil and 
Military, to use their utmost Endeavours to prevent any 
Frauds that may be attempted contrary to the Intent and 
meaning of this Proclamation. And I do hereby impower any 
of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace either upon Informa- 
tion or on their own certain Knowledge, to Seize such Corn, 
and to levy the said Penalty of Fifty Pounds, upon the Goods 
and Chattels of the Offender, by Distress, unless the said 
Offender shall give good and Sufficient Security to take his 
Tryal before His Majesty's Council, and comply with such 

* See letter from Governor Lawrence to Captain Huasey, Nov. 8th, 1754. 


Determination as shall be given, according to the Tenor of 
this Proclamation. 

Given at Halifax, this 17th of Septr 
1754, in the 28th Year of His 
Majesty's Reign. 

By Order of the Commander in Chief. 

God save the King. 

Jno Duport Sec. Con. 

See letter from Governor Lawrence to Captain Hussey in a subsequent page. 

Explanation of the Corn Act so far as relates to the French 


(Commission and Order Book of 1754, p. 53, second part) 

The two principal and important reasons for passing this 
law were, firstly, to prevent the Supplying Corn to the Indians 
and their Abettors, who residing on the north side of the Bay 
of Fundy, do commit Hostilities upon His Majesty's Subjects 
which they cannot so conveniently do, that supply being cut 
off; and, secondly, for the Better supplying of the Halifax 
Market which has hitherto been obliged to furnish itself from 
other Colonies, notwithstanding the great Quantities of Grain 
that are produced at Mines, Piziquid <fe Canard, and which has 
been hitherto transported to Beausejour <fe St. John's River. 
This Law (like all others) is general and does not bind the 
French Inhabitants more or less than all the rest of His 
Majesty's Subjects in the Province. The Inhabitants are not 
constrained to sell their Corn to any Particular person or at 
any fixed Price ; all that is insisted upon is their supplying 
the Halifax Market before they think of sending Corn any 
where else. Their desiring to sell their Grain to Mr. Dyson 
& refusing it to Mr. Mauger for the same money appears very 

Their complaint of not being able to supply the Inhabitants 
of Canard and their other Neighbours with Seed corn is a 
false pretence, because the Roads are very good for Carriages 
& there is no law or Ordinance against carrying Corn by Land. 

The French Inhabitants must be very sensible that every 
possible Indulgence has been shown them, and surely they 
cannot be ignorant that it is the Practice of every Nation to 


hinder the Exportation of Corn untill the whole of that Nation 
is supplyed ; and they may assure themselves that the Govern- 
ment will not suffer corn to be carried as usual to Beausejour 
& St. John's, but are determined to prevent it at any rate, by 
the most rigorous Execution of the Penal Laws that are or 
may be made on that occasion. 

Letter from Secretary Cotterell to Copt. Murray. 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office, 23 September 1754. 
Dear Sir, — 

I am favoured with yours of the 20 instant. The Colonel 
desires you would keep an Eye upon Daudin, and if you have 
nny Certainty of his meddling in affairs that are not purely 
Ecclesiastical you are desired to send us information of it. 

You must absolutely refuse passes to those inhabitants that 
want to go to Beaubassin, and acquaint them that they are to 
pay not the least regard to any Declaration or order whatsoever 
Irom Mr. Le Loutre or any person Civil, Military or Ecclesias- 
tical, except such as go forth from his Majesty's Government 
tinder which they live, and that we know of no right nor au- 
thority that either Mr. Leloutre or his master can have to the 
Lands in any of tho Districts of Chignecto ; and further, that 
if the Inhabitants within the Peninsula attempt to go thither 
on any Summons whatever, they must expect to forfeit their 
Lands within the Peninsula. 

I am Ac. 

To Capt. Murray. 

At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax on 
Tuesday, the 24th day of Sept., 1754. 


Charles Lawrence, Esq., President. 
Benj Green, 
Jno. Collier, 
Willm. Cotterell, 
Robt. Moftckton, 

The President communicated to the Council the following 
Letter from Capt. Murray Commanding at Fort Edward, which 


*• " 


was brought this day from thence by a Party commanded by 
Capt. Cox, also a Remonstrance signed by several of the 
French Inhabitants. 


I wrote to Capt. Cotterell by last Courier to acquaint 
You, that I imagined Daudin was very busy with the Inhabi- 
tants : besides the Informations I had received of his being so, 
another reason which induced me to believe it, was, the In- 
habitants brought in their Wood fast before his Arrival, and 
not one Stick since. 

This morning the inclosed Paper, Signed by upwards of 
Eighty was brought me and delivered by Jean Herbert Deputy 
of Trahan, &c, Bruneau Trahan Deputy for the River St. 
Croix, Jean Landry for the Deputy of Landry Villages, and 
Jacques Le Blanc for the Deputy of Forret and Rivet, this 
last being Courier. It seemed to me of so extraordinary 
nature and of such Importance, that I thought the sooner 
You was acquainted with the same the better, and at the 
same time did not think proper to trust an Extraordinary 
Courier with it, therefore have sent Capt. Cox, who was pre- 
sent when I dismissed the Deputies, and likewise can inform 
You of the disposition of the Inhabitants and behaviour of 
the Priest from whom I am now conyinced all this comes, than 
I can write you. 

Inclosed is a Copy of my last Orders in consequence of 
yours upon the Petition from the Forrets and Rivets, desiring 
to be excused from bringing Fuel for the Garrison. 

Capt. Cox can also inform You of their Behaviour during 
the Repairs of the Fort and answer you many Questions, 
which is impossible for me to think of at present and may 
occur to You. 

I have sent you some Letters directed to Daudin which on 
this occasion I thought best to let you have before he received 

I am with great Respect and Esteem, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) A. MURRAY. 
Fort Edward, 22nd Sept., 1754. 

The Council having taken the same under Consideration 
were of opinion and did Advise that the Commanding Officer 

H ••# 


should b©i instructed to Repeat his Orders to the Inhabitants 
to bring in the Firewood upon pain of Military Execution 
being done upon them. And it was likewise Resolved that 
Mr. Daudin and five of the principal of the said Inhabitants 
should be Ordered to Repair immediately to Halifax to give 
an Account of their Conduct, and that if they should neglect 
to obey such Order within Twelve hours, that then the Com- 
manding Officer should be instructed to cause them to be 
taken into Custody and send them to Halifax without delay. 

Jno. Duport, Sec. Concl. 

Extract from Minutes of a Council holden at the Governor's 
House in Halifax on Tuesday the 1st Octr. 1754. 


Charles Lawrence Esqr. President, 
Bonj: Green, 


Jno. Collier, 
Willm. Cotterell, 
Robt. Monckton, 

# * * The President communicated to the Council the 
following Extract of another Letter from Captain Murray 
Commanding at Pisiquid relating to the Conduct and behaviour 
of the Priest Daudin. 

" Sir,— 

" I take the Opportunity of Doctor Steele going to Hali- 
fax, to Inform you of what is past here since my last by Capt. 
Cox. On Monday the Priest Daudin came to the Fort to pay 
me a Visit, but as his Insolence had been so great, I refused 
to see him lest he should have provoked me to have said or 
done anything that I should afterwards have been sorry for ; 
he then went down to Mr. Manger's Store, where he run on in 
a most insolent and treasonable manner, saying the bitterest 
things both against the Government and yourself; this, Mr. 
Deschamps came and related to me, and told me the Priest 
was very desirous to see me, but I still declind it as I was 
determined to take no Step till I heard from You. 

" Yesterday he came again to the Store and sent Mr. Des- 
champs to me begging he might see me at any rate if it was 
but for five minutes, to which I consented. So soon as he 
entered the Room he told me that he was come to let me know 


three hundred Indians were come to the Country With no 
good Intention, that they were resolved to kill any body I 
should send Courier, and as both he and the Inhabitants had a 
great personal regard for me, intreated I would take care of 
myself. I asked him if they had such a regard for me, why 
they had taken such a Step as they had done, and disobeyed 
my Orders ; as for that he said he could not answer, as he was 
ignorant of the Representation till Monday morning, but that 
I had taken a very wrong Step in not consulting him before I 
acquainted You with it, which if I had, he would have brought 
the Inhabitants in a very submissive manner to me, but in- 
stead of that, I had sent a Detachment to Colonel Lawrence 
who was a man the Inhabitants personally hated, and disliked 
his Government so much, they could never be easy under it, 
he having treated them so harshly when amongst them. I 
asked him where all the Inhabitants were that few or none 
came to the Port as usual. Sir says he, they are assembled 
together and consulting Mischief against the English, they are 
three Thousand in number, and tho' they have not all Arms 
yet they have Hatchets, they are so irritated against Colonel 
Lawrence and the Government, their Grievances being so 
great, that God knows what they may do. I asked them what 
these were, he said they ought to have been contracted with 
for the Wood, and not to have treated a People who were free, 
as Slaves by forcing them to provide it, they were, likewise 
refused Passports to go to Beaubassin, and a liberty to carry 
the Corn where they pleased. I ordered him to go away and 
mind his ecclesiastical charge only. All this you may depend 
on, for as the Priest speaks so fast I did not care to trust to 
my own knowledge of the French Language therefore had 
Mr. Deschamps to interpret betwixt us and the Officers pres- 
ent, lest he should deny any thing that past. 

If the Couriers do not go down this Week you may depend 
on it, it is by his means they are prevented, as all the Affair 
of the Indians or the Inhabitants taking up Arms is false, for 
Mr. Deschamps told me this morning that in Conversation 
with some of them, he told them what the Priest had said, 
they were astonished and declared they had no Intention ever 
to take up Arms, for if at the Return of the Party from Hali- 
fax they were ordered to bring in the Fuel notwithstanding 
their Representation, they were resolved to obey." 

(Signed) A. Murray, 

Jno. Duport, Sec, Cone, 


Extract from Mintdes of a Council holden at the Governor's 
House in Halifax on Wednesday the 2nd day of October ,11 5i* 

Present — 

Chas. Lawrence Esqr. President. 
Benj. Green, 
Jno. Collier, 

Willm. Cotterell, j-Councls. 
Robt. Monckton, 
*John Rous, 

* * * * Whilst the Council were sitting Captain Cox 
arrived with a Detachment from Pisiquid and brought the 
President the following Letter. 

U SlR >~ 

"I received your Orders by Captain Cox last Fryday be- 
tween the hours of Twelve and One at noon, and immediately 
sent for the Priest, and told him in presence of the Officers 
that it was your Orders he should forthwith set out for Hali- 
fax, he pretended he was sick, tho' able to walk to the Fort 
when sent for. I told him your Orders would admit of no 
delay or Excuse. 

* Captain John Rous had been master of a Boston Privateer. He was sent 

with two ships of 14 guns each, in the summer of 1744 to the Northern coast 
of Newfoundland) where he attacked the Port of Fishot, defended by a French 
fleet of five large armed vessels, all of which he took ; he also took another 
ehip at St. Julian's, of 10 guns, and ten vessels on the Banks. He retook a 
British ship, burned all the fishing establishments in seven different Harbors, 
and destroyed upwards of eight hundred fishing vessels — all within the short 
space of one month. — Otis Little's " State of Trade" p. 79. He was next en- 
gaged in the expedition against Cape Breton in 1745. He commanded the 
Shirley Galley, 24 guns, one of the fleet fitted out at Boston for that service, 
and was appointed second in command, under Capt. Tyng. After the capture 
of Louisburg, he was despatched by Governor Shirley to England, with news 
of the victory ; and as a reward for his gallant services, he was made a Captain 
in the Royal Navy on the 24th Sept., 1745. He returned to Louisburg in com- 
mand of the Shirley ; and in 1749 was doing duty at Annapolis and in the Bay 
of Fundy. In 1755 he commanded the little squadron which conveyed the Ex- 
pedition under Monckton against Beausejour and the other French forts at the 
Isthmus, after which he sailed to the River St. Johns, where he destroyed all 
the French fortifications and settlements. In 1756, he was with the unsuccess- 
ful expedition against Cape Breton, under Lord Loudon ; and while in com- 
mand of the Winchiisea, 20 guns, he captured a French ship of 16 guns. The 
next year he was in command of the Sutherland, 60 guns, at the second siege 
and capture of Louisburg, and in 1759 at the siege of Quebec. It was from bis 
•hip that General Wolfe issued his last order, before storming the heights. 
Capt. Rous settled at Halifax. He was sworn in member of Council 1st Octr., 
1754, and died in 1760. His daughter married the Hon. Richd. Bulkcley, the 
provincial Secretary. — N. T. Documents, vol. x. Murdoch's Hist. N. S. t vol 2, 
p. £92. Council Books A r . S. Hutchinson's Mass. vol. 2. 


226 nova scorn document. 

" I likewise sent for Claud Brossart, Charles Le Blanc, Bap' 
tiste Galeme, Jacque Forret, and Joseph Herbert, who all 
came excepting Forret, who is really ill having fallen' from » 
Barn. I also gave them the same Orders before the Officers,, 
which they very insolently disputed, desiring me to producer 
my Authority for so doing by shewing them your Orders ta 
me, and were so impudent I was obliged to push them out of 
my Room. 

" Yesterday I found Daudin's sickness was nothing but * 
Sham as he was able to say Mass. I also learned that the* 
four others in place of getting ready to go to Halifax were 
employed in drawing Petitions and holding seditious As- 
semblies, so sent for them and put them Prisoners, and after- 
wards brought Daudin in and confined him to the Fort. Cap- 
tain Cox, Lieut. Mercer and Ensign Peach with a strong Party 
escorts them down, the two last being present at the Con- 
ference I had with the Priest, an Account of which I wrote 
you by Doctor Steele. Inclosed is a Copy of my last Orders 
given to the Inhabitants, but I have not as yet heard they are 
disposed to obey them. 

" Captain Cox will inform you of any thing omitted here, 
I am with the greatest Respect 

Your most obedt. humble Servt. 

(Signed) A. MURRAY." 

Fort Edward 30th Sept. 1754. 

Ordered that Mr. Daudin be taken into the Custody of the 
Sheriff, that the four Frenchmen be confined, and that the 
Council meet again at five o'clock in the Evening, in order to 
Examine into the Conduct of the Priest Daudin and the 
French Inhabitants. 

At five o'clock in the Evening the Council reassembled and 
began with the Examination of the French Inhabitants. 

At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax on 
Thursday the 3rd Oct., 1754. 

Present — 

Chas. Lawrence, Esq., President. 
Benjn. Green, 
Jno. Collier, 
Willm. Cotterell, 
Robt. Monckton, 
Jno. Rous, 



The Council being assembled Mr. Daudin and the French 
Inhabitants were called in and Mr. Daudin presented the paper 
which he called his Defence : The same having been read 
and fully considered and nothing appearing therein material 
towards the Justification of his conduct and behaviour, but 
on the contrary, everything clearly and evidently proved 
agajnst him, with which he had been charged by Captain 
Murray } and moreover, it having been observed to him 
that whilst he "was at Annapolis, he had created much un- 
easiness and discontent amongst the Inhabitants there, also 
that the Inhabitants of Pisiquid who were very quiet and 
obedient, in his Absence, grew immediately refractory and 
disobedient upon his return to thein, The Council came to 
a Resolution, with which he was acquainted in the following 

" You have "been ordered to this Place upon a Complaint of 
■" the Commanding Officer at Pisiquid, of your having behaved 
"" in an unbecoming and insolent manner there, and upon Exam- 
" inatiou, it has been fully proved that you have in an impu« 
il dent and threatening manner before the said Commanding 
■" Officer and other of His Majesty's Subjects, uttered Words* 

highly reflecting upon His Majesty's Government ; also that 

your behaviour amongst the Inhabitants has been such as has. 

a Tendency to promote Seditious and undutiful behaviouf- 

towards his Majesty's Government which are Crimes of a. 

very high nature and for which vou might justly expect. 

severe punishment, but in regard of your Function, The 
** Council have omitted your deserved punishment therefor,, 
<l and only have resolved to remove you out of the Country, as 
<l they are determined that no Priest shall remain in the Pro* 
"" vince who shall dare to intermeddle with the Affairs of His. 
*' Majesty's Government." 

The Inhabitants were then severely reprimanded and ex- 
horted to return and immediately bring in the Wood as had 
been ordered, which Duty if they neglected any longer to, 
perform they would certainly suffer military Execution. 

Jno. Duport, Secy. Cone. 



- At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax onx 
Wednesday the 9th day of Oct., 1754. 

228 jtota scotia vocvimm. 


Chas. Lawrence, Esq., President, 

Jno, Collier, "! 
Willto. CotterelL * _ _ 
Robt, Monckton; f Comics ' 
Jno, Rous, J 

The President acquainted the Council that six French Fatni' 
lies, consisting of Twenty-eight Persons, who had deserted 
their Lands in this 1 Province were afrtrived at Halifax, and 
desired to be permitted to return to their said Lands. The 
Heads of the said Families being called in and asked the 
Reason of their quitting their Lands, They declared that upon 
the first Settling of the English at Halifax, they were so teTri' 
fied by the Threat* that Mr. Le Leutre had used and his 
declaring the great distresses they would be reduced to if 
they remained under the Dominion of the English, That they, 
on that account, had retiretf and were set down on the Island 
of Cape Breton, where they had remained ever since ; but 
.that the Land there being so Very bad they were utteTly inca^ 
jfolble t)f subsisting their Falsifies, and had applied to the 
-ffoverijor of Louisbourg for leave to return to their former 
Habitations, to which he had consented. They further dc 
clared that if the Council would permit tliem to enjoy their 
fflhner Lands, that they, were willing to take the Oath of 
Allegiance to His Majesty, and that their future Behaviour 
.should be unexceptionable. 

The Council being of Opinion that the return of these 
"People might have a good Effect, not only on the Germau 
Settlers, many of whom had formerly deserted to the French, 
but also on the other French Inhabitants, by voluntarily 
taking the Oath of Allegiance to His Majesty, unqualified by 
any reservation. And it appearing that they were in very 
great distress being intirely destitute of all necessaries, It 
was Resolved that they should be permitted to return to their 
former Possessions, and that Twenty-four of them being the 
most necessitous, should be allowed Provisions during the 
Winter, and that the other four should have a Week's- Provi- 
sions given them to Subsist them till they returned to their 
former Habitations at Pisiquid where they would be assisted 
by their Friends and Relations. 

The said Inhabitants then very chearfully took the Oath of 
Allegiance to his Majesty, appointed to be taken by the french. 
Inhabitants. * * * * * * 

Jno. Dotort, Secy. CHAS : LAWRENCE. 


Thomas Pichon* to Captain Scott. 

(Translated from the French.) 

October 14th 1754. 
Sir and very dear friend, — 

I believe I replied to the letter with which you honored 
Hie two months ago. I expected to receive one from you 
since, and because I am tired of waiting for the pleasure of 
hearing from you, I am now going to tell you all that I know, 
for the purpose of inducing you to write. Daudin's affair is 
causing a good deal of noise. We heard of it in the evening 
of the 7th by a man of the name of Jacob Michel from Port 
Royal, who was to bring papers from that priest to Moses, 
which would have been found, no doubt, had a strict search 
been made in arresting him. The next day — Sunday — Moses 
preached a most violent sermon, in which he singularly 
accommodated the British nation, and concluded by saying 
offensive things to the refugees, whoso crimes are, in his 
opinion, the sole cause of the detention of a holy man. He 
afterwards represented to them what they — the refugees*-* 
had to expect from the English. That when they return to 
the other side, they will have neither priests nor sacramefttt, 

* Thomas Pichon (alias Thomas Signis Tyrrell) was a native of France, 
brought up at Marseilles, and in early life a medical student. He possessed 
considerable classical attainments ; and having been employed as tutor in the 
family of a nobleman, obtained through his interest an appointment of inspector 
of hospitals in Bohemia in 1743. While in that country he became acquainted 
with Count Raymond. When the Count was made Governor at Louisburg, in 
the Isle Koyale (now Cape Breton), Pichon went with him as his secretary, 
and held that situation from 1751 to 1753. He was then transferred to Fort 
Beausejour (Chignecto), as a Commissary of Stores. Having become known 
to Captain Scott, the commandant of the English fort on the Isthmus, he 
entered into a secret correspondence with Scott, Hussey, &c, the British 
officers in charge of the English forts, and furnished them with all possible 
information as to the movements of Le Loutre, the state of the garrison of 
Beausejour, &c M until the capture of the forts in 1765. Pichon was made 
(ostensibly) a prisoner with the rest of the garrison. He was brought first to 
Pisiquid (Windsor), and then to Halifax. There he was apparently a prisoner 
on parole, and under the surveillance of Mr. Archibald Hinshelwood, one of 
the officers of Government. Pichon, while in Halifax, made intimacy with 
French prisoners of rank detained there, and reported their plans and conver- 
sations to the Halifax Government. He received money and articles of dress,. 
&c., which he requested from the English commandants in exchange for his 
information. In 1768 he went to London, where he resided until his death in* 
1781. He wrote a book on Cape Breton and St. John island (P. E Island),, 
containing accurate descriptions of the Indians, and other valuable information.. 
This work was published anonymously, in English and in French, in London* 
1760, and in Paris in 1761. He claimed the name of Tyrrell, as that of hi* 
mother's family. — MS. vol. entitled " Tyrrell Papers" N. S, Archives; Mwr~- 
dock's History of Nova Scotia, vol. 2, pp. 261, 272; §c. 


bnt will die like miserable wretches. The vehemence, or 
rather the petulance, with which he preached, exhausted him 
to such an extent that he was obliged to go at it twice. He 
then told these poor refugees to appear, after mass, at the 
commandant's who had a letter from the general of Canada 
for them. The refugees did not come, however. Monsieur de 
Vergor* sent a sergeant twice, to summon them ; a score of 
them arrived in the fort. As they seemed in no hurry to enter, 
the impatient commander went to his door and called them 
himself, and in order to induce them to enter more rapidly, he 
threatened to put them in irons, and spoke to them in the 
harshest maimer. 

After they had got in f M. De Vergor's clerk read to them the 
Jfctter, which is in terms more polite. 

*■ Its tendency is to urge them to stay with the French and to 
establish themselves. It promises them various assistance. 
This letter, as you can well imagine, had been prepared at the 
instance of Mosesf himself. These poor people retired with- 
out compliment. Moses was present and played the part of 
Aaron. He was the spokesman. M. De Vergor stutters. 

This same Moses has since sent some emissaries to the 
priest Chauvreux, who report that Daudin had been trans- 
ferred to Halifax; and yesterday, Sunday, he preached not less 
violently than on the preceding Sunday, concerning the per- 
secuted Daudin ; but he added that he was going to be sent 
to England. Workmen have just been ordered to finish the 
fort, and to repair the road to Bay Verte, which is almost im- 
practicable for carriages. You will have known that on the 
21st of last month, 83 of the refugees sent two of their depu- 
ties to carry their petition to the general of Canada, asking 
for authority to return to their old possessions, since we can- 
not give them on our side land suitable for cultivation ; and 
stating that those which are offered them are in places dis- 
puted by the English — that they are not released from the 

* M. Duchambon de Vergor, commandant at Beausejour, was son of M. Du- 
chambon, who surrendered Louisburg to Fepperell in 1745. He was promoted 
to this post by Bigot, Intendant of Canada, who had served at Louisburg under 
his lather. He had relations in Acadia — his mother being a member of the 
LaTour family. — Murdoch 1 8 Hist. N. S., vol. 2, p. 234. M. Vergor made but 
a feeble defence of Beausejour. He is represented to have been under the 
influence of M. Le Loutre, who commanded his Indian allies. He was be- 
trayed by Thomas Pichon, his commissary of stores, and abandoned by Le 
Loutre, who fled on the approach of the enemy. — Tyrrell papers, N. S. 

,f M. Pichon, throughout his letters, in speaking of the Priest Le Loutre, 
r calls him Moses. 


oath which they have taken to the king of Great Britain ; and 
that, if taken among the French, they are threatened with 
"being punished as criminals. These are the motives. Moses, 
ever vigilant and active, having had communication through 
M. De Vergor, has made the finest observations on this petition ; 
and I have assisted him in manufacturing some very long 
letters, in the form of dissertations for the General, the Bishop, 
and the Intendant These deputies are expected about the 
-end of the month ; perhaps I shall see the replies which they 
will bring, and you shall then see what the politicians and 
casuists will have decided upon. 

In the mean time, Moses declared at the alter to those refu- 
gees who signed the request, that if they did not come to his 
house and retract what they had done 7 and efface their marks 
with their spittle, they should have no paradise to look for- 
ward to, nor sacraments to go to. 

There are several who have not dared to refuse acquies- 
ence In such strong and powerful reasons. ***** 

Yesterday the fourteenth, Moses came and took me to his 
house to read the analysis of his letters from the month of 
January, which I have made for him. He showed me several 
letters, and a journal of the Abbe Daudin, which wo read. 
He had just received the whole by some express which he 
had sent on hearing of his detention. So his (Dau din's) 
papers were not seized at the time of his arrest People 
would have seen some strange things in them. He complains 
to Moses that the English know what is going on here. 
Chauvreux said the same thing some time ago. 

I am still with the most inviolable attachment, 

Omnino Deditus, &c. 

Petition of the Inhabitants of Cobequid to the Inhabitants of 

the Parish of Beaubassin. 

{Tyrrell's papers.) 
(Translated from the French.) 

Brothers, — 

While we were tranquil, and thought we were In the 
enjoyment of peace, Mr. Joseph Gorom* came with sixty 

* Joseph Gorham was a native of New England, and brother to Colonel John 
Gorham. He was a Lieutenant of Rangers in the service of this Province 
under Gov. Cornwallis in 1749. He attained the rank of Major in the Ameri- 
can Rangers, 2nd August, 1760, and that of Lieut. -Colonel in 177L On the 
20th December, 1766, Mr. Gorham took the oaths and his seat as a member o 


men to John Roberts'. Mr. Gorom came stealthily and at 
night, and carried off our pastor and our four deputies. He 
read his instructions, by which he is ordered to seize upon all 
the guns found in our houses, and consequently to reduce us 
to a condition similar to that of the Irish. Mr. Gorom has 
returned to John Roberts'. He has pitched his camp there, 
and expects his brother with a hundred men. 

He is preparing to establish there a block-house and a small 
fort, in order to obstruct the roads and prevent the departure 
of the inhabitants. There is no doubt that the English, early 
in spring, will place vessels to guard the passage of the en- 
trance. Thus we see ourselves on the very brink of ruin, 
exposed to be carried off, and transported to the English 
islands, and to lose our religion. 

Under these unhappy circumstances, we have recourse to 
your charity; and we earnestly ask you to assist us in getting 
out of the hands of the English, and in withdrawing ourselves 
to French territory, where we can enjoy the exercise of our 
religion. We ask you to strike a blow ; and after we have 
driven Mr. Gorom from our parish, we will all go for our 
brothers at Pigiguitz, at Grand Pre, and at Port Royal, who 
will join us for the purpose of delivering themselves from the 
slavery with which they are threatened. We do not seek to 
make war. If the country belongs to the English, we will 
give it up to them ; but as we are the masters of our own 
persons, we wish absolutely to leave it. 

It is your brothers who ask you for help ; and we think that 
the charity, religion, and union that have always existed 
between us, will constrain you to come and rescue us. 

We are waiting for you : you know that the time is hurry- 
ing on ; and we beg you to send us a prompt reply. This is 
what I have been requested to write to you, Gentlemen, in 
faith of which I have signed the present petition. 


Missionary Priest. 

His Majesty's Council. He held for many years the appointment of Lieut. 
Governor of the Military Post of Placentia in Newfoundland, having succeeded 
Capt. Otho Hamilton in that command about the year 1770. His seat in Coun- 
cil was declared vacant in June, 1772. It does not appear that he permanently 
resided at Placentia, as we find him despatched to Cumberland with his com- 
pany of Rangers, on service, in 1776. Col. Gorham took a great interest in 
Indian affairs, and possessed much influence over the Chiefs of the Micmac 
Tribe. The service of the Church of England, in the Micmac language, was 
occasionally read to the Indians, at his house in Halifax, by the Rev. Thomas 
Wood of St. Paul's, during the year 1770.— y. S. Documents; AT. S. Council 
Books; Reports S. P. G. ; Army Lists. 


The Tintamares ask the opinion of the parish as to their 
rendering assistance to the Inhabitants, who implore help. 

Indorsed — Bequest of the Inhabitants of Cobequit. 

The Inhahitants of Acadia to the French King. 

(Tyrrell's Papers.) 

(Translated from the French.) 
SlBE, — 

The French Acadians, catholics, implore your majesty's 
powerful protection. The peninsula, which they inhabit, has 
been ceded to the crown of England by the treaty of Utrecht, 
confirmed, it is said, by that of Aix la Chapelle. By the 
former treaty, they are to enjoy the free exercise of their 
religion, in case they remain in this province; and they have 
the liberty for a year, of leaving it, with all their personal 

Far from limiting these conditions, the English government 
has appeared to grant them still more favorable ones. First, 
in not demanding from them any oath, or any engage- 
ment during the twelve years that have followed the peace of 
Utrecht ; but still more, by the clauses that the government 
itself inserted in 1727, in the oath which it demanded. These 
clauses cannot be separated from the oath ; and, both the in- 
habitants in accepting them, and the government in granting 
them, in the name of King George the Second, have done 
nothing but what was a natural consequence of the treaty of 
Utrecht, and at the same time conformable to the laws of 
Great Britain, where acts, proposed by the people, acquire, 
when they are approved by Royal authority, a force which 
the king himself cannot take away from them. Mr. Cornwallis, 
the new governor of Acadie. intends, however, to oblige all 
the inhabitants to take a new oath without conditions, and 
announces to them by the same order a course quite contrary 
to that of his predecessors, to which the petitioners have 
declared that they could not submit. 

1 ° As to the article concerning religion, it appears that 
the English governor, wishing to undertake the providing of 
priests, and not being willing even that these new mission- 
aries should recognize the authority of the Bishop of Quebec, 
has sought only the means of entirely depriving the people 
of them. 

2° By the obligation to make war, which he wishes to 


impose upon them, and by the other declarations which he 
has made, it seems that he wishes to compel them to take 
tip arms against the savages ; which is not only against all 
justice, since the savages have always lived on good terms 
with them, but it is beyond their power. 

3 ° By declaring, that the year granted to the inhabitants 
of Acadie, to withdraw with their personal property, expired 
in 1714, there appears a design formed for the purpose of 
ruining those inhabitants who nave been lulled to sleep from 
that time by the tranquillity in which they were allowed to 
remain up to 1727, and by the conditions appended to the 
oath, which they have been made to take since. Wherefore 
the said inhabitants beg His Majesty (not only by his pater- 
nal kindness for the french name, and his attachment to reli- 
gion, but by the right which he has to see the conditions of 
the treaty of Utrecht executed) to induce the King of Great 
Britain to revoke the new orders of Mr. Cornwallis, and to 
maintain the said inhabitants in the free exercise of the catho- 
lic religion, and consequently in the right of having French 
missionaries sent by the Bishop of Quebec, who should obtain, 
as heretofore, the permission of the English governor to per- 
form their ministrations. 

4 ° To exempt them from the obligations to take up arms. 
5° As they can not doubt, that the intention of the new 

English government is to embarrass them in their conscience, 
and as several of them have already been proscribed without 
any form of justice, they ask that the year for withdrawing 
with their personal property, shall commence only from the 
day of the publication of the new treaty that shall intervene, 
or from the decree which they hope His Britannic Majesty, 
will issue on this subject. Finally, not being able to know 
what effect their representations will have, they place entire 
confidence in the charity of the King, and they ask that he 
will be kindly pleased to order, that they be furnished with 
grants of French territory joining Acadia, with the same 
favours that His majesty granted to the inhabitants of Isle 

Mr. Cotterett to Copt Murray. 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office, 21 October 1754. 
Dr. Sir, — 

I received your favour, the Inhabitants have given in a 


very submissive Memorial for Daudin, he himself is extremely 

humble and upon promises of future good behaviour on all 

sides he is permitted to return. 

Antoine Henry who came with a Petition from Cobequid in 

behalf of those people whose names you transmitted, has 

taken the oaths and is permitted to return to his Lands and if 

others appear before you & take the oath which I now send 

you for that purpose they will have the same liberty.* 

I am &c. 
To Captain Murray W. COTTERELL. 

Commanding Piziquid. 

Extract from a Letter of Lords of Trade & Plantations to 

Govt. Lawrence.\ 

Whitehall, Octr. 29, 1754. 

Having mentioned to you our Apprehensions of an Indian 
War, and pointed out to you in general the Measures neces- 
sary to be pursued in case such an Event takes place, it leads 
us to take notice of what you say concerning the State of the 
Province with respect to the French Inhabitants, a circum- 
stance which has hitherto Cooperated with Indian Hostilities, 
as an obstruction to its Settlement, which you rightly observe 
will continue to obstruct it while the French remain possessed 
of Forts and Settlements at Beau Sejour, Bay Verte and St. 
Johns, and tho* we cannot form a proper Judgement or give 
a final Opinion of what Measures may be necessary to be 

* At a Council held the same day " upon consideration that the Inhabitants 
had returned to their Duty, and Mr. Daudin had made the highest submissions, 
recanted his former Behaviour, and promised to comport himself, for the future 
dutifully to the Government, were of Opinion that as the Inhabitants could not 
get another Priest this Winter Mr. Daudin be permitted to return." 

f Charles Lawrence was Major in Warburton's Regiment of foot, which 
formed part of the garrison of Louisburg under Govr. Hopson. He came up 
with the army to Halifax, in July 1749, and was soon after appointed by Gov. 
Cornwallis one of his Council. During the years 1750 and 1761, he was en- 
gaged in driving the French from their encroachments at Beaubassin aud Chig- 
necto. In 1752, he proceeded with the Gorman settlers to Malagash Bay, and 
assisted in founding the town of Lunenburg. He attaintd the rank of Colonel 
in the army in 1757. Lawrence administered the government of the Province 
on the retirement of Hopson, and was appointed Lt. Governor in 1754, and 
Governor in chief in 1756. During his administration, the forcible removal of 
the Acadian Frencn from the Province, took place, and was conducted under 
bis directions; after their departure, it was through his exertions that the 
Western and Middle counties were settled by emigrants from the Old Colonies. 


taken with regard to those Inhabitants, until We have laid the 
whole State of the Case before His Maiesty and received his 
Directions upon it, yet it may not be altogether useless to 
point at some Provisional Measures which it may be proper to 
enter upon untill His Majesty's Pleasure can be known. 

We were in hopes that the Lenity which had been shewn 
to those People by indulging them in the free Exercise of 
their Religion, and the quiet Possession of their Lands, 
would by degrees have gained their Friendship and 
Assistance and Weaned their Affections from the French ; 
but We are sorry to find that this Lenity has had so little 
Effect, that they still hold the same Conduct, with respect to 
them and Us, that they did before the Settlement of the Pro- 
vince, furnishing them with Labour, Provisions and Intelli- 
gence and concealing their Designs from Us. 

The Proclamation you issued for recalling those of the 
Districts of Minas and Piziquid, who went to work at the 
Dyke the French are making at Beau Sejour, and the proposal 
you made to employ them at Halifax, was certainly a proper 
and prudent step, and We should have been glad to have 
found that it had the desired Effect, but this is a Circum- 
stance which in the present state of the Province is not to 
be hoped for. 

It is certain that by the Treaty of Utrecht their becoming 
subjects to Great Britain (which We Apprehend they cannot 
be but by taking the Oaths required of Subjects) is made an 
express Condition of their continuance, after the Expiration 
of a Year, and thereforo it may be a question well worth con- 
sidering, how far they can be treated as Subjects without 

Governor Lawrence was appointed to the command of a Brigade by General 
Amherst, at the second siege of Louisburg in 1758. During his administration, 
the first Legislative Assembly was convened at Halifax, under his authority, 
and met on 2nd Octr., 1768. He died at Halifax, on Sunday, 19th Octr., 1760, 
after eight days' illness, in the prime of life, of inflammation of the lungs, said 
to have been caused by a cold, taken at a Ball at Government House. He was 
unmarried. The Legislature voted a monument to his memory to be erected 
in St. Paul's Church, Halifax, " From a grateful sense of the many important 
services which the Province had received from him during a continued course 
of zealous and indefatigable endeavours for the public good, and a wise, up- 
right, and disinterested administration." This monument is not to be found 
among those which now adorn the walls of St. Paul's Church. The expense 
of his funeral was defrayed out of the public chest. — Journals of N. S. Legis- 
lature. Manuscript Documents N. S. 

" He was a man inflexible in his purposes, and held control in no feeble 
hands. Earnest and resolute, he pursued the object of establishing and con- 
firming British authority here with marked success.'" — Murdoch's Hist. 2V. &, 
toI. 2. 


taking such Oaths, and whether their refusal to take them, 
Will not operate to Invalidate the Titles to their Lands ; it is 
a question, however, which We will not take upon ourselves 
absolutely to determine, but could wish that you would con- 
sult the Chief Justice upon this Point, and take his Opinion, 
which may servo as a foundation for any future measure it 
may be thought advisable to pursue with regard to the Inha- 
bitants in general* As to those of the District of Chignecto, 
who are actually gone over to the French at Bean Sejour, if 
the Chief Justice should be of opinion that by refusing to 
take the Oaths without a reserve, or by deserting their Settle- 
ments to join the French, they have forfeited their Title to 
their Lands, We could wish that proper Measures were pur- 
sued for carrying such Forfeiture into Execution by legal 
Process, to the end that you might be enabled to grant them 
to any persons desirous of settling there, where We appre- 
hend a Settlement would be of great utility, if it could, in the 
present situation of things, be effected ; and as Mr. Shirley 
has hinted in a Letter to the Earl of Halifax that there is a 
probability of getting a considerable number of People from 
New England to settle there, you would do well to consult 
him upon it ; but it appears to Us that every Idea of an 
English Settlement at this place would be absurd but upon 
a supposition that the French Forts at Beau Sejour, Bay 
Verte &c are destroyed, the Indians forced from their Settle- 
ments, and the French driven to seek such an Asylum as they 
can find in the barren Island of Cape Breton and St. Johns 
and in Canada. 

Governor Lawrence to Capt Hussey. 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax, 8 November 1754. 
Dear Sir,— 

# * * # Jfr. Le Loutre's Letter Containing his pro- 
posals of Peace with the Indians has been thoroughly consi- 
dered by the Council. 

His articles are so extravagant and so much out of our 
Power to comply with, that the Council don't think it consis- 
tent to make any answer to, or take the least notiee of them. 
The terms in which they are drawn up, shews that he is not 
serious because he asks what he knows to be both insolent 
and absurd, but this is no more than of a piece with the rest 


of his conduct. He will doubtless tell these poor wretches 
that he has made such overtures of Peace for them to us, as 
we might well have granted, and by that means endeavour to 
make them believe they can never have peace with us, in 
order that he may still have them under his influence and 
dependence, this we can easily see is his drift. But I should 
be glad if an opportunity offers, you would endeavour to unde* 
ceive any of the Indians or French Refugees that may fall in 
your way, by assuring them that this Government desires 
nothing more than a firm & solid peace with them upon rea- 
sonable terms and conditions that can be complied with, and 
that the Indians themselves may for this purpose, come to 
Halifax with all manner of Safety, as orders have always been 
given to all Partys sent out not to molest them upon any 
account unless the Indians were the first aggressors by acting 
in a hostile manner. 

As Mr. Daudin his conduct had been so very bad, and he 
had entered so much into affairs of the Inhabitants, which 
were entirely out of his function, that the Council could not 
overlook it ; but upon his acknowledging his fault, and pro- 
mising to behave well for the time to come, he has been 
permitted to return to his charge, <fcc, that Mr. LeLoutre's 

Doctrine of Persecution must fall to the ground of course* 

I am, <&c., 


Captain Hussey, 

Commanding at Chignecto. 

(Tyrrell's Papers.) 
(Translated from the French.) 

Nov. 9, 1751 

You have already learned that the couriers and the deputies 
of the refugees * nave returned from Quebec since Sunday 

They were pretty badly received by the general of Canada. 
The courier has brought several letters from this general, him 
who performs the duties of Intendant, (for Monsieur Bigot has 
left for Prance) and from the Bishop. 

* These were the Acadian* who had been persuaded to abandon their farms 
in Mines, Beaubassin, her., to remore to the country beyond the Isthmus. 


1 have not seen those which the commandant has received, 
but here are copies of those which have been written to 
Moses* by the general, and the Bishop. 

In committing them to you, recollect I beg you that it is of 
the utmost importance to me, that nothing shall transpire 
concerning them, and that Messieurs L e and Scott endea- 
vour to conceal what they contain, even in making use of 
them, otherwise, I shall be ruined, or at least rendered unable 
to act for my friends. 

In Monsieur I)uqueane*s letter of Oct. 15th he thanks Moses 
for his zeal and for the good news which he has sent him : he 
then says 

" Your policy of threatening the English by your savages, 
is an excellent one. They will fear them still more when they 
do strike. 

" The present position of this colony demands that I should 
cause the negociations of the English with the savages to be 
broken up, because they tend to bribe them to attack us, if 
they can succeed by means of presents, money, and fraud as 
they have contemplated doing. I therefore invite both your- 
self and M. Vergor to devise a plausible pretext for attacking 
them vigorously. I rely entirely upon your resources, when 
the question is * the honor of the king's arms and the preser- 
vation of this colony.' 

" Your zeal and your habits are known to me. I am much 
obliged to you for making me acquainted with so good and 
Worthy a person as the Abbe Daudin. It is easy to see by 
what he has written to you, that the English are engaged only 
in treachery, since they dare not march in force. 

" I beg you to continue this correspondence, should it cost 
still more, that I may be informed of what is going on. I 
think that the two rascals of deputies wlioifr you sent me, will 
not soon recover from the fright which I gave them, notwith- 
standing the emollient that I administered after my reprimand, 
and since I told them that they were indebted to you, for not 
being allowed to rot in a dungeon. They have promised me 
to comply with your wishes. I think that your preliminaries 
of peace with the English and your savages would be advan- 
tageous if they were accepted; but as I have reason, to 
believe that this peace might be only feigned for the objects 
which I know they have in view, if the English acquiesce in 
your propositions, they must immediately evacuate their fort r 

• ■ .... . . _ 

* Mr. Loutre. 


and establishments contained in your propositions. But I 
exhort you to be upon your guard against those same pro- 
posals, which I attribute only to the desire to gain time. This 
ruse being similar to that used with our Abenakis at St. 
Francois and Bekanconrt, who have struck vigorously this 
summer. The more I become acquainted with this project 
the more decided I am in thinking that we seould never per- 
mit our Abenakis, Malachites and Mickmacks to make peace 
with the English. I regard these savages as the mainstay of 
the colony, and in order to keep alive this spirit of hatred and 
revenge, we must remove every occasion of allowing it to be 
bribed ; and the present position of Canada demands that 
those nations which are strongly connected should strike with- 
out delay, provided the order shall not appear to come from 
me, because I have precise instructions to remain on the de- 
fensive. Thus I leave you to manage every thing for the 
peace, which I look upon as a feint for your savages. I have 
moreover to recommend you, sir, not to expose yourself, but to 
be on your guard; for I am persuaded that, if the English could 
get their hands on you, they would destroy you, or at least 
make your life a very hard one. You will have doubtless 
remarked, in this scheme of the English, that they wish to 
confine us in such a manner as to prevent our leaving with- 
out being seen by them ; this is another very powerful reason 
to induce you to make use of every means to baffle a project 
which tends only to imprison us. This increases the neces- 
sity of striking with energy, for you know better than I that 
ten scalps would stop an English army — a very lucky circum- 
stance, because by their large number's 'they would soon over- 
run this country." 

Bishop of Quebec to M. Le Loutre. 

(Tyrrell's Papers.) 
[Translated from the French.] 

You have at last, my dear sir, got into the very trouble 
which I foresaw, and which I predicted long ago. 

The refugees could not fail to get into misery sooner or 
later, and to charge you with being the cause of their misfor- 
tunes. It will be the same with those of the island of St. 
John whenever war breaks out. They will be exposed to the 
English, ravaged without ceasing, and will throw the blame 
upon you. The court thought it necessary to facilitate their 


departure from their lands, but that is not the concern of our 
profession. It was my opinion that we should neither say any- 
thing against the course pursued, nor anything to induce it. I 
reminded you a long time ago, that a priest ought not to meddle 
with temporal affairs, and that if he did so, he would always 
create enemies and cause his people to be discontented. 

I am now persuaded that the general and all France will 
not approve of the return of the refugees to their lands, and 
the English government must endeavour to attract them. 
These refugees would do well to demand, 1st. The free exer- 
cise of their religion; and by no means to allow their priests 
to be placed in a position to be compelled to ask, as it were, a 
blessing from the governor. They should take care that the 
bishop shall have the power to visit them at least every five 
years. 2nd. That they shall neither take up arms against 
the French and their allies, nor even act as pilots. 3rd. 
That they shall have the right to leave the country when- 
ever they think proper to do so. Exhort them strongly 
not to return to the English without these conditions ; make 
it appear that without a precise explanation, religion would 
gradually disappear from among them. 

But is it right for you to refuse the sacraments, to threaten 
that they shall be deprived of the services of a priest, and 
that the savages shall treat them as enemies ? I wish them 
conscientiously to abandon the lands they possessed under 
English rule ; but is it well proved that they cannot conscien- 
tiously return to them, seduso perversionis periculo ? I think 
this question too embarrassing to make it the subject of a 
charge ; and I confess that I should have much trouble in 
deciding, even at the tribunal of penance. 

However, you have publicly decided that you wish me to 
pronounce upon it now. 

I did not explain myself to your deputies ; I contented 
myself in representing to them the reasons they had for 
remaining with us, and in encouraging them to exact the con- 
ditions they ask for, as those of the treaty of Utrecht are hot 
sufficiently precise. 

Governor Lawrence to Captain Murray. 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax 27th May 1755. 
Sib, — j •..:. 

* * * * I woud have you use your utmost 



endeavours to take up the three Men mentioned by Major 
Handfield to be at Mines in the Character of French Deserters ; 
but actually inviting the Inhabitants to take Arms for the 
French. If you succeed in twenty-four hours in attempting 
this secretly, I shall be glad, but if not, I woud have you issue 
a Proclamation offering a Reward of Twenty Pounds Sterling 
to whoever shall discover where any one or more of these 
pretended deserters may bo apprehended. You will publish 
this proclamation by means of the Deputies & you must 
assemble them for that purpose and inform them that I am 
well assured there are such persons in the Country in the 
Character of Deserters, but actually seducing the Inhabitants 
to take arms, and that I expect that they apprehend them 
or at least give some accot. of them. I desire you woud, at 
this time also, acquaint the Deputies that their Happiness and 
future welfare depends very much on their present behaviour, 
& that they may be assured, if any Inhabitant either old or 
Young shoud offer to go to Beausejour, or to take arms or 
induce others to commit any Act of Hostility upon the Eng- 
lish, or make any Declaration in favour of the French, they 
will be treated as Rebels, their Estates and Families undergo 
immediate Military Execution, and their persons if appre- 
hended shall suffer the utmost Rigour of the Law, and every 
severity that I can inflict; and on the other Hand such 
Inhabitants as behave like English Subjects, shall enjoy 
English Liberty & Protection. 

I desire you will immediately publish a Proclamation by my 
order, offering a Reward of Twenty Pounds Sterlg. to any 
Person that will apprehend and bring Joseph Dugat com- 
monly called petit Joseph Dugat of Cobequid, or any one or 
more of the Couriers that arrived from Cobequid at Beause- 
jour on the 5th May instant with Letters for the Abbe lo 
Loutre, also the same reward for apprehending the Couriers 
who arrived at Beausejour the Evening of the Said 6th May 
with Letters for said Le Loutre from Mines & Peziquid. I 
would have the Boats employed in cutting off the communica- 
tion with Beausejour, as Couriers will be attempting every 
day to go, as probably Col. Monckton and his transports are 
by this time arrived at Annapolis. * * * 

I am, Ac, 

To Captain Murray. 


Extracts from Letter of Gov.Latorence to Sir Thomas Robinson, 

Secretary of State. 

Halifax, 28 June, 1755; 

I have the honour to acquaint you that the French fort of 
Beausejour surrendered to Lt. Col. Monckton the 16th day of 
June instant, and the next day, a small fort upon the River 
Gaspareau running into the Bay Verte, where the French 
have their principal Magazine for supplying the French Inhabi- 
tants and Indians. 

At Col. Monckton's first arrival, the French had a large 
number of inhabitants and Indians. Four hundred and fifty 
of which were posted at a Blockhouse which they had on their 
side of the River Missaguash to defend the pass of that River. 
* * * When the Fort surrendered there remained 150 
Regulars and about three Hundred Inhabitants. * * The 
deserted French inhabitants are delivering up their arms. I 
have given him (Col. Monckton) orders to drive them out of 
the country. 










At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax on 
Thursday the 3rd July 1755. 

Present — 
The Lieutenant Governor. 

Benj. Green, 
Jno. Collier, n 

Willm. Cottorcll, >" Coi,nC8 - 
Jon . Belcher. 


The Lieutenant Governor laid before the Council the two 
following Memorials, Signed by the Deputies and a number 
of the French Inhabitants of Minas and Pisiquid, and de- 
livered to Capt. Murray the Commanding Officer there, by 
whom they had been transmitted to His Excellency. 

[Translated from the French.] 

" Mines June 10th. 1755." 

" To His Excellency Charles Lawrence, Governor of 
the province of Nova Scotia or Acadie, <fec. Ac. 

11 SlR ~ 

" We, the Inhabitants of Mines, Pisiquid, and the river 

Canard, take the liberty of approaching your Excellency for 

the purpose of testifying our sense of the care which the 

government exercises towards us. 

" It appears, Sir, that your Excellency doubts the sincerity 
with which we have promised to be faithful to his Britannic 

" We most humbly beg your Excellency to consider our past 
conduct. You will see, that, very far from violating the oath 
we have taken, we have maintained it in its entirety, in spite 
of the solicitations and the dreadful threats of another power. 
We still entertain, Sir, the same pure and sincere disposition 
to prove under any circumstances, our unshaken fidelity to 
his Majesty, provided that His Majesty shall allow us the same 
liberty that he has granted us. We earnestly beg your Ex- 


cellency to have the goodness to inform us of His Majesty's 
intentions on this subject, and to give us assurances on his 

" Permit us, if you please, Sir, to make known the annoying 
circumstances in which we are placed, to the prejudice of the 
tranquillity we ought to enjoy. Under pretext that we are 
transporting our corn or other provisions to Beausejour, and 
the river St. John, we are no longer permitted to carry the 
least quantity of corn by water from one place to another. 
We beg your Excellency to be assured that we have never 
transported provisions to Beausejour, or to the river St. John. 
If some refugee inhabitants at the point have been seized, with 
cattle, we are not on that account, by any means guilty, in as 
much as the cattle belonged to them as private individuals, 
and they were driving them to their respective habitations. 
As to ourselves, Sir, we have never offended in that respect ; 
consequently we ought not, in our opinion, to be punished; 
on the contrary, we hope that your Excellency will be pleased 
to restore to us the same liberty that we enjoyed formerly, in 
giving us the use of our canoes, either to transport our pro- 
visions from one river to the other, or for the purpose of fish- 
ing; thereby providing for our livelihood. This permission 
has never been taken from us except at the present time. We 
hope, Sir, that you will be pleased to restore it, especially in 
consideration of the number of poor inhabitants who would 
be very glad to support their families with the fish that they 
would be able to catch. Moreover, our guns, which we regard 
as our own personal property, have been taken from us, not- 
withstanding the fact that they are absolutely necessary to us, 
either to defend our cattle which are attacked by the wild 
beasts, or for the protection of our children, and of ourselves. 

" Any inhabitant who may have his oxen in the woods, and 
who may need them for purposes of labour, would not dare to 
expose himself in going for them without being prepared to 
defend himself. 

" It is certain, Sir, that since the savages have ceased fre- 
quenting our parts, the wild beasts have greatly increased, 
and that our cattle are devoured by them almost every day. 
Besides, the arms which have been taken from us are but a 
feeble guarantee of our fidelity. It is not the gun which an 
inhabitant possesses, that will induce him to revolt, nor the 
privation of the same gun that will make him more faithful ; 
but his conscience alone must induce him to maintain his 
oath. An order has appeared in your Excellency's name, 


given at Fort Edward June 4th, 1755, and in the 28th year of 
his Majesty's reign, by which we are commanded to carry 
guns, pistols etc. to Fort Edward. It appears to us, Sir, that 
it would be dangerous for us to execute that order, before re- 
presenting to you the danger to which this order exposes us. 
The savages may come and threaten and plunder us, reproach- 
ing us for having furnished arms to kill them. We hope, Sir, 
that you will be pleased, on the contrary, to order that those 
taken from us be restored to us. By so doing, you will afford 
us the means of preserving both ourselves and our cattle. In 
the last place, we are grieved, Sir, at seeing ourselves de- 
clared guilty without being aware of having disobeyed. One 
of our inhabitants of the river Canard, named Piere Melancjon, 
was seized and arrested in charge of his boat, before having 
heard any order forbidding that sort of transport. Wo beg 
your Excellency, on this subject, to have the goodness to make 
known to us your good pleasure before confiscating our pro- 
perty and considering us in fault. This is the favour we ex- 
pect from your Excellency's kindness, and we hope that you 
will do us the justice to believe that very far from violating 
our promises, we will maintain them, assuring you that we 
are very respectfully, 


Your very humble and obt. servants," 

Signed by twenty-five of the said inhabitants. 

" Mines, June 24, 1755. 

" To his Excellency Charles Lawrence, Esq., Governor 
of the province of Nova Scotia or Acadie. 

" All the inhabitants of Mines, Pisiquid and the river 
Canard, beg your Excellency to believe that if, in the petition 
which they have had the honor to present to your Excellency,, 
there shall be found any error or any want of respect towards 
the government, it is intirely contrary to their intention ; and 1 
that in this case, the inhabitants who have signed it, are not 
more guilty than the others. 

" If, sometimes, the inhabitants become embarrassed in your 
Excellency's presence, they humbly beg you to excuse their 
timidity ; and if, contrary to our expectation, there is anything 
hard in the said petition, we beg your Excellency to do us the- 
favour of allowing us to explain our intention. 


We hope that your Excellency will be pleased to grant us 
this favour, begging you to believe that we are very respect- 
fully, Sir, 

Your very humble and very obedient servants," 

Signed by forty-four of the said inhabitants in the name of 
the whole. 

The Lieutenant Governor at the same time acquainted the 
Council that Capt. Murray had informed him that for some 
time before the delivery of the first of the said memorials 
the French Inhabitants in general had behaved with greater 
Submission and Obedience to the Orders of the Government 
than usual, and had already delivered into him a considerable 
number of their Fire Arms, but that at the delivery of the 
said Memorial they treated him with great Indecency and 
Insolence, which gave him strong Suspicions, that they had 
obtained some Intelligence which we were then ignorant of, 
and which the Lieutenant Governor conceived might most 
probably be a Report that bad been about that time spread 
amongst them of a French Fleet being then in the Bay of 
Ftmdy, it being very notorious that the sard French Inhabi- 
tants have always discovered an insolent and inimical Dispo- 
sition towards His Majesty's Government when they have had 
the least hopes of assistance from France. 

The Lieutenant Governor likewise acquainted the Council 
that upon his receipt of the first Memorial, lie had wrote to 
Captain Murray to order all those who had Signed the same, 
to repair forthwith to Halifax to attend him and the Council 
thereon, and that they were accordingly arrived and then in 
waiting without. 

The Council having then taken the Contents of the said 
Memorials into Consideration, were unanimously of Opinion 
That the Memorial of the 10th of June is highly arrogant 
and insidious, an Insult upon His Majesty's Authority and 
Government, and deserved the highest Resentment, and that if 
the Memorialists had not submitted themselves by their sub- 
sequent Memorial, they ought to have been severely punish- 
ed for their Presumption. 

The Deputies were then called in and the Names of the 
Subscribers to the Memorial read over, and such of them as 
were present, ordered to Answer to their Names, which they 
did to the number of fifteen, the others being Sick, after which 
Hie Memorial itself was again read, and they were severely 
reprimanded for their Audacity in Subscribing and Presenting 


»o impertinent a Paper, but in Compassion to their Weakness 
and Ignorance of the Nature of our Constitution, especially in 
Matters of Government, and as the Memorialists had presented 
a subsequent one, and had shewn an Appearance of Concern 
for their past behaviour therein, and had then presented them- 
selves before the Council with great Submission and Repen- 
tance, The Council informed them they were still ready to 
treat them with Lenity, and in order to shew them the falsity 
as well as Impudence of the Contents of their Memorial, it 
was ordered to be read Paragraph by Paragraph, and tho 
Truth of the several Allegations minutely discussed, and 
Remarks made by the Lieutenant Governor on each Para- 
graph, to the following Effect, vizt. 

It was observed in Answer to this Paragraph of their Memo- 
rial of the 10th of June 

" That they were affected with the Proceedings 
u of the Government towards them." 

That they had been always treated by the Goverment with 
the greatest Lenity and Tenderness. That they had enjoyed 
more Privileges than English Subjects, and had been indulged 
in the free Excercise of their Religion. That they had at all 
times full Liberty to consult their rriests, and had been pro- 
tected in their Trade and Fishery, and had been for many 
Years permitted to possess their Lands (part of the best Soil 
of the Province) tho 7 they had not complied with the Terms, 
on which the Lands were granted, by Taking the Oath of 
Allegiance to the Crown. 

They were then asked whether they could produce an 
Instance that any Privilege was denied to them, or that any 
hardships, were ever imposed upon them by the Govern- 

They acknowledged the Justice and Lenity of the Govern- 

Upon the Paragraph where 

" They desire their past Conduct might be con 
■" sidered." 

It was remarked to them that their past Conduct was con- 
sidered, and that the Government were sorry to have occasion 
to say that their Conduct had been undutifull and very ungrate- 
full for the Lenity shown to them. That they had no Returns 
of Loyalty to the Crown, or Respect to His Majesty's Govern- 
ment in the Province. That they had discovered a constant 


disposition to Assist His Majesty's Enemies, and to distress his 
Subjects. That they had not only furnished the Enemy with 
Provisions and Ammunition, but had refused to supply the 
Inhabitants, or Government, with Provisions, and when they 
did Supply, they have exacted three times the Price for 
which they were sold at other Markets. That they had been 
indolent and Idle on their Lands, had neglected Husbandry, 
and the Cultivation of the Soil, and had been of no use to the 
Province either in Husbandry, Trade or Fishery, but had 
been rather an Obstruction to the King's Intentions in the 

They were then apked whether they could mention a single 
Instance of Service to the Government. To which they were 
incapable of making any Reply. 

Upon reading this Paragraph, 

u It seems that your Excellency is doubtfull of 
" the Sincerity of those who have promised fidelity, 
" That they had been so far from breaking their 
" Oath, that they had kept it in spight of terrifying 
u Menaces from another Power n 

They were asked What gave them Occasion to suppose that 
the Government was doubtfull of their Sincerity ? and were 
told, that it argued a Consciousness in them of insincerity and 
want of Attachment to the Interests of His Majesty a,nd his 
Government. That as to taking their Arms, They had often 
urged that the Indians would annoy them if they did not 
Assist them, and that by taking their Arms by Act of Govern- 
ment, it was put out of the Power of the Indians to threaten 
or force them to their Assistance. That they had assisted 
the King's Enemies, and appeared too ready to Join with 
another Power, contrary to the Allegiance they were bound 
by their Oath to yield to His Majesty. 
In Answer to this Paragraph, 

" We are now in the same disposition, the purest 
"and sincerest, to prove in every Circumstance 
" Fidelity to His Majesty in the same manner as we 
" have done, Provided that His Majesty will leave 
" us the same Liberties which he has granted us " 

They were told that it was hoped, they would hereafter give 
Proofs of more sincere and pure dispositions of Mind, in the 
Practice of Fidelity to His Majesty, and that they would for- 
bear to Act in the manner they have done, in obstructing the 


Settlement of the Province, by Assisting the Indians and 
French to the distress and Annoyance of many of His Majesty's 
Subjects, and to the Loss of the Lives of several of the English 
Inhabitants. That it was not the Language of British Sub- 
jects to talk of Terms with the Crown, to Capitulate about 
their Fidelity and Allegiance, and that it was insolent to 
insert a Proviso, that they would prove their Fidelity Provided 
that His Majesty would give them Liberties. 

All His Majesty's Subjects are protected in the Enjoyment 
of every Liberty, while they continue Loyal and faithfull to 
the Crown, and when they become false and disloyal they 
forfeit that Protection. 

That they in particular, tho they had acted so insincerely 
on every Opportunity, had been left in the full Enjoyment of 
their Religion, Liberty and Properties, with an Indulgence 
beyond what would have been allowed to any British Subject, 
who could presume, as they have done, to join in the Measures 
of another Power. 

They were told in answer to the Paragraph where, 

"They desire their Canoes for carrying their 
" Provisions from one River to another and for 
" their Fishery " 

That they wanted their Canoes for carrying Provisions to the 
Enemy, and not for their own use or the Fishery, That by a 
Law of this Province. All Persons are restrained from carry- 
ing Provisions from one Port to another, and every Vessel, 
Canoe or Bark found with Provisions is forfeited, and a 
Penalty is inflicted on the Owners. 
They were also told in Answer to the following Paragraph, 

" They Petition for their Guns as part of their 
" Goods, that they may be restored to defend their 
" Cattle from the Wild Beasts, and to preserve 
"themselves and their Children, That since the 
" Indians have quitted their Quarters, the Wild 
" Beasts are greatly increased " 

That Guns are no part of their Goods, as they have no Right 
to keep Arms. By the Laws of England, All Roman Catho- 
licks are restrained from having Arms, and they are Subject 
to Penalties if Arms are found in their Houses. 

That upon the Order from Captain Murray many of the 
Inhabitants voluntarily brought in their Arms, and none of 
them pretended that they wanted them for defence of their 


Cattle against Wild Beasts, and that the Wild Beasts had not 
increased since their Arms were surrendered. That they had 
gome secret Inducement, at that time, for presuming to demand 
their Arms as part of their Goods and their Bight, and that 
they had flattered themselves of being supported in their 
Insolence to the Government, on a Report that some fremsb 
Ships of War were in the Bay of Fundy. That this daring 
Attempt plainly discovered the falsehood of their Professions 
of Fidelity to the King, and their readiness has been visible 
upon every Intimation of force or Assistance from France, to 
insult His Majesty's Government, and to join with his Enemies r 
contrary to their Oath of Fidelity. 
Upon reading this Paragraph, 

" Besides the Arms we carry are a feeble Surety 
" for our Fidelity. It is not the Gun that an In- 
" habitant possesses, which will lead him to Revolt, 
11 nor the depriving him of that Gun that will make 
" him more faithful, but his Conscience alone ought 
11 to engage him to maintain his Oath." 

They were asked, what Excuse they could make for their 
Presumption in thia Paragraph, and treating the Government 
with such Indignity and Contempt as to Expound to them the 
nature of Fidelity, and to prescribe what would be the Se- 
curity proper to be relied on by the Government for their 
Sincerity. That their Consciences ought indeed to engage 
them to Fidelity from their Oath of Allegiance to the King, 
and that if they were sincere in their Duty to the Crown, 
they would not be so anxious for their Arms, when it was the 
pleasure of the King's Government to demand them for 
His Majesty's Service. They were then informed that a very 
fair Opportunity now presented itself to them to Manifest 
the reality of their Obedience to the Government by imme- 
diately taking the Oath of Allegiance in the Common Form 
before the Council. Their Reply to this Proposal was, That 
they were not come prepared to resolve the Council on that 
head. They were then told that they very well knew for 
these Six Years past, the same thing had been often proposed 
to them and had been as often evaded under various frivolous 
pretences, that they had often been informed that sometime 
or other it would be required of them and must be done, and 
that the Council did not doubt but they knew the Sentiments 
of the Inhabitants in general, and- had fully considered and 
determined this point with regard to themselves before now r 


as they had been already indulged with Six Years to form a 
Resolution thereon. They then desired they might return 
home and consult the Body of the People upon this subject as 
they could not do otherwise than the Generality of the Inhabi- 
tants should determine, for that they were desirous of either 
refusing or accepting the Oath in a Body, and could not pos- 
sibly determine, till they knew the Sentiments of their Consti- 

Upon this so extraordinary a Reply they were informed they 
would not be permitted^ Return for any such purpose, but that 
it was expected from them to declare on the Spot, for their 
own particular, as they might very well be expected to do 
after having had so long a time to consider upon that point. 
They then desired leave to retire to consult among themselves, 
which they were permitted to do, when after near an hour's* 
Recess, They returned with the same Answer, That they 
could not consent to take the Oath as prescribed without con* 
suiting the General Body, but that they were ready to take it 
as they had done before, to which they were answered, 
That His Majesty had disapproved of the manner of their 
taking the Oath before, That it was not consistent with his. 
Honour to make any conditions, nor could the Council accept 
their taking the Oath in any other way than as all other His: 
Majesty's Subjects were obliged by Law to do when called 
upon, and that it was now expected they should do so, which 
they still declining, they were allowed till the next Morning at 
Ten of the Clock to come to a Resolution. To which. 

Time the Council then adjourned. 

Jno. Duport, Sec. Con. 

At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax on: 
Pryday the 4th July 1755. 

Present — 

The Lieutenant Governor. 

Benj. Green, 
*Jbo. Collier, 
Willm. Cotterell, 
Jon n . Belcher, 

ell, f 

'> J 


* The Hon. John Collier was a retired officer of the array. He came oat 
with the first British settlers in 1749, and was soon after his arrival appointed* 
ty Governor Cornwallis a justice of the peace for tk* new settlement. Her 


The Council being met according to Adjournment, the 
french Deputies who were Yesterday Ordered to Attend the 
Council, were brought in, and, upon being asked what Reso- 
lution they were come to in regard to the Oath, They de- 
clared they.could not consent to Take the Oath in the Form re- 
quired without consulting the Body. They were then in- 
formed that as they had now for their own particulars, refused 
to Take the Oath as directed by Law, and thereby sufficiently 
evinced the Sincerity of their Inclination towards the Govern- 
ment, The Council could no longer look on them as Subjects 
to His Britannick Majesty, but as Subjects of the King of 
Prance, and as such they must hereafter be Treated ; and they 
were Ordered to withdraw. 

. The Council after Consideration, were of Opinion That di- 
ijrections should be given to Captain Murray to order the 
Rfench Inhabitants forthwith to Choose and send to Halifax, 
new Deputies with the General Resolution of the said Inhabi- 
tants in regard to taking the Oath, and that none of them 
should for the future be admitted to Take it after having once 
refused so to do, but that effectual Measures ought to be 
taken to remove all such Recusants out of the Province. 

The Deputies were then called in again, and having been 
informed of this Resolution, and finding they could no longer 
avail themselves of the Disposition of the Government to in- 

§ige them to a Dutifull Behaviour by Lenity and perswasion, 
ftered to take the Oath, but were informed that as there was 
no reason to hope their proposed Compliance proceeded from 
an honest Mind, and could be esteemed only the Effect of 
Compulsion and Force, and is contrary to a clause in an Act of 
Parliament, I. Geo. 2. c 13. whereby Persons who have once 
refused to Take the Oaths cannot be afterwards permitted to 
Take them, but are considered as Popish Recusants ; There- 
fore they would not now be indulged with such Permission, 
And they were thereupon ordered into Confinement. 

At a Council holden at the Governors House in Halifax on 
Monday the 14th July 1755. 

was also a captain of militia. One of the divisions of the town of Halifax 

hears his name. These divisions were named after the captains of the five 

companies of militia into which the settlers were formed. Mr. Collier was 

appointed a member of Council on 27th January, 1752. He died at Halifax in 

.1769. His wife accompanied him from England. It is uncertain whether 

i there are any of his descendants now in Nova Scotia. — Council Books. N. S. 





The Lieutenant Governor. 

Benj. Green, 
Jno. Collier, • 
Willm. Cottetell, 
Jon n . Belcher. 


^The Lieutenant Governor acquainted the Council that he 
>&as instructed by His Majesty to Consult the Commander in 
Chief of the Fleet, upon any Emergency that might Concern 
the Security of the Province, and that he intenoed to send 
the following Letter to Vice Admiral Boscawen a&d Bear Ad- 
miral Mostyn. 

, V 
"Sir" ■' ' , ,. / 

Cf His Majesty's Council being appointed to meet 
41 at my House to Morrow at Eleven o'Clock in the 
u forenoon, to Consider what Steps it may be proper 
4t to Take for the Security of the Province against 
4i any Attempt that may be made to Annoy us from 
" Canada or Louisbourg in Case of a Rupture, or 
""any violent Measures the French may take by 
u way of resenting the Check that has lately been 
"" given to their encroachments." 

" I am to acquaint You that it is both agreeable 
" to the Instructions I have received from His Mar 
'" jesty, and at the earnest Request of his Council 
" for this Province, that I beg the honour of your 
" Company and Assistance at our Consultation." 

(Signed) CHAS. LAWRENCE-" 


™ Halifax 14th July 1755." 

" Vice Admiral Boscawen" 


1 Letter of the same Tenor and Date to Rear Admiral 

The Council returned His Excellency Thanks, and were 
very desirous that the Admirals might be Consulted. 

Jno. Dupobt, Sec. Con, 


258 nova scotia noctrmasws. 

At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax, 00 
Tuesday the 15th July 1755. 

Present — 

The Lieutenant Governor. 
Benj. Green, 


Jno. Collier, 
Willm. Cotterell, 
Jon n . Belcher, 

The Honble. Vice Admiral Boscawen and Rear Admiral 
Mostyn being also present in Consequence of the Lieutenant 
Governor's Letter. 

The Lieutenant Governor laid before the Admirals the late 
Proceedings of the Council in regard to the French Inhabi- 
tants, and desired their Opinion and Advice thereon. 

Both the said Admirals approved of the said Proceedings, 
and gave it as their Opinion, That it was now the properest 
Time to oblige the said Inhabitants to Take the Oath of Alle- 
giance to His Majesty, or to quit the Country. 

The Lieutenant Governor then communicated to the Coun- 
cil, a Letter by him received from Capt. Rous, informing him 
that the French at the River St. Johns had, upon his Appear- 
ance with His Majesty's Ships under his Command before the 
Fort there, Retreated therefrom after having first rendered 
the Cannon useless, and destroyed by Fire, all the Wood Work 
thereof <&c; and desired the Opinion of the Council in regard 
to the most proper and necessary Measures to be immediately 
taken, in order to prevent the French from availing themselves 
any further of their late Possession thereof, and of Securing 
the said Territory and the Indian Inhabitants thereof to His 
Majesty's Obedience. Upon which the Council were of Opin- 
ion That less Inconvenience would be occasioned by suffering 
the said Fort to remain in its present Condition during the 
present Circumstances of the Colony, than by undertaking 
immediately to Repair and Garrison the same. 

The Council then took into Consideration the Number and 
State of the Troops in this Province, the Impossibility of 
compleating the intended Augmentation at present, and the 
Number of French Troops that had got into Louisbourg and 
the River of Canada, in the Ships that had escaped Admiral 
Boscawen's Fleet. And then the Question was proposed 
whether it would not be absolutely necessary for the Good of 
His Majesty's Service, and the Security of this His Province, 


\o retain in pay the Two Thousand New England Troops now 
under the Command of Lieutenant Colonel Monckton on the 
Isthmus of Chignecto, 

It was unanimously the opinion of His Majesty's Council 
and all present, that they should be retained, at least untill the 
augmentation was compleated, or further orders should be re- 
ceived from England, and it was* Resolved that the Transports 
should be immediately discharged, to avoid any unnecessary/ 

Jno, Duport, Sec : Con : 

Governor Lawrence to Board of Trade. 

Halifax, 18th July, 1755. 
My Lords, — 

Since my last, of 28th of June 1755, sent express by Lieu- 
tenant Cunningham, the French have abandoned their Port at 
St. John's River, and, as far as it was in their power, demol- 
ished it. As soon as the Forts upon the Isthmus were taken, , 
Captain Rous sailed from thence with three twenty Gun Ships, . 
and a Sloop, to look into St. John's River, where it was re- - 

Eorted there were two French Ships of thirty-six Guns each ; 
e anchored off the mouth of the River, and sent in his Boats 
to reconnoitre ; they found no ships there, but, on their ap- 
pearance, the French burst their Cannon, blew up their Maga- 
zine, burned everything they could, belonging to the Fort,, 
and marched off. The next morning, the Indians invited: 
Captain Rous on shore, gave him the strongest assurances of 
their desire to make peace with us, and pleaded in their 
behalf, that they had refused to assist the French upon this 
occasion, tho* earnestly pressed by them. I expect some of 
their Chiefs here in a very few days. 

As the French Inhabitants of this Province have never yet, . 
at any time, taken the oath of allegiance to His Majesty, un- - 
qualified, I thought it ray duty to avail myself i of the present 
occasion, to propose it to them ; and, as the deputies of the 
different districts in Mines Basin, were attending in Town 
upon a very insolent Memorial, they had delivered to the 
Council, I was determined to begin with them. They were 
accordingly summoned to appear before the Council, and, 
after discussing the affair of the Memorial, article by article,, 
the oath was proposed to them ; they endeavoured, as much , 

260 ffOVA 8C0TUL fiOCtfMEtfm 

as possible, to evade it, and at last desired to return froflfc 
and consult the rest of the Inhabitants, that they might either 
accept or refuse the Oath in a body ; but they were informed 
that we expected every man upon this occasion to answer for 
himself, and as we Would not use any compulsion or surprise, 
we gave them twenty four hours time to deliver in their 
answer J and, if they should them refuse, they must expect to- 
be driven out of the country ; and, tho' they should afterwards 
repent of their refusal, they would not be permitted to take 
the oath. The next morning, they appeared and refused to 
take the oath without the old reserve of not being obliged to 
bear arms, Upon which, they were acquainted, that as they 
refused to become English subjects, we could no longer look 
upon them in that light * that we should send them to France 
by the first opportunity, and till then, they were ordered to be 
kept prisoners at George's Island, where they were imme- 
diately conducted. They have since earnestly desired to be 
admitted to take the oath, but have not been admitted, nor 
will any answer be given them until we see bow the rest of 
fthe Inhabitants are disposed. 

I have ordered new Deputies to be elected, and seat hither 
immediately, and am determined to bring the Inhabitants to a 
compliance, or rid the province of such perfidious subjects* 
Your Lordships will see our proceedings in this case at 
large, as soon as it is possible to prepare the minutes of 
Council, ,###*** 

I am, &c, 

The Lords Commrs. 

for Trade & Plantations. 

At a Council holden at the Governors house in Halifax on 
friday July 25th 1766. 

Present — 

The Lieutenant Governor. 

Benj. Green, 

Jno. Collier. 

Willm. Cotterell, - Councs. 

Jno. Rous, 

Jon'n. Belcher. J 

The Honble. Vice Admiral Boscawen and Rear Admiral 


Mostyn being also present. The Lieutenant Governor laid 
before the council the following Memorial which he had 
received from the French Inhabitants of Annapolis river. 

(Translated from the French.) 

"To his Excellency the Honble. Charles Lawrence, 
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of 
His Britannic Majesty's province of Nova Scotia 
and Colonel of one of his regiments of infantry 
<fcc. <fec. &c. 

" Having received your Excellency's orders dated July 
12th, 1755,- we assembled on Sunday, the 13th of the present 
month, in order to read them to all the inhabitants, wishing 
always to observe a faithful obedience. 

"We have unanimously consented to deliver up our fire 
arms to Mr Handfield, our very worthy commander, although 
we have never had any desire to make use of them against 
his majesty's government. We have therefore nothing to 
reproach ourselves with, either on that subject, or on the sub- 
ject of the fidelity that we owe to His Majesty's government. 
JTor, Sir, we can assure your Excellency, that several of us have 
risked our lives to give information to the government concern- 
ing the enemy ; and have also, when necessary, laboured with 
all our heart, on the repairs of Fort Annapolis, and op other 
work considered necessary by the government, and are ready to 
continue with the same fidelity. Wo have also selected thirty 
men to proceed to Halifax, whom we shall recommend to do 
or say nothing contrary to His Majesty's Council ; but we 
shall charge them strictly to contract no new oath. We are 
resolved to adhere to that which we have taken, and to which 
we have been faithful as far as circumstances required it ; for 
the enemies of His Majesty have urged us to take up arm* 
against the government, but we have taken care not to do so."' 

Signed by two hundred and seven of the said inhabitants.. 

The Lieutenant Governor also acquainted the Council that, 
in Consequence of the Order of Council of the 4th Inst.,, the 
said Inhabitants had sent down Deputies with their Answer in 
regard to their taking the Oath of Allegiance to His Majesty, 
and that they were now waiting without. 

The said Deputies were then ordered to be called in, and 
being asked what they had to say, They declared that thejr 


appeared in behalf of themselves, and all the other Inhabitants 
of Annapolis River, That they could not take any other Oath 
than what they had formerly taken, which was with a Reserve 
that they should not be obliged to Take up Arms, and that if 
it was the King's Intentions to force them to quit their Lands, 
they hoped that they should be allowed a convenient Time for 
their Departure- 

The Council then asked them several Questions concerning 
the Allegiance they so much boasted of in their Memorial, 
and the Intelligence which they say they have given the 
Government, of which they were desired to mention a single 
Instance whereby any Advantage had accrued to the Govern- 
ment, but this they were unable to do, on the contrary it was 
made very evident to them that they have always omitted to 
give timely Intelligence when they had it in their Power, and 
might have saved the Lives of many of His Majesty's Subjects, 
but that they had always secretly aided the Indians, and many 
of them had even appeared openly in Arms against His Mar 
jesty. They were then told that they must now resolve 
either to Take the Oath without any Reserve or else to quit 
their Lands, for that Affairs were now at such a Crisis in 
America that no delay could be admitted, that the French had 
obliged us to Take up Arms in our Defence against their En- 
croachments, and it was unknown what Steps they might take 
further, for which Reason if they (the Inhabitants) would not 
become Subjects to all Intents and purposes, they could not 
be suffered to remain in the Country. Upon which they said 
they were determined One and All, rather to quit their Lands 
than to Take any other Oath than what they had done before. 
The Council then told them that they ought very seriously to. 
consider the Consequences of their Refusal, That if they once 
refused the Oath, they would never after be permitted to Take 
it, but would infallibly loose their Possessions ; That the Coun- 
cil were unwilling to hurry them into a Determination upon an 
Affair of so much Consequence to them, and therefore they 
should be allowed till next Monday at Ten of the Clock in the 
forenoon to reconsider the matter and form their Resolution ; 
when their final Answer would be expected. 

And the Council then Adjourned to that Time. 


Jno. Duport, 

Secy. Cone. 


At a Council holden at the Governor's house in Halifax on 
Monday the 28th July 1755. 


The Lieutenant Governor. 

Benj. Green, 

Jno. Collier, 

Willm. Cotterell, }■ Councs. 

Jno. Rous, 

Jon n . Belcher, 

The Hon. Vice Admiral Boscawen and Rear Admiral Mostyn 
being also present. 

The Lieutenant Governor acquainted the Council that the 
deputies from Pisiqaid, Menis and the river Canard were 
^arrived and had delivered the following memorials. 

(Translated from the French.) 

" To the Honorable Charles Lawrence, President of the 
King's Council, Commander in Chief of Nova 
Scotia, Lieutenant Governor of Annapolis Royal, 
Lieutenant Colonel of a regiment of infantrv. 

" The inhabitants of our districts, having been informed by 
Mr. Murray, Commanding Port Edward at Pisiquid, that we, 
the said Inhabitants, are required to send certain persons to 
appear before the Governor at Halifax, to answer the demand 
made upon us, by virtue of an oath, which we are assured, his 
honor requires of us, the inhabitants of our districts in general, . 
take the liberty of representing, that after having taken the 
oath of fidelity to His Britannic Majesty, with all the circum- 
stances and reservation granted to us, in the name of the King, 
by Mr. Richard Philipps, Commander in Chief in the said 
province, which allegiance we have observed as far as possible, 
for a number of years, enjoying peaceably our rights accord- 
ing to the terms of our oath in all its tenor and reserve ; and 
always having relied on our oath of fidelity, both as to its tenor 
and its observance, we are all resolved, with one consent and 
voice, to take no other oath.* We have taken the oath of 

* On the reduction of Port Royal by Gen. Nicholson in 1710, it was stipulated 
by the fifth article of the Capitulation, that the inhabitants living within Cannon 
shot of the Fort, (explained as 3 English miles) were to have the privilege of 
remaining on their lands for the period of two years, they taking the Oaths of 
Allegiance and fidelity to Queen Anne. AH the male inhabitants within that 


fidelity in good faith. We are very well pleased and satisfied* 
We hope. Sir, that you will have the kindness to listen to our 
just reasons ; and, in consequence, we all, with a unanimous 
voice, beg his honor to set at liberty our people who have- 
been detained at Halifax for some time, not even knowing 
their situation, which appears to us deplorable. Wo have 
full confidence, Sir, that his honor will have the goodness to 
grant us the favor which we have the honor most humbly to 
beg. And we will pray for his honor's* prosperity." 

" Pisiquid, July 22nd, 1755." 

Signed by one hundred and three of the said inhabi- 
tants of Pisiquid. 

Prom the inhabitants, of Mines, the river Canard and neigh- 
boring places — 

(Translated from the French.) 

" To his Excellency Charles Lawrence, Esqr., Governor 
General and Commander in chief of the province of 
Nova Scotia or Acadie, and Colonel of a regiment 
in His Majesty's Service in the said province. 

distance, who had not left the Country on the surrender of the place, took 
the Oath unconditionally. This was while Sir Charles Hobby was in. com- 
mand. No reference was made in the capitulation, to the rest of the inliabi- 
tants of the province. They, however, made terms that winter, with Col. Vetch, 
then Lt. Governor of the Fort, who received their submission but required no 
Oath from them. The right to remain on their lands, thus reserved to those 
inhabitants in the neighborhood of Port Royal who had taken the Oath, termi- 
nated in Oct. 1712. As however, in the year 1711, while under the obligation 
of their Oath, they united with the Indians in an attack on the Fort, they were 
considered to have forfeited both their lives and property by that act of Treason. 
Govs, letters to Board of Trade among N.S. Archives. Murdoch's Hist. N.S^ 342. 

In the year 1713, the treaty of Utrecht was concluded between France and 
Great Britain, by the Twelfth article of which all Acadia was ceded to the British 
Crown ; and the fourteenth article expressed : '• That the subjects of the King 
of France may have liberty to remove themselves within a year to any other 
place with all their moveable effects. But those who are willing to remain and 
to be subject to the Kingdom of Great Britain, are to enjoy the free exercise of 
their religion according to the usages of the Church of Rome, as far as the laws 
of Great Britain do allow the same." 

Queen Anne's letter to General Nicholson, of 23rd June 1713, directed him " to 
permit such of them" (the subjects of the King of France) " as have any lands 
or tenements in the places under your government in Acadia and Newfoundland, 
that have been or are to be yielded to us by virtue of the late treaty of peace, 
and are willing to continue our subjects, to retain and enjoy their said lands and 
tenements without any molestation, as fully and freely as other our subjects do 
or may possess their lands or estates, or to sell the same if they shall rather 
choose to remove elsewhere." No mention is made, either in the Treaty or the 
Queen's letter, of a qualified allegiance. It is therefore clearly obvious that 
those who chose to remain, thereby became subjects of Great Britain, and 



n Inasmuch as a report is in circulation among us, the Frei* 
inhabitants of this province, that His Excellency the Governor 
demands of us an oath of obedience conformable, in some 
manner, to that of natural subjects of His Majesty King 
George the Second, and as, in consequence, we are morally 
certain that several of our inhabitants are detained and put to 
inconvenience at Halifax for that object ; if the above are his 
intentions with respect to us, we all take the liberty of repre- 
senting to His Excellency, and to all the inhabitants, that we 
and our fathers, having taken an oath of fidelity, which has 
been approved of several times in the name of the King, and 
under the privileges of which we have lived faithful and obe- 
dient, and protected by his Majesty the King of Great Britain, 
according to the letters and proclamation of his Excellency 
Governor Shirley, dated 16th of September 1746, and 21st of 
October 1747, we will never prove so fickle as to take an oath 
which changes, ever so little, the conditions and the privileges 
obtained for us by our sovereigns and our fathers in the past, 

" And as we are well aware that the king, our master, loves 
and protects only constant, faithful, and free subjects, and as 
it is only by virtue of his kindness, and of the fidelity which 

were bound to take the Oath of allegiance to the Sovereign, when lawfully 

Governor Nicholson came to Annapolis in 1714, and then proposed to the 
French inhabitants of the whole province, the terms agreed on for them, 
which were, to keep their lands and have free exercise of the Roman Catholio. 
Religion, on their becoming subjects of the British Crown, or to dispose of their 
property and withdraw from the country, if they chose, within one year. They 
all chose the latter, and prepared to leave the country ; but the vessels promised 
them from Cape Breton, for the purpose of their removal, not being sent, they 
were compelled to remain. They, however, continued to refuse the Oath, alle- 
ging that they had been detained contrary to their desire, which, says Gov. 
Mascarene, M was partly true, as Gov. Nicholson had declared they should not 
depart in English vessels, and that thu French from Cape Breton might come 
and fetch them in their own, which they would not do ;"* otherwise, it is probable, 
most of them would have retired to Isle Royal and the Island of St. John. Set 
Mascarene? s Letter at page 158. 

On the arrival of Gov. Philipps in 1720, proclamations, calling upon the people 
to take the Oath of Allegiance, with a promise of the free exercise of their 
religion and enjoyment of property, &c, were sent throughout the country; and 
In these proclamations, the oaths as taken after the capitulation, in the time of 
8ir Charles Hobby and Gov. Vetch were referred to, and no terms of neutrality 
offered ; but they continued obstinately to refuse all solicitations to take the 
oath, as may be seen on reference to the letters of Governor Philipps to the 
plantation office about this time. This is confirmed by the assertion of the 
priest and his party who waited on the Governor in 1720, and stated that the 
people in Governor Nicholson's time, had set their hands unanimously to an 
obligation of continuing subjects of France, and retiring to Cape Breton. 

Philipps returned to England in 1722, leaving Armstrong in command, who, in 
the year 1725, obtained from the people of the Annapolis river, an oath of uncoil* 


we have always preserved towards his majesty, that he has 
granted to us, and that he still continues to grant to us, the 
entire possession of our property and the free and public 
exercise of the Roman Catholic religion, we desire to continue, 
to the utmost of our power, to be faithful and dutiful in the 
same manner that we were allowed to be by His Excellency 
Mr. Richard Philipps. 

" Charity for our detained inhabitants, and their innocence, 
oblige us to beg your Excellency, to allow yourself to be 
touched by their miseries, and to restore to them that liberty 
which we ask for them, with all possible submission and the 
most profound respect." 

Signed by two hundred and three of the said inhabitants 
of Menis and the River Canard. 

The said deputies were then called in, and peremptorily 
refused to take the oath of allegiance to His Majesty. 

The Deputies of Annapolis also appeared and refused the 

Whereupon they were all ordered into Confinement. 

As it had been before determined to send all the French 

ditional allegiance ; but on the return of Philipps in 1730, the people represented 
to him that this Oath had been extorted from them unfairly. 

Up to this period, no oath whatever had been taken by the inhabitants of Acadia, 
except that by the people in the neighborhood of Fort Royal, which was one 
of unconditional allegiance. In September 1726, it appears that Gov. Armstrong 
administered the Oath of Allegiance to some of the inhabitants at the Fort of 
Annapolis, and permitted a condition that they should not be called on to bear 
arms, to be inserted in the margin, to satisfy the French deputies ; but he received 
a pevere reprimand from England for so doing. In 1727, on the accession of 
King George II., Ensign Wroth was despatched to Minas, Grand Pre, and 
Chignecto to administer the Oath of Allegiance to the inhabitants of these 
settlements, none of whom had, to this time, so far as it can be discovered, taken 
any oath whatever to the British Government. Having permitted the people to 
take the oath, qualified by a clause exempting thnm from bearing arms in defence 
of the country, he was, on his return to Annapolis to report his proceedings, 
brought before the Council and reprimanded for the course he had pursued ; and 
it was then resolved in Council that the " articles and concessions" granted by 
him " were unwarrantable and dishonorable to H. M. Government and authority, 
and consequently null and void." (We have no copy of this oath.) But Mr. 
Wroth defended himself by declaring that he could not obtain any better terms 
from the people, and that he thought, under the circumstances, it was the best 
course he could pursue for the peace of the country. These proceedings 
were the origin of the claim of Neutrality, afterwards so repeatedly urged on 
the part of the Acadian 8. 

Governor Philipps, on his return to Annapolis in 1730, brought the people, at 
last, to take an unconditional Oath willingly ; and, says Mr. Mascerene, it was 
tendered to and taken by all the males of competent age throughout the pro- 
vince. He also says — the word fidele, used in the oath, made it to be 
called by the Acadians the Oath of Fidelity. (See copy of this Oath at page 84, 
as subscribed by the people of the Annapolis Valley.; 


Inhabitants out of the Province if they refused to Take the 
Oaths, nothing now remained to be considered but what mea- 
sures should be taken to send them away, and where they 
should be sent to.* 

After mature Consideration,, it was unanimously Agreed 
That, to prevent as much as possible their Attempting to re- 
turn and molest the Settlers that may be set down on their 
Lands, it would be most proper to send them to be distributed 
amongst the several Colonies on the Continent, and that a 
sufficient Number of Vessels should be hired with all possible 
Expedition for that purpose. 


Jno. Dupobt, Sec. Cone. 

Governor Lawrence to Col. Monckton. 

Halifax, 31 July, 1755. 

* * * The Deputies of the French inhabitants of the districts 
of Annapolis, Mines and Piziquid, have been called before the 
Council, and have refused to take the oath of allegiance to His 
Majesty, and have also declared this to be the sentiments of 

On this occasion, the inhabitants of the interior desired to have a clause 
inserted, not to be obliged to take up arms against the French, which was not 
introduced, though they declared that it was promised them, which promise is 
said to have been made at Minas by the persons sent to administer the Oath, 
though they did not venture to put it on paper. (See Gov. Mascarene's letter, 
p. 159.) In April 1730, Gov. Philipps announced to the Council the unqualified 
submission of the inhabitants of the whole province, with the exception of seven- 
teen families at Chignecto, and about nineteen families somewhere on the sea 
coast. It is therefore apparent that no qualified oath of allegiance to the 
British Crown had ever been given either by Nicholson, Vetch, Hobby, or 
Philipps, or was any such oath authorized or recognized by the British Govern- 
ment — and as Mr. Murdoch justly observes, no blundering or temporizing on 
the part of subordinates, could vary the position of these people as subjects, 
though they might, to some extent, palliate their errors, and partially account 
for their discontent and disaffection. 

^ The terra " Neutral French" having been so frequently applied to the Acadians 
in public documents — their constant denial of an unqualified oath ever having 
been taken by them, and ihe reiterated assertions of their priests that they 
understood the oaths taken from time to time, in a qualified sense, (by draw- 
ing a distinction between an Oath of fidelity and one of allegiance,) led the 
Governors at Halifax, in 1749, and at subsequent periods, erroneously to sup- 
pose that no unconditional Oath of Allegiance had ever been taken by the 
people of Acadia to the British Crown. — Ed. 

* See Letters from Govr. Lawrence to Secty. Robinson, 1 Augt., 1754; Lords 

of Trade to Govr. Lawrence, Oct. 29, 1754 ; Lawrence to Sir T. Robinson, 30 
Novr., 1755 ; also Lords of Trade to Govr. Lawrence, March 25, 1766. 


the whole people, whereupon the Council advised and it is 
accordingly determined that they shall be removed out of the 
Country as soon as possible, and as to those about the Isthmus 
who were in arms and therefore entitled to no favour from the gov- 
ernment it is determined to begin with them first ; and for this 
purpose orders are given for a sufficient number of Transports 
to be sent up the Bay with all possible dispatch for taking 
them on board, by whom you will receive particular instruc- 
tions as to the manner of their being disposed of, the places 
of their destination, and every other thing necessary for that 

In the mean time, it will be necessary to keep this measure 
as secret as possible, as well to prevent their attempting to 
escape, as to carry off their cattle &c. ; and the better to effect 
this you will endeavour to fall upon some stratagem to get the 
men, both young and old (especially the heads 01 families) into 
your power and detain them till the transports shall arrive, so 
as that they may be ready to be shipped off; for when this is 
done it is not much to be feared that the women and children 
will attempt to go away and carry off the cattle. But least 
they should, it will not only be very proper to secure all their 
Shallops, Boats, Canoes and every other vessel you can lay 
your hands upon ; But also to send out parties to all sus- 
pected roads and places from time to time, that they may bo 
thereby intercepted. As their whole stock of Cattle and 
Corn is forfeited to the Crown by their rebellion, and must be 
secured & apply'd towards a reimbursement of the expense 
the government will be at in transporting them out of the 
Country, care must be had that nobody make any bargain for 
purchasing them under any colour or pretence whatever ; if 
they do the sale will be void, for the inhabitants have now 
(since the order in Council) no property in them, nor will they 
be allowed to carry away the least thing but their ready 
money and household furniture. 

The officers commanding the Fort at Piziquid and the Gar- 
rison of Annapolis Royal have nearly the same orders in rela- 
tion to the interior Inhabitants, But I am informed those will 
fall upon ways and means in spite of all our Vigilance to send 
off their Cattle to the Island of St. John & Louisbourg (which 
jb now in a starving condition) by the way of Tatmagouche. 
I would therefore, have you without loss of time, send thither 
ia pretty strong detachment to beat up that quarter and to 
prevent them, You cannot want a guide for conducting the 
party, as there is not a Frenchman at Chignecto but must per- 
fectly know the road, 

iCADUN FREKCtf. 26§ 

When Beau Soliel's son arrives, if he brings you no intelli- 

fence which you can trust to, of what the French design to 
o or are doing upon the St. John River, I would have you 
fall upon some method of procuring the best intelligence by 
Ineans of some inhabitant you dare venture to put confidence 
in, whom you may send thither for that purpose. 

As to the provisions that were* found in the stores at Beau* 
sejour. The 832 Barrels of Flour must be applied to victual 
the whole of the French inhabits, on their passage to their 
place of destination, and if any remain) after a proper propor- 
tion is put on board of each Transport, it will be sent to 
Lunenburg for the settlers there* 

It is agreed that the inhabitants shall have put on board 
with them, one pound of Flour & half a pound of Bread pr. 
day for each person, and a pound of beef pr. week to each, the 
Bread and Beef will be sent to you by the Transports from 
Halifax, the Flour you have already in store* 

I would have you give orders to the Detachment you send 
to Tatmagouche, to demolish all the Houses &c. they find there, 
together with all the Shallops, Boats* Canoes or Vessels of any 
kind which may be lying ready for carrying off the inhabi- 
tants & their Cattle, & by this means the pernicious intercourse 
and intelligence between St. Johns Island & Louisbourg and 
the inhabitants of the interior part of the Country, willin a 
great measure be prevented. 

Indorsed— Scroll to Col. Monckton, 3 L July, 1756, forwarded by Cap. Cox- 
ton's party, August 2. 

Extracts from a Letter of Govt. Lawrence to Cot. Monckton. 

Halifax, 8 Augt. 1755. 

Last night a Vessel arrived from New York, by which we 
have it confirmed that General Braddock was attacked by the 
French on the 9th of July, about 9 miles from Fort Duquesne, 
that his army was defeated, and that the General died of the 
wounds he received in the engagement, four days afterwards. 

As it is hard to say what may be the consequence of this 
most unhappy affair, you cannot be too much upon your guard 
against any unforseen accident or surprise, and use your ut- 
taost endeavours to prevent, as much as possible, this bad news 
reaching the ears of the French inhabitants* 

The Transports for taking off the Inhabitants will be with 
you soon, as they are almost ready to sail from hence, and by 


them you shall hear further, and have particular instructions 
as to the manner of shipping them, and the places of their 

I am hopeful that you will, in the mean time have accom* 
plished the directions you had in my last with regard to the 
inhabitants* As there may be a deal of difficulty in securing 
them, you will, to prevent this as much as possible, destroy aO 
the villages on the North and North West side of the Isthmus 
that ly at any distance from the Fort of Beausejour, and use 
every other method to distress, as much as can be, those who 
may attempt to conceal themselves in the woods. But I 
would have all care taken to save the stock, and the harvest 
upon the ground, which can be gathered in with any safety to 
the men ; and prevent as much as possible the French fugi- 
tives & Indians from carrying off or destroying the cattle. 

When the French inhabitants are removed, you will give 
orders that no person presume to take possession of any of 
the lands, until a plan of the whole has been laid before me, 
and terms of encouragement to English Settlers deliberately 
formed and made publick. 

I hope you paid due regard to the directions you had in my 
last, for the seizing and securing all the French Vessels, and 
destroying the Villages about Tatmagouche and the French 
Vessels there. 

As we cannot use too much caution for preventing the 
French from rising or joining together in any kind of body to 
our annoyance, I would have you give particular orders for 
entirely destroying and demolishing the Villages of Jediacke, 
Ramsach <fcc, and every thing they find about these quarters, 
from which any sort of support or assistance can be had by 
an enemy. 

Indorsed — Scroll to Col. Monckton, per Capt. Gorham who marched 9 Augt. 


SaLtfaX, ) Instructions for Lieut. Colonel Winslow*, 
11th Augt, 1755. j commanding his Majesty's Troops at Mines, 

Or in his Absence for Captain Alexander 
Murray, commanding his Majesty's Troops 
at Piziquid, in relation to the transportation 
of the Inhabitants of the Districts of Mines, 
Piziquid, River of Canard, Cobequid, dhc. f 
out of the Province cf Nova Scotia. 

Having in my letter of the 3lst of July last acquainted 

Captain Murray with the reasons which induced his Majesty's 
Council to come to the resolution of sending away the French 
inhabitants, and clearing the whole country of such bad sub- 
jects (which letter he will communicate to you together with 
the Instructions I have since that sent him) : it only remains 
for me to give you the necessary orders and instructions for 
putting in practice what has been so solemnly determined. 

That the inhabitants may not have it in, their power to 
return to this Province, nor to join in strengthening the 
French of Canada or Louisbourg: it is resolved that they 
shall be dispers'd among his Majesty's Colonies upon the Conti- 
nent of America. 

For this purpose Transports are sent up the Bay to ship off 
those at Chignecto and Colonel Moncton will order those he 
cannot fill there into Mines Bason to carry off some part of the 

W - I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ I I — — - ■» ■ ■ ■■— ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■■ ■ 111 I II ■!! ■ ,■ m I— ^^ « ■ ■ M ■ M 

* Colonel John Winslow was a native of New England, son of Isaac Win slow, 
of Marshfield in Massachusetts, and great grandson of Edward Winslow, one 
of the first Plymouth settlers. He was a Captain of Provincials in the unfor- 
tunate expedition to Cuba in 1740, and afterwards an officer in the British 
Army and a Major General of Militia. He served as commander of Provincial 
troops in the expeditions to the Kennebeck and Crown Point, and was selected 
by Governor Shirley to command the troops raised in Massachusetts for service 
in Nova Scotia in 1755. This force consisted of two battalions, under Lieut. 
Colonels Scott and Winslow— Governor Shirley himself being Colonel in Chief. 
Colonel Winslow served under General Monckton at the capture of the Forts at 
the Isthmus, and was afterwards employed in the removal of the Acadian 
French from Grand Pre. These Massachusetts troops were afterwards sta- 
tioned at Fort Beausejour in Cumberland, and claimed to be sent home at the 
expiration of one year's service, on an alleged understanding with Winslow ; 
their request being denied, thty fell into a state of insubordination, thereby 
causing much trouble to Governor Lawrence. 

Mr. Winslow died at Marshfield in 1774, aged 71. He was a Councillor of 
Massachusetts, and so great was his popularity, says Minot, that he raised for 
the Expedition under Monckton 2000 men in the short space of two months. He 
left two sons, Pelham and Isaac, both attached to the Royal Cause in the Ame- 
rican Revolt. Winslow's Letter Book and Journal, while engaged in the remo- 
val of the Acadians, are in the possession of the Massachusetts Historical 
8ociety at Boston.— JSWJfcnap'* American Biography. Minofs History Mom** 
217, 18, Thatch*?* Hist. Plymouth* p. 142. Haliburton's Hist. N. £., vol. 1. 

inhabitants of these districts. You will have also from Bostott 
Vessels to transport one thousand persons, reckoning two per* 
eons to a ton. 

Upon the arrival of these Vessells from Boston or Chignectoy 
in the Bason of Mines, as many of the inhabitants of the Dig* 
tricts of Mines, Piziquid, Cobequid, and the River of Canard) 
&ca., as can be collected by any means, particularly the heads 
of Families and young men> are to be shipped on board of 
them at the above rate of two persons to a ton or as near it 
es possible. The tonnage to be ascertained by the Charted 
Partys of the several transport Vessels which you will be 
furnished with an account of from the masters. 

And to give you all the ease possible respecting the victual* 
ling of these transports 1 have appointed Mr. George Saul to % 
act as agent Victualler upon this occasion and have given hiih 
particular instructions for that effect which he has directions 
to communicate to you and to furnish you with a Copy of upon 
his arrival from Ohignecto with the provisions ordered fof 
victualling the whole transports. 

Destination qf the Vessels appointed to rendeav&Us in the 

Bason of Mines. 

To be sent to North Carolina 

Such a numW as will transport Five hundred persons, ot 
To be sent to Virginia 

.Such a number as will transport one thousand persons, & 
To Maryland 

Such a number as will transport Five hundred persons, ot* 
in proportion, if the number to be shipped off should 
exceed Two thousand persons. 

If the Transports from Boston should arrive in Mines Bason 
before Mr. Saul the Agent Victualler shall arrive from Chig- 
heCto they toust remain there till he does arrive with the 
provisions. But in case you shall have embarked any of the 
inhabitants before the Agent Victualler be on the spot you 
will if necessary allow each person so embarked 5 pounds of 
flour and one pound of pork for 7 days which allowance Mr. 
Saul has orders to replace. 

When the people are embarked you will please to give the 
Master of each Vessel one of the letters (of which you will 
receive a number signed by me) which you will address to 
the Governor of the Province or Commander in Chief for the 


time being where they are to be put on shore, and enclose 
therein the printed form of the certificate to be granted to the 
Masters of the Vessels, to entitle them to their hire as agreed 
upon by Charter party, and with these you will give each of 
the masters their sailing orders in writing to proceed accord- 
ing to the above destination and upon their arrival imme- 
diately to wait upon the Governors or Commanders in Chief 
of the provinces to which they are bound with the said letters 
and to make all possible dispatch in debarking their passen- 
gers and obtaining certificates thereof agreeable to the form 
aforesaid. And you will in these orders, make it a particular 
injunction to the said masters to be as careful and watchful as 
possible during the whole course of the passage, to prevent 
"the passengers from making any attempt to seize upon the 
Vessel, by allowing only a small number to be upon the decks 
at a time and using all other necessary precautions to prevent 
the bad consequences of such attempts ; and that they be 
particularly careful that the inhabitants have carry 'd no arms 
or other offensive weapons on board with them at their em- 
barkation as also that they see the provisions regularly issued 
to the people agreeable to the allowance proportioned in Mr. 
George SauPs Instructions. 

As Captain Murray is well acquainted with the people and' 
with the country I would have you to consult with him upon 
all occasions and particularly with relation to the means neces- 
sary for collecting the people together so as to get them on 
board, and if you find that fair means will not do with thenr,, 
you must proceed by the most vigorous measures possible not 
only in compelling them to embark but in depriving those who • 
shall escape of all means of shelter or support by burning 
their houses, and by destroying every thing that may afford/ 
them the means of subsistence in the Country. 

You will receive herewith a Copy of the Charter party,, 
which the Masters of the transport Vessels, taken up here, . 
have entered into with the Governmt. for your information ; 
as to the terms ; those from Boston will be nearly the same ; 
and as you see they are hired by the month, you will use all; 
possible dispatch to save expence to the publick. 

If it is not very inconvenient I would have you send the 
Sloop Dove to Annapolis to take on board part of the inhabi- - 
tants there destined for Connecticut to which place that vessel . 

When you have executed the business of shipping off all 
that can be collected of the inhabitants in the districts about; 


274 NOVA SCOffA D<5CtrtifcNT& 

Mines Bason you trill inarch yourself or send a strong Defacfr* 
ment to Annapolis Royal to assist Major Handfield in shipping' 
off those of that River, and you will so order ft. as all the 
stragglers that may be met with by the Way may be taken up 
and carried to Annapolis m order to their befog shipped with 
the rest. 

As soon as the Transports have received their people on 
board and are ready to sail yoti are to acquaint the Comman* 
der of his Majesty's Ship therewith that he may take- them 
tinder convoy and put to sea without loss of time. 

lndor$ed~*-Colonel Winslow's Instructions, August 11, 1755* 

HALfPAX, > Instructions for Major Joan HAttDFlfcLD ,* 
11th Augt, 1755. j commanding his Majesty 's Garrison of Anna* 

polis Boyal in relation to the transportation 
of the Inhabitants of the Districts of Annapo 
'Ms River and the other French Inhabitants 
out of the Province of Noxfa Scotia. 

Having in my lertter of the 31st of Jtrly last, made yon 
acquainted with the reasons which induced life Majesty's 
Council to come to the Resolution of sending awacy the French 
inhabitants, and clearing the whole country of such bad sub- 
jects, it only remains for me to give you the necessary orders 
for the putting in practice what has befell so solemnly deter* 

That the inhabitants may not have ft iir their power to re- 
turn to this Province, nor to join in strengthening the French 
rof Canada or Louisbourg : It is resolved that they shall be dis* 
persed among his Majesty's Colonies upon the Continent of 

For this purpose, transports are ordered to be sent from 
•Boston to Annapolis to ship on bpard one thousand persons, 
reckoning two persons to a ton ; and for Chignecto Transports 
have been taken up here to carry off the Inhabitants of that 

place : and for those of the districts round Mines Bason 

----- - - - -. . 

* John Handfield was an officer in General Philipps's Regt., stationed at An- 
napolis. He was appointed a member of Council by Gorr. Armstrong in 1730. 
He remained at Annapolis with his regiment after the establishment of the Go- 
vernment at Halifax, and eventually became a Lt. Col. He was serving in 
America as Lt. Col. of the 40th Regt. in 1759. It is probable that he died 
about 1768, as his name does not appear in the Army List after that year. 
.There are several descendants of Col. Handfield In Nova Scotia. — JV. S. Coun* 
ceil Books. Army Lis f 1759 ajid. 17G3. 

transports ate ordered from Boston. As Annapolis is the 
place where the last of the Transports will depart from, any of 
the Vessels that mav not receive their full complement up the 
Bay, will be ordered there ; and Colonel Winslow with his de- 
tachment will follow by land and bring tip what stragglers he 
may meet with to ship on board at your place. 

Upon the arrival of the Vessels from Boston in tho Bason 
x)f Annapolis, as many of the inhabitants of Annapolis Dis* 
trict as can be cottected by any means, particularly the heads 
of Families and Young tnen, are to be shipped on board of 
them at the above rate of two persons to a ton, or as 
liear it as possible. The tonnage of the Vessel to be ascer- 
tained by the Charter Parties, which the toasters will furnish 
you with an account of. 

And to give you all the ease possible respecting the Vic- 
tualling of these transports) I have appointed Mr. George 
Saul to act as Agent Victualler upon this occasion, and have 
given him particular instructions for that purpose, with a 
copy of "which hfe will furnish you upon his arrival at Anna- 
polis Royal from Chignecto, With the Provisions for victualling 
the whole transports. But in case you should have shipped 
any of the inhabitants before his arrival, you will order fivB 
pounds of flout and one pound of pork to be delivered to 
each person so shipped, to last for seven days, and so on till 
Mr. SauPs arrival, and it will be replaced by him into the 
stores from what he has on board the provision vessels for 
that purpose. 

The Destination of the Inhabitants of An- 
napolis River, and of the transports 
oraered to Annapolis Bason.* 

To be sent to Philadelphia, Such a number of vessels as 
"will transport three hundred persons. 

To be sent to New York, Such a number of Vessels as will 
transport two hundred persons. 

To be sent to Connecticut, Such a number of Vessels 
(whereof the Sloop Dove Samuel Forbes masteT to be one) 
as will transport three hundred persons, & 

To be sent to Boston, Such a number of Vessels as will 
transport two hundred persons, or rather more in proportion 
to the Province of Connecticut, should the number to be ship- 
ped off exceed one thousand persons. 

When the people are embarked you will please to give the 
master of each vessel one of the Letters (of which you will 


receive a number signed by me) which you will address to 
the Governour ot the Province, or the Commander in Chief for 
the time being, where they are to be put on shore, and endorse 
therein the printed form of the Certificate to be granted to 
the masters of the vessels, to entitle them to their hire as 
agreed upon by Charter Party : And with these you will give 
each of the masters their sailing orders in writing to proceed 
according to the above destination, and upon their arrival im- 
mediately to wait upon the Governors or Commanders in 
Chief of the Provinces to which they are bound, with the said 
letters, and to make all possible dispatch in debarking their 
passengers and obtaining Certificates thereof agreeable to the 
form aforesaid r and you will in these orders, make it a parti* 
cular injunction to the said masters to be as careful and 
watchful as possible during the whole course of the Passage,, 
to prevent the passengers making any attempt to seize upon 
the Vessels, by allowing only a small number to be upon the 
decks at a time, and using all other necessary precautious to 
prevent the bad consequences of such attempts ; and that 
they be particularly careful that the Inhabitants carry no arms 
nor other offensive weapons on board with them at their Em- 
barkation, as also that they see the provisions regularly issued 
to the people agreeable to the allowance proportioned in 
Mr. George Saul's Instructions. 

You will use all the means proper and necessary for collect- 
ing the people together so as to get them on board : If you 
jjind that fair means will not do with them, you must proceed 
by the most vigorous measures possible r not only in compel- 
ling them to embark, but in depriving those who shall escape 
of all means of shelter or support, by burning their houses 
and destroying every thing that may afford them the means of 
subsistence in the Country ; and if you have not force sufficient 
to perform this service, Colonel Winslow at Mines or the com- 
manding officer there will upon your application send you a 
proper reinforcemeet. 

You will see by the Charter Partys of the Vessels taken up 
at BostoEt, that they are hired by the month, wherefore I am 
to desire that you will use all possible dispatch to save ex- 
pence to the publick. 

As soon as the people are shipped and the transports are 
ready, you will acquaint the Commander of His Majesty's ship 
therewith, that ho may take them under his Convoy and put 
to sea without loss of time. 

Indorsed— Scroll. Major Handfield's Instruction*, 11th August, 1755. 


Circular Letter from Governor Lawrence to (he Governors on 

the Continent. 

Halifax, 11 Augt. 1755. 

The success that has attended his Majesty's arms in driv- 
ing the French from the Encroachments they had made in this 
province, furnished me with a favorable opportunity of reduc- 
ing the French inhabitants of this Colony to a proper obedi- 
ence to his Majesty's Government, or forcing them to quit the 
country. These Inhabitants were permitted to remain in 
quiet possession of their lands upon condition they should 
take the Oath of allegiance to the King within one year after 
the Treaty of Utrecht by which this province was ceded to 
Great Britain ; with this condition they have ever refused to 
comply, without having at the same time from the Governor 
an assurance in writing that they should not be called upon 
to bear arms in the defence of the province ; and with this 
General Philipp3 did comply, of which step his Majesty disap- 
proved and the inhabitants pretending therefrom to be in a 
state of Neutrality between his Majesty and his enemies have 
continually furnished the French & Indians with Intelligence, 
quarters, provisions and assistance in annoying the Government; 
and while one part have abetted the French Encroachments 
by their treachery, the other have countenanced them by open 
Rebellion, and three hundred of them were actually found in 
arms in the French Fort at Beausejour when it surrendered. 

Notwithstanding all their former bad behaviour, as his 
Majesty was pleased to allow me to extend still further his 
Royal grace to such as would return to their Duty, I offered 
such of them as had not been openly in arms against us, a 
continuance of the Possession of their lands, if they would 
take the Oath of Allegiance, unqualified with any Reservation 
whatsover ; but this they have most audaciously as well as 
unanimously refused, and if they would presume to do this 
when there is a large fleet of Ships of War in the harbor, and 
a considerable land force in the province, what might not we 
expect from them when the approaching winter deprives us of 
the former, and when the Troops which are only hired from 
New England occasionally and for a small time, have returned 

As by this behaviour the inhabitants have forfeited all title 
to their lands and any further favor from the Government, I 
called together his Majesty's Council, at which the Honble. 

278 nova scotia documents. 

Vice Adml. Boscawen and Rear Adml. Mostyn assisted^ to con- 
sider by what means we could with the greatest security and 
effect rid ourselves of a set of people who would forever have 
been an obstruction to the intention of settling this Colony 
and that it was now from their refusal of the Oath absolutely 
incumbent upon us to remove. 

As their numbers amount to near 7000 person* the driving 
them off with leave to go whither they pleased would have 
doubtless strengthened Canada with so considerable a number 
of inhabitants ; and as they have no cleared land to give them 
at present, such as are able to bear arms must have been im- 
mediately employed in annoying this and the neighbouring 
Colonies* To prevent such an inconvenience it was judged a 
necessary and the only practicable measure to divide them 
among the Colonies where they may be of some use, as most 
of them are healthy strong people ; and as they cannot easily 
collect themselves together again it will be out of their power 
to do any mischief and they may become profitable and it is 
possible, in time, faithful subjects. 

As this step was indispensably necessary to the security of 
this Colony upon whose preservation from French encroach- 
ments the prosperity of North America is esteemed in a great 
measure dependant, I have not the least reason to doubt of 
your Excellency's concurrence and that you will receive the 
inhabitants I now send and dispose of them in such manner as 
may best answer our design in preventing their reunion.* 

Fndorstd — Seroll to Governors on the Continent, 11 Aug., 1755* 

Sir Thomas Robinson to Governor Lawrence. 

Whitehall, Augt 13th 1755. 

Whatever construction may be put, by the French, upon 
the Word Pardonne, in the Fourth Article of the Capitulation, 

* The French Acadians who were sent to Pennsylvania, petitioned the Governor 
and Council of that Province, in Sept. 1750, to be treated as prisoners of War, 
and to be permitted to join their own nation, and from the tenor of their petition 
it would appear they did not wish to become settlers in that Province. The 
Governor and Council, however, on reference to Governor Lawrence's letters, 
declined to treat them- as prisoners of War and subjects of the French King, 
but as subjects of the King of Great Britain, and recommended the House of 
Assembly to " provide for thorn in such a manner as they should see fit." — 
Colonial Records, Penn., vol. 7, p. 241, They appear to have received better 
treatment at the hands of the Government of Philadelphia than was accorded 
to them, in some of the other Provinces* 


granted to the commander and Garrison of Bausejour. It is 
observed by your Letter of the 28th June that you had given 
Orders to Colonel Monckton, To drive the deserted French 
Inhabitants at all Events, out of the Country. It does not 
clearly appear, Whether you mean, To drive away, all the 
French Inhabitants of the Peninsula, which amount to many 
Thousands, or, such of them, as, you say, in your State of the 
English and French Forts, transmitted here in.Govr. Shirley's 
Letter of the 8th of December last, were settled to the number 
of 8000* Families in five or six Villages in the neighborhood of 
Beausejour, or lastly Whether you mean, only such of the 
Inhabitants, as were found in Beausejour, when evacuated by 
the Garrison ; The latter seems, rather, to have been your 
Intention, as you add, That if Mr. Monckton wants the assistance 
cf the French deserted Inhabitants, in patting the Troops under 
cover as the Barracks in the French Fort, were demolished, he 
might first make them do all the Service in their Power. Let 
your intention have been what it will, it is not doubted, but 
that you will have acted upon a strict Principle of immediate 
and indispensible Security to your Government, and not with- 
out having considered the pernicious Consequences that may 
arise from any Alarm, which may have been given to the whole 
body of the French Neutrals and how suddenly an Insurrection 
may follow from Despair ; Or what an additional Number of 
usefull subjects may be given, by their Flight, to the French 
King : It cannot therefore, be too much recommended to you, 
to use the greatest Caution and Prudence in your conduct to- 
wards these Neutrals, and to assure such of them, as may be 
trusted, especially upon their taking the Oaths to His Majesty, 
and His Government, That they may remain in the quiet Pos- 
session of Their Settlements, under proper Regulations : What 
has led to a more particular Notice of this Part of your Letter,, 
is the following Proposal, that was made, no longer ago, than in 
the Month of May last, by the French Ambassador, vizt. " That 
all the French Inhabitants of the Peninsula, should have Three 
Years allowed them to remove from Thence with their Effect^ 
and should be favoured with all Means of facilitating this. 
Removal, which the English would, it was said, undoubtedly 
look upon, as very advantageous to themselves." Whereupon 
His Majesty was pleased to order an Answer to be given, and? 
which I now send you for your particular Information, in tho. 
following Words vizt. 

* Sic 800. 


" In Regard to the Three Years Transmigration proposed 
for the French Inhabitants of the Peninsula, it would be 
depriving Great Britain of a very considerable Number of 
useful Subjects, if such Transmigration should extend to the 
French, who were Inhabitants there at the time of the Treaty 
of Utretcht, and to their descendants." 

I am 
Your most obedient 

humble Servant 


Indorsed— Reed, per the "Sheffield," King, master, 27 March, 1765. 

(Order Book.) 

Sailing Orders and Instructions to Sand. Barron Master of 

the Transport Sloop Providence. 

Halifax, 3 Oct. 1755. 

You are to receive on Board your Sloop from George's 
Island a number of French Inhabitants a list whereof you will 
receive from the Commanding Officer there and you are to 
proceed therewith to the province of North Carolina and upon 
your arrival you are to deliver the Letter you have herewith 
as addressed and use your utmost diligence to get the people 
put on shore and will obtain a certificate of their being so 

You will take care to see the allowance of provisions pro- 
perly served during the voyage agreeable to the following 
proportion viz 1 lb. Beef 2 lb. of Bread and five pounds of 
Flour each person per week, and you are to be accountable 
for what shall remain of the provisions after the people are 
landed and for what arms you have received from His Majesty's 
Stores for your defence. 

To Samuel Barron, 

Master of the Sloop Providence. 


Governor Lawrence to Board of Trade. 

Halifax, 18th Oct. 1755. 
My Lords, — 

Since the last letter I had the honor to write your Lord- 
ships of the 18th of July, the French deputys of the different 
districts have appeared before the Council to give a final 
answer to the proposal made them, of taking the Oath of Alle- 
giance to his Majesty which they persisted in positively 
refusing ; and tho* every means was used to point out to them 
their true interest, and sufficient time given them to deliberate 
maturely upon the step they were about to take, nothing 
would induce them to acquiesce in any measures that were 
consistent with his Majesty's honor or the security of his 
Province. Upon this behaviour the Council came to a reso- 
lution to oblige them to quit the Colony, and immediately took 
into consideration what might be the speediest, cheapest and 
easiest method of giving this necessary resolution its intended 
effect. We easily foresaw that driving them out by force ot 
Arms to Canada or Louisbourg, would be attended with great 
difficulty, and if it had succeeded would have reinforced those 
settlements with a very considerable body of men, who were 
ever universally the most inveterate enemies to our religion 
and Government, and now highly enraged at the loss of their 

The only safe means that appeared to us of preventing their 
return or their collecting themselves again into a large body, 
was distributing them among the Colonies from Georgia to 
New England. Accordingly the Vessels were hired at the 
cheapest rates : the embarkation is now in great forwardness, 
and I am in hopes some of them are already sailed, and that 
there will not be one remaining by the end of the next month. 
Herewith I transmit your Lordships a Copy of the Records of 
Council which contain a very particular account of this whole 

I have taken all the care in my power to lessen the expense 
of the Transportation of the inhabitants, the vessels that have 
been taken up for that purpose, were most of them bound to 
the places where the inhabitants were destined, and by that 
means are hired greatly cheaper than the ordinary price. They 
have hitherto been victualled with their own provisions ana 
will be supplied for the passage with the provisions that were 
taken m the French Forts at Chignecto as far as they will go. 


In order to save as many of the French cattle as possible, I 
have given some of them among such of the Settlers as have 
the means of feeding them in the winter. As soon as the French 
are gone I shall use my best endeavours to encourage People 
to come from the continent to settle their lands, and if I succeed 
in this point we shall soon be in a condition of supplying 
ourselves with provisions, and I hope in time to be able to 
strike off the great expense of the Victualling the Troops. 
This was one of the happy effects I proposed to myself from 
driving the French off the Isthmus and the additional circum- 
stance of the Inhabitants evacuating the Country will I flatter 
myself greatly hasten this event as it furnishes us with a large 
quantity of good land ready for immediate cultivation, renders 
it difficult for the Indians who cannot as formerly be supplied 
with provisions and intelligence, to make incursions upon our 
settlers, and I believe the French will not now be so sanguine 
in their hopes of possessing a province that they have hitherto 
looked upon as ready peopled for them the moment they would 
get the better of the English. I think it my duty to acquaint 
your Lordships that it will be highly necessary for the security 
of the province to fortify the Isthmus of Chignecto as early 
in the Spring as poseible. The French Forts at Beausejour 
and upon the Bay Verte are put into the best repair that the 
time would permit, but they are neither strong enough nor 
will they contain a sufficient number of men to resist any 
considerable force. It is also of the highest importance that 
there should be a Fort of some strength at St. John's River to 
prevent the French resettling there, as well as to awe the 
Indians of that district. I am very sensible the making these 
Fortifications will cjeate a very considerable expense and 
therefore cannot be undertaken without orders, but if your 
Lordships should think it necessary to be done you may depend 
upon its being set about with the greatest economy. * * * 

As the Three French Priests, Messrs. Chauvreulx,Daudin & 
Le Maire were of no further use in this Province after the 
removal of the French Inhabitants, Admiral Boscawen has 
been so good as to take thom on board his fleet & is to give 
them a passage to England. I omitted in the paragraph about 
the French Inhabitants to mention to your Lordships my hav- 
ing wrote a circular letter to the Governors of the provinces 
to which they were destined, & directed one to be given to 
the master of each transport. In this Letter I have set forth 
the reasons which obliged us to take .the measures we have 
done, and I enclose a copy of it for your Lordship's perusal. 


I am in hopes the provinces will make no difficulties about 
receiving them as they may in a short time become useful & 
beneficial subjects. 

I have the Honour, 

To the Right Hon. the Lords Commrs. 
of Trade & Plantations. 

Indorsed— Scroll to Board of Trade, 18 Aug. 1755, per Admiral Boscawen. 
Dap : made. 

Govt. Laivrence to Sir Thomas Robinson, Secretary of State. 

30th November, 1755. 
Sir — 

* * * * In regard to the word Pardonni, in the 
fourth article of the capitulation of Beausejour, mentioned in 
your Letter of the 13th of August, I apprehend nothing was 
further understood by it, either on one part or the other, but 
that the French Inhabitants found in Arms in the Fort, should 
not be put to Death, for though Lt. Colonel Monckton was told 
before he set out, that the Deserted French Inhabitants were 
to be driven out of the Country, in order to prevent his giving 
them any pretence or hopes, either by Capitulation or other- 
wise of being reestablished in their possessions, yet it was 
never intended to precipitate measures so far as to drive them 
into Despair, or to cause their flight to Canada ; But in this 
place it will be proper to explain what part of the Inhabitants 
are included under the denomination of tJie Deserted French 

When the French Troops first took post at Beausejour 
(where they soon after built their Fort) their principal view 
was to secure to themselves the north side of the Bay of 
Fundy, to fix the Isthmus of Chignecto for our Boundary, and 
to cover the retreat of such French Inhabitants, as had an 
inclination to retire from the English Government and join 
them. There were indeed originally, some French Inhabi- 
tants who lived on that side the Bay, but as the Land is not 
esteemed very Fertile, and but small quantities of it cleared 
(in comparison witli the other French settlements in the Pro- 
vince,) they were but few in number. When the English 
Troops in the year 1750 went to take possession of that part 
of Chignecto, the French admitted it to be ours. The Inhabi- 


tants of that part who were numerous, and possessed a fine 
fertile Country, burned all their Houses and went over with 
their Families, upon the Land that the French claimed, and in 
conjunction with the original Inhabitants of that side took an 
oath of allegiance to the French King, and bore arms under 
the direction of his officers. These people who were joined 
by several Families, deserted from their Settlement in the 
Interior parts of the Province, amounting by the best obser- 
vation and intelligence, to fourteen hundred Men capable of 
bearing Arms, were by us commonly called the Deserted 
French Inliabitants, because they were universally as well as 
the other Inhabitants, the descendants of those French left in 
Nova Scotia at the time of the treaty of Utrecht ; and had 
taken the oath of allegiance to His Majesty in the time of 
General Phillipps's Government, with the reserve of not bear- 
ing Arms. Notwithstanding which, these people quitted their 
possessions and went voluntarily to live on that side the Bay 
under French Government, where they had no other means of 
subsistance but an allowance of salt provisions from the King 
out of the French Stores. It was with these Inhabitants 
alone that Lieutenant Colonel Monckton had anything to do, 
for we could not easily at that time form any conjecture what 
turn the Inhabitants who were nearer to us would take upon 
the surrender of Beausejour, when it was thought they could 
entertain no further hopes of assistance from the French ; But 
when we found the French Inhabitants who had not deserted 
their lands entertained the same disloyal sentiments with those 
who had, and positively rejected the Oath of Allegiance, we 
thought it high time to resolve (as well for His Majesty's Honor 
as the immediate preservation of the Province) that the whole 
French Inhabitants, as well those who had not deserted as those 
who had, should be embarked on board Tansports to be sent 
out of the Province and dispersed among the neighbouring Colo- 
nies. By much the greater part of them are sailed, and I flatter 
myself by this time the whole. I will not trouble you with 
any further account of this Measure, having already had the 
honor to lay it very fully before you in my letter of the 18th 
of October, and the minutes of Council therein enclosed, a 
Duplicate of which I transmit by this opportunity. 

I have already acquainted you, Sir, in my letter of the 10th 
of November, that I had received the Ten Thousand pounds, 
of which you inform me in your Letter of the 13th of August. 
I am highly sensible of the great Honor the Lords Justices 
have been pleased to do me, in reposing so much confidence 


in me ; I shall endeavour to deserve it, by using every means 
of Economy, and applying it solely to those uses they have 
been pleased to direct. We had before made a considerable 
progress in the Posse and covered way of the Port of Beause- 

Iour, and when it is finished, I shall proceed no further till I 
lave the Honor to receive His Majesty's Orders. 

The securing and embarking such a prodigious number of 
French Inhabitants, and the circumstances of the Province in 

feneral, has prevented my being able to send any party to 
t. Johns River this year: it has been visited by His Majestie's 
Ships to see that the French do not reestablish themselves, 
and I propose, in the Spring, if nothing unexpected should 
prevent it, to repair the Port there and Garrison it with as 
many Troops as can be spared. The Indians of that District 
were in Compliance with their promise, set out for Halifax and 
some as far on their way as Chignecto, but returned again, 
having as is supposed met with some French Emmissaries who 
persuaded them to take that step. 

I am, &c, 


The Right Honble. ) 

Sir Thomas Robinson, <fcc., &c. J 

Copies of Accounts transmitted by Apthorp & Hancock, of 

Boston, to Governor Lawrence. 

1755. Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Saml. Harris, Dr. 

To Hire of Sloop Seaflower Sam. Harris Master 
Charter'd by Capt. Alexander Murray for 
bring'g off the French Inhabitants from 
Jtfinas to the Province of the Massachusetts, 
81 Tuns, from 29 Sept. to 1 Deer, is 2 
months 82 days ; at £43 4 pr. Month. £89 5 6 

Further allowance for Charter party for a pilott 

at 60s pr. month. 6 4 

95 9 6 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to John Stone, Dr. 

To Hire of Sloop Endeavour, my self Master, 
from hence to Minas & Virginia, to carry off 

586 NO VI ScOflA t)6CUlteKT9. 

French Inhabitants, from 21st Augt. to 11 
Decemr. is 3 Months 21 days at £44 5 4 pr. 
month, £163 15 8 

To a pilot 60s. pr. month pr. agreeing 11 2 

" - 

£174 17 8 


Messrs. Charles Apthorp <& Thomas Hancock, Dr. 

For provisions supplyed the French Inhabitants 

on the above voyage, vizt. 
1 Barrel Pork, £3 9 4 

4 14 Bread at 2ls. 4d, 4 114 

8 11 Flour, 16s. 8d, 7 14 2 

1 Cord Wood, 16 8 

17 1 6 

1755. Messrs. Apthorp k Hancock to Jas» Purrenton, Dr» 

To Hire of Sloop Sarah & Molly, myself Master, 
from 29th August to 12th Deer., to carry 
off French Inhabitants from Annapolis Roy* 
all to Virginia, £129 8 6 

To a pilot at 60s* pr. month, 10 8 

£139 16 6 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock, Dr. 

To Provisions supplyed the Frenoh Inhabitants, 

To 8 1 22 Flour, at 16s. 8d. £7 6 

6 3 6... 21s. 4d. 1 5 2 

306 lbs. beef, at 32s. p, Barrell, 2 9 

£16 6 5 

1755. Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Andrew Duning, Dr* 

To Hire of Sloop Mary, myself Master, from 
hence to Minas & Virginia, to carry off 
French Inhabitants from 20th August to the 
12th Deer. 1755 is 3 months & 23 days at 
£48 5 4d. per mo. £181 16 1 

To Pilott at 60s. per month 116 

*• - - • ■ • * - 

XI 03 2 1 

AC1DON tttetfctf. 287 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock, 

For provisions supply'd on the above voyage, 

To 11 2 12 Flour, 16s. 8d. £9 13 6 

To 4 2 6 Bread, 21s. 4d. 4 19 

To 260 lbs. pork, 69s. 4d, p, Barrell, 4 1 10 

£18 14 4 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to William Ford, Dr. 

To Hife of Schooner Neptune, myself inastr, 
from hence to Virginia ; to carry off French 
Inhabitants, from 20th August to 17th Dec, 
is 3 Months 28 days at £48 pr. Month. £188 16 

To a Pilott 60S pr. Month, 11 16 

£200 12 

Messrs. Apthorp <fe Hancock to Wm. Ford, Dr. 

To passage of 27 Neutralls more than the Compli- 
ment at 5s. 4 Jd. £7 5 4 

To provisions supply'd for 207 Neutralls in 9 days, 
after their allowance was out. 

Bread, 4 3 0, 21s. 4d. 

Beef, 2661bs. 34s. 8d. pr. Barrel, 

Flour, 11 3 4, 16s. 8d. 

Wood, 2 Cord, 

1 barr. Pork, 

£5 14 

1 18 5 

9 17 11 

16 8 

3 9 4 

- — ~ — -~ 

21 13 8 

£28 19 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Thos. Curtis, Dr. 

To Hire of Sloop "Three Friend8, ,, Jas. Carlile 
mastr from hence to Annapolis Boyall & 
Philadela. to carry off French Inhabitants, 
from 20th August to 23rd Decemr. is 4 
Months 3 days at £36 16s. £150 17 7 

To a Pilott at 60s. pr. Month. 12 6 

.£163 13 1 
Deduct from Provisions, Less 18 6 

i i 

£161 15 1 


Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Thomas Curtis, Dr. 

To Passage of 18 Neutralls more than the Com- 
pliment at 5s. 4df. £4 17 1J 

1755. Messrs. Apthorp <fe Hancock to Rich'd Adams, Dr. 

To Hire of Sloop Hannah, myself master, from 
hence to Annapolis Royall & Phila., to carry 
off French Inhabitants, from 20th August to 
23rd December is 4 months and 3 days at 
£37 6s. 8d. pr. month. £153 1 4 

To a pilott at 60s. pr. month. 12 6 

165 7 4 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Richard Adams, Dr. 

To provisions supply'd 140 Neutralls in 15 days ; 

after their allowance was out — 
Flour, 13 1 16 at 16s. 8d. 
Bread, 5 1 12 21s. 4d. 
Beef, 300 lbs., 34s. 8d. pr. barr. 
Wood, $ Cord, 
Pd. for Gratings at Annapolis, 

£11 3 


5 14 


2 3 








1755. Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Jona. Loviett, Dr. 

To Hire of Sloop Swan, myself master, from the 
27th Augt. to 23 Deer. 1755 is 3 months 26 
days, at £44 16 p. month, to Carry off 
French Inhabitants from Annapolis Royall 
to Philadelphia, * £173 4 6 

To Pilott at 60s. p. month, 1112 

184 16 7 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock, Dr. 

For provisions supply'd the French Inhabitants, 

To 11 22 lbs. Flour, 16s. 8d. 
4 1 6 Bread, 21s. 4d. 
f- 257 lbs. Beef, 37s. 4d. p. bb. 












1755. Messrs. Apthorp& Hancock to George Goodwan,Dr. 

To hire of Sloop Industry, myself master, from 
the 20th of August to 26th Deer. 1755, is 
4 months & 6 days, at £45 17 4 p. mo. to 
Carry off French Inhabitants from Minas to 
Virginia, £192 12 9 

To a pilott at 60s, pr. month, 12 12 

205 4 9 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock, Dr. 

For provisions supply "d the French Inhabitants, 

To 23 2 8 Flour, at 16s. 8d. £19 12 10 

377 lbs. Beef, 37s. 4d. p. Barrell, 2 18 7 

22 11 5 

The Government of Nova Scotia, to John Campbell, Dr. 

Nov. 15th. To the freight of fifty French people 
brought from Halifax to N% Carolina, in the 
Sloop Providence, Samuel Barron Mr., per 
Certify at 12s. 6d. £31 5 

North Carolina^ Jany. 13th, 1756. Jno. Campbell. 

1756. Mess. Apthorp & Hancock to Daniel Bragdon, Dr. 

To Hire of Sloop Prosperous, myself Master, 
from 20th August, 1755, to 21 Jany. 1756, is 
5 Months 1 day, at £40 pr. month, lawful 
money, £201 6 8 

To a pilott at 60s. pr. month, 15 2 

216 8 8 
Provisions supply'd the Neutralls, alter Mr. 

Saul's provisions were expended : 
Bread, 44 0, at 21s. 4d. 16 

Beef, 3 Barrels, 36s. 5 8 

— — — 50 4 

£266 12 8 


Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Francis Peirey, Dr. 

To hire of Sloop Ranger, myself Master, from 
20th August 1755 to the 30th January 1756 
including 10 days for his return, is 5 months 
and 10 days, at £48 10 8 p. month. £258 16 10 

Pilott 60s. pr. month. 16 

To Cash pd. for Provisions at Maryland, to supply 
208 French persons, after the provisions 
reed, from Mr. Saul were expended vizt. 

Flour 59 3 2 at 14s. £41 16 8 

Bread 20 22 at 18s. 

Beef 12 1 9 at 20s. 

Pork 6 1 19 at 20s. 

Wood 3 Cord at 14s. 

pd. Horse hire & Expences to go to 

the Governor when sent for 4 

274 16 10 












£84 16 11 
Deduct 20 p. cent 16 19 3 

67 17 8 
To the passages of 81 persons more than the 

Complement, of 2 to ton at 4s. 6d. 18 4 6 

Francis Peirey. £360 19 

1756. Messrs. Apthorp & Haneock to Thoa. Church Dr. 

To Hire of the Schooner Leynord, myself Master 
from 20th August 1755 to 10th Feby. 
1756, is 5 months 21 days at £46 8a. 
Lawfull money pr. month. £264 9 7 

Far a pilott as p. Charter party, 60s. p. month. 17 2 

was received of Mr. Saul, vizt. 
240 lbs Beef at 1J 
2 Bread at 18s. 

2 Ditto at 13s. 4d. 

3 2 Flour at 12s. 

beyond what 

XI 10 
1 16 

1 « 8 

2 2 

281 11 7 
fi 14 R 

V 11 U 

288 6 3 


175ft. Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Zebad Forman, Dr. 

To Hire of Sloop Dolphin, myself Master from 
25th August to 20th February 1756 is 5 
months 26 days at £46 8 pr. month. £272 4 3 

For a pilott as pr. Charter party at 60s. pr. mo. 17 12 

To carrying 56 Neutrals more than his Copmt. 
of two to a ton, at 9s. per two Hallifax 
Curry., £12 12 is Lawfull money pr. Capt. 
Murray's Directions. 15 2 5 

304 18 8 

To Cash pd. for Provisions at Maryland to supply 
230 French Neutrals, after the provision 
Reed, of Mr. Saul was expended 

58 2 28 Flour at 14s. £41 2 

14 2 15 Bread at 18s. 13 3 


11 2 26 Beef <fe Pork at 20s. 11 14 


1 Cord Wood 14 

pd. for Water at Hampton 2 


for a Protest 10 

Two journeys from Lower Marlbo. 

to Annapolis by Govr's Order. 4 

£71 6 


in Dollars at 7s. 6d. makes Lwf. money a 6s. 

57 1 1 

£361 19 9 

1756. Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Jas. Griffin, Dr. 

To Hire of Ship Hopson, Edward Whitewood 
Master, from Halifax to Annapolis and South 
Carolina with French Inhabitants, from Oct. 
10th 1755, to 13th April 1756, (including 20 
days allowed for the Ships return) is 6 
Months & 4 days, at £76 19s. Sterling p. 
Month, £471 19 2: 

Deduct for the Wages of Alexanr. Walter and 
Darby Connor, two of Govr. Lawrence's 
Bargemen, £5 each for the Run from Halli- 
fax to Annaps. 10 0* 

£461 19 2: 


New York, 22d May, 175ff. 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Benj. Stoddard, Dr* 

To Hire of the Brigge. Experiment; myself Mas- 
ter, burthen 136 Tons, at 9s. sterling pr. 
Ton p. month, from 10th Octor. 1755, to 27th 
May, 1756, is 7 Months 16 days, £4:61 

Deductforsuppliesrecd.atSLChrisr. 12 7 

for platforms &c. sold here at ven- 
due, as p. accot. Sales, 18 5 

13 9 a 

<£4T4 9 

Boston, Sept. 7th, 1756. 

Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Ephm. Cooke, Dr. 

To Hire of the " Snow Edward," myself masr, 
from 9th Octr. 1755 to 29th June 1756 is 8 
months & §, burthen 139 Tons at 9s* Sterlg. 
p. Ton p. Month is £62 11 p. Month, 542 2 

Deduct for Platforms, Water Casks &c* 12 2 

Errors Excepted. 

John Rowe, Attorney to Ephm. Cook^ 

1756. Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock to Nath. Milberry, Dr^ 

To Hire of the Sloop Elizabeth, to Transport the 
French Inhabitants from Nova Scotia to 
.Maryland, from the 20th August 1755 to 
20th March 1756 including 10 days allow- 
ed for their Return, is 7 Months at £49 12 
p. Mo. £347 4 

Hire of a pilott 60s. p. Month, 210 

368 4 

To Cash pd. for provisions at Maryland 
to supply 242 persons, after the 
provisions reed, from Mr. Saul 
were Expended, Vizt. 


Flour, 180 9 at 15s. £135 8 6 

Bread, 69 1 8 18s. 62 8 
Pork, 18 Barrs. & 84 lbs. 

at 43s. 8d. 40 1 4 

To Cash paid neces 

sary for the Sick, 11 19 

249 16 10 
Deduct 20 p. Cent, 49 19 4 

199 17 6 
To the passage of 52 persons more than the 

Complemt. of 2 to a ton, at 5s. 4d. 13 17 4 

581 18 10 

Allowed for Caboose platfm. & Hhds. 7 6 8 

£574 12 2 

At a Council hoi den at the Governor's House in Halifax 
on Monday the 26th Jany. 1756. 


The Lieutenant Governor. 

Jno. Collier Jno. Rous } 

Willm. Cotterell Montague Willmott > Councs. 

Robt. Monckton Chas. Morris.* j 

* # * # tj^ Lieutenant Governor presented to the 
Council a Letter which he had received from Lieutt. Governor 
Phip's dated the 18th of December 1755 enclosing a Vote of 
the Council and House of Representatives of the Massachu- 
setts Government, both which he desired might be read, and 

* Hon. Charles Morris was a native of New England. He was a practical 
Surveyor, and, under the direction of Governor Shirley, of Boston, in 1745 or 6, 
made a survey of the whole of Nova Scotia, with a view to British Coloniza- 
tion. This survey was sent to the Board of Trade and Plantations, accom- 
panied by a concise account of the state of the province at that date ; a copy, 
of which is preserved among the public Archives at Halifax. Capt. Morris, 
commanded one of the six independent companies sent by Shirley to Minas 
and Grand Pre, under Noble, in the winter of 1746-7, when he distinguished 
himself before the enemy. He was at Halifax in 1749, and was engaged by 
Cornwallis to lay out the town, in conjunction with Mr. Bruce, the Military 
Engineer. His appointment to the Council bears date 30th Deer., 1755. He- 
was the first Surveyor General pf the Province, and he also acted for severai 


that the Council would give their opinion what Answer should 
be sent to Lieut. Governor Phips thereupon. 

" Boston, Deer. 18, 1755. 
" Sir,— 

" Agreeable to the desire of the Council and House of 
Representatives of this Province signified to me by their Vote, 
of the 16th December inst., (Copy of which I herewith en- 
close) I now acquaint Tour Excellency in behalf of this Go- 
vernment that we have received a Number of the Inhabitants 
of Nova Scotia sent hither by your Order who arrived here 
when the Winter Season was so far advanced, that they could 
do but little for their Support ; That this Government received 
them in Expectation of being indemnified from all Charges 
that might arise upon their Account. And I would therefore 
desire of Tour Excellency that you would give Orders for de- 
fraying all such Charges as may be incur'd by the receiving 
of those Inhabitants already arrived ; And as we are informed 
that more of these french Inhabitants which may be sent 
hither I make no doubt but that Tou will give Orders respect- 
ing the Charges that may arise by this Governments receiving 
and disposing of them also. I shall wait your Answer on this 
Subject and in the mean time I am with great Esteem 

" Tour Excellency's most 
" Obedt. Humble Servt. 
" Signed, S. PHIPS. 

" His Excy. Chas. Lawrence, Esqr." 

" Province of the Massachusetts Bat, 
In Council, Deer. 26th, 1755. 

" Voted, that His Honour the Lieutenant Governor be de- 
sired to write to His Excellency Governor Lawrence to ac- 

years as a Judge of the Supreme Court in the time of Chief Justice Belcher. 
His death occurred in 1781. Gov. Shirley, in consideration of his services, 
gave one of his sons a commission in the 45th Regt. 

Charles Morris, son of Captain Morris, succeeded his father in the office of 
Surveyor General. He was also an Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court, 
though not a lawyer by profession. On his decease, his son, the Hon. Charles 
Morris, became Surveyor General, and was appointed a member of H. M. 
Council in 1808. He was succeeded by his son, John Spry Morris, Esq., who 
was the fourth, in succession, of the family who held the office of Surveyor 
General of Nova Scotia. There are many descendants of Capt. Morris now 
residing in Halifax. — Govr. Letters N. S. Documents. Council Books, Govt. 
.Shirley's Letters to Governors of Nova Scoiia y 1748, Ac. 


quaint him that this Government have admitted a number of 
the Inhabitants of Nova Scotia (sent hither by his Order) who 
arrived when the Season was so far advanced that they could 
do but little for their own Support. That the Government 
here received them in Expectation of being indemnified from 
all Charges that might arise on their Account, and therefore 
desire His Excellency will give Orders for defraying all such 
Charges; And further to Acquaint him that if any more 
should be sent hither he would at the same time give the like 
Orders respecting them. 

" Sent down for Concurrence. 

"Signed, THOS. CLARKE, 

" JDepty. Secry. 

" In the House of Representatives, Deer. 17th, 1755. 
" Read and Concurred. 

" Signed, T. HUBBARD, 

" SpUr." 

Resolved, that this matter be taken into Consideration next 
Meeting of the Council, and recommend it to the Lieutenant 
Governor to write to Lieut. Governor Phips by the first Op- 
portunity that the Council have it under Consideration, and 
that he shall be acquainted as soon as possible with the Reso- 
lution which the Council shall come to in regard to the same. 

Governor Shirley to Legislature of Massachusetts. 

Gentlemen op the Council and House op Representatives, — 

I am always ready to do every thing in my power to 
relieve the province from every difficulty it may be under. 

The two points, which are the subject of your address 
presented to me the 7th Inst I have fully consider'd. With 
respect to the first vizt. the circumstances of the two regi- 
ments sent last year from this province to Nova Scotia, I 
doubt not of being able to effect every thing you can reason- 
ably desire. I will take care that transports be sent forthwith 
to Halifax sufficient to bring home such men belonging to 
those regiments as may be in that part of the province, and 
also to take on board a sufficient number of his Majesty's 
troops, and to carry them up the Bay of Funda as soon as the 


Navigation in that Bay will permit, for the relief and trans- 
portation to Boston of the other part of the two Regiments, 
which is posted there : If there be any Soldiers that went out 
in either of those regiments, and have since inlisted into the 
regiments upon the Establishment who have parents, Children, 
or near Relations in New England, I will give orders that 
they be releas'd and at Liberty to return with the rest if they 
desire it. If any transient persons, who have no peculiar 
connection with these Governments have inlisted, I think, 
considering of what importance it is that a considerable Force 
should be kept in Nova Scotia, you will to dis- 

charge them : In short, you may depend on it that the 
engagements made to the Soldiers in order to encourage them 
to enlist shall be fully comply'd with. 

With respect to the ffrench inhabitants sent hither from 
Nova Scotia, which is the other part of the sublet of your 
address, you seem to think yourselves that it was a necessary 
measure : I believe Governor Lawrence had no apprehen- 
sions that it would occasion any considerable charge to this 
province, or that it would be a disagreeable thing to have 
those people sent here : I am sorry that it is likely to prove 
so burthensome : I have it not in my power to support them 
at the charge of the Crown : You have a great deal of encou- 
ragement to depend on it that his Majesty will not suffer any 
unreasonable Burthen to lye upon any of his colonies : I will 
make full Representation of the state of this affair and in such 
a manner as I hope you will receive a favourable answer ; 
and I shall be ready to join with you in proper measures to 
enable and induce these persons to provide for their own 
support and that of their Families. 


Province House Feby 13th, 1756. 

Governor Lawrence to Governor Shirley. 

Halifax, 18th February, 1T5(>. 

Tho I wrote so fully upon many important Points in my 
last of the 24 January to your Excellency, the bad success of 
our Officers in their Recruiting upon the Continent, obliges 
me to trouble you again upon the Subject of the Troops : We 
have as many Officers upon that Service as can possibly be 


spared, yet It will appear by the Returns how little progress 
has been made. The New England Troops of the Battalion 
that is here press much to be discharged, indeed so earnestly, 
that I am inclined to think they are put upon it by some of 
their principal Officers, and should their dismission take place 
before the Augmentation of the Regiments is completed, it 
will not only be impossible for me to preserve the Acquisi- 
tions that were made last year on the North side of the Bay 
of Fundi but for want of a sufficient body of men upon our 
Frontiers, the whole Province will be continually subject to 
insults, incursions & Encroachments. I am credibly informed 
that a Body of French & Indians intend to attempt the Garri- 
son of Annapolis Royal in the Spring. There are about five 
hundred of the Inhabitants still lurking about in the Woods. 
Mr. Boisehbert, the French Officer that commanded at St. 
John's Fort, is at Gedaique with a Party of French Inhabi- 
tants & Indians. Lt. Colonel Scott had lately Intelligence of 
him by a Deserter, and immediately went to the place where 
he had been with a Strong Detachment ; but finding that he 
had shifted his Quarters he returned to his Fort and upon his 
march was attacked in his Rear ; he lost two Men of the Regu- 
lars, and by what Colonel Scott's Detachment could observe 
they had the greatest reason to believe the Enemy lost six or 
seven Indians. I lately sent a Party of Rangers in a Schooner 
to St. John's River, As the Men were Cloathed like french Sol- 
diers and the Schooner under French Colours, I had hopes by 
such a deceit, not only to discover what was doing there but 
to bring off some of the St. John's Indians. The Officer found 
there an English Ship, one of our Transports that sailed from 
Annapolis Royal witli French Inhabitants a Board bound for 
the Continent, but the Inhabitants had risen upon the Master 
& Crew and carried the Ship into that Harbour, our people 
would have brought her off but by an accident they disco- 
vered themselves too soon, upon which the French set fire to 
the Ship. They have brought back with them one french 
Man, who says, there have been no Indians there for some 
time ; That some of them are with Boisehbert at Gedaique & 
the rest at Pasiraaquadie, he informs also that there is a french 
officer & about 20 Men twenty-three Miles up the River at a 
Place called St. Ann's. 

As your Excellency is so thoroughly acquainted with the 
Situation of this Province, it would be needless for me to 
point out farther how highly necessary it is that the two New 
England Battalions should stay among us untill the Augmen- 


tation is compleated ; and I flatter Myself your Excelly will 
be able to bring your Government to consent to their longer 
stay. ****** 

I am, <fcc, 


His Excellency ) 

Major General Shirley, Boston. y 

Extract from Letter Lords of Trade to Govt. Lawrence, 


Whitehall, March 25th, 1756. 

We look upon a War between us and France to be in- 
evitable, and from the best Judgment We are able to form 
of the Views and Designs of the Enemy, We are inclined 
to believe a great part of their Force will be exerted to dis- 
tress and annoy us in North America. 

We have laid that part of your Letter which relates to the 
Removal of the French Inhabitants, and the Steps you took in 
the Execution of this Measure, before His Majesty's Secretary 
of State ; and as you represent it to have been indispensably 
necessary for the Security and Protection of the Province in 
the present critical situation of our affairs, We doubt not 
but that your Conduct herein will meet with His Majesty's 

Extract of a Document entitled. " Remarks relative to the State 
of the Forces in Nova Scotia" dated 30th March, 1756. 

Notwithstanding the vigilance of the Officers commanding 
at the different outposts, & the great care with which they 
executed their orders for embarking the French Inhabitants 
on board the Transports for carrying them out of the pro- 
vince , Several of them made their escape into the Woods and 
have found means of subsistence during the Winter. Those 
without the Isthmus have joined themselves wth. the French 
Officer's party who retreated from the Fort at the mouth of 
the River St. John's last summer. He has also with him, the 
Mick Mack and St. John Indians, and they make by the best 
information 1,500 men in number, and are very active in 
annoying any partys sent out from Fort Cumberland or 
Gasperau. As they can receive supplys from Canada or 


Louisbourg at a small Harbour called Jediach, they will 
doubtless draw 'to them all those inhabitants that have taken 
shelter in the Woods in different parts within the peninsula, 
in which case they will be strong enough to annoy us greatly 
upon the Isthmus, if not to endanger the loss of the forts 
themselves as we have never been able to do more than half 
garrison for want of the augmentations being completed of 
the other regiments doing duty in the Province, which by the 
returns will appear to be still in very great backwardness. 

Governor Lawrence to Governor Shirley. 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax, 9th April, 1756. 

As the many different services the Troops in this Pro- 
vince had to perform the last year, make it impossible, en- 
tirely to compleat our design of sending away the french In- 
habitants, especially those about Cape Sable, it has been 
thought by the Government of this Province that the Battal- 
ion of Your Excellencys New England Regiment under the 
Command of a Major Prebble might compleat this design at 
Cape Sable, by calling there in their Return to Boston, in con- 
sequence whereof I have given Major Prebble the necessary 
Orders which he will at his Arrival doubtless communicate to 
your Excellency. I flatter myself the Govmt. of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay will not find it inconvenient to receive such of 
these Inhabitants as the Major may be able to carry away 
with him, but in case unforseen difficulties should arise, I 
must beg of your Excellency to send them to some of the 
other Colonies where I am inclined to think they will willingly 
take them especially at North Carolina, as I have lately 
received a Letter from Governor Dobbs upon that Subject. 

I am &c, 

To His Excolly. Genl. Shirley. 


Orders & Instructions to Major Prebble. 

By His Excelly. Charles Lawrence Esq. &c. &c. &c. 

To Major Prebble commanding the Battalion of Major General 
Shirley's New England Regiment now embarked in this 
Harbonr in order for their Return to Boston. 

Whereas the Government of this Province have sometime 
ago come to a determination of Removing the French Inhabit- 
ants from this Province on Account of their having refused 
to take the oath of Allegiance to his Majesty, and given 
instances of treasonable & treacherous behaviour on their 
Parts ; and Whereas Orders were accordingly issued for the 
removal of the said Inhabitants, notwithstanding which I 
have been informed that some of them do still remain in 
different parts of the province, particularly at Cape Sable and 
the places round about. You are therefore hereby required 
& directed to put into Cape Sable, or some of the adjacent 
Harbours (in your way to Boston) and with the Troops under 
your command, to land at the most convenient place ; and to 
Seize as many of the said inhabitants as possible, & carry 
them with you to Boston, where you will deliver them to his 
Ex. Govr. Shirley, with a letter you will receive with this 
order. You are at all events to burn & destroy the Houses 
of the said Inhabitants, & carry their utencils & cattle of all 
kinds, and make a distribution of them to the Troops under 
your Command as a Reward for the performance of this Ser- 
vice, & to destroy such things as cannot conveniently be 
carried off. Given under my hand & seal at Halifax this 9 
April 1756. 

By his Excellys Command. 
Wm. Cotterell. 

Extract from Letter Lords of Trade to Governor Lawrence. 

Whitehall, July ye 8th 1756. 

Notwithstanding what you say in your Letter of the 
Acadians being received in the several Provinces to which 
they were sent, We must inform you that several hundred of 
them have since been sent over here from Virginia, and seve- 
ral from South Carolina, and that His Mjge&ty has given 

ACADIAN fMJffCtf. 301 

Orders to the Lords of the Admiralty, to direct the Commis- 
sioners for Sick and hurt Seamen to secure and maintain 

As the recall of the two thousand New England troops puts 
an end to any view which might have been entertained of 
converting them into Settlers upon the lands left vacant by 
the transportation of the French inhabitants, We shall remain 
extremely anxious till We hear What occurs to you with 
respect to the settlement of those Lands, which appear to Us 
to be an object of the utmost importance, and on the right 
Determination of which the future strength and Prosperity of 
the Colony greatly depend. 

Lieut. Governor Spencer Phips to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, 23 July, 1756. 

I havd just received information that seven boats, with 
about ninety of the French Inhabitants of Nova Scotia, having 
coasted along shore from Georgia or South Carolina, whither 
they had been sent from your Government, had put into a 
harbour in the southern part of this province. I have here- 
upon ordered their persons and boats to be secured and three 
or four of them sent to Boston in order to be examined. 

Your Excellency is sensible that a very great number have 
already been received and supported here, a number much 
beyond our proportion in case they were to have been distri- 
buted among the Colonies by a rule of that kind, and a number 
greater than your Excellency originally designed to send here- 
Notwithstanding this, I am fully of opinion that it would be 
unsafe to suffer them to proceed any further; the General 
Assembly is to sit here on the 11th of August, and as his 
Majesty's Council apprehend they will be very averse to 
receive this additional number into the Government, they 
have therefore desired me to write to your Excellency and 
ask your further care of this people, that so they may not 
remain a burthen upon this Province, I am with great respect 


Your Excellency'^ 

most obt. humble servt., 

To His Excellency ) S. PHIPS. 

Charles Lawrence, Esq. j 

Indorsed^'Rec'd ill per August. 


Governor Phips to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, 6 Angst. 1756. 

I wrote your Excellency 23. of July of which the fore- 
going id a Copy. I had this day the Honour to receive Your 
Excellency's Letter of the 1st of July which I communicated 
to His Majesty's Council, and as it appeared thereby that 
what this Government had done to prevent the french Inha- 
bitants of Nova Scotia who had Coasted it hither from the 
Southern Colonies from proceeding any further, was exactly 
agreeable to Your Excellency's own Sentiments ; the Council 
could not but think that you would be pleased to take some 
further Care about them, a Charge has already arisen and 
wherever they remain a considerable Charge will necessarily 
arise. By Advice of the Council I sent to speak with your 
Agents Messrs. Apthorpe and Hancock who tell me they can 
do nothing without Your Excellency's Orders, which hope 
you'll be so good to furnish them with as soon as conveniently 
may be. What appeared pretty extraordinary was, that these 
People had been furnished with a Passport from the Gover- 
nors of Georgia, South Carolina and New York, which not 
being now at hand I cannot at present send a Copy of it. I 
am with much respect &c &c. 

His Excy Chas. Lawrence Esqr. 

Indorsed — Reed, per Jones, 14 Aug. ; ansd. 24th. 

Extract from a Letter of Govt. Lawrence to Lords of Trade. 

Halifax, 3rd Nov., 1756. 

As to the French Inhabitants and Indians, I mentioned to 
your Lordships in my former letters, that they had committed 
some acts of hostility, and by lying in wait in the roads where 
our parties pass and repass, have found opportunities of kill- 
ing and scalping some of our people, but I am in hopes, when 
the Troops ordered from Ireland shall arrive, it will be more 
in my power than it hitherto has been to hunt them out of 
their lurking places and possibly to drive them entirely out of 
the Peninsula. As soon as I received information that the 
Governors of Georgia and South Carolina had given leave to 
the French Inhabitants to return into the Province, (a thing I 


could never have expected, where the general good of the 
Colonies was so much concerned), I lost not a moments time 
in representing by a circular Letter to the Governors on the 
Continent, (a Copy whereof I enclose to your Lordships) the 
fatal consequences that might attend the return of those peo- 
ple into this Colony, and requested them to stop their pro- 
gress thro' their respective Governments ; and in consequence 
thereof several have been detained both at New York and 
Boston. Those at New York will not I believe be attended 
with any expense to this Province but for those stopped at 
Boston, a demand has been made and agreed to as your Lord- 
ships will see by the Minutes of Council. 

Circular to the Governors on the Continent. 

1st July, 1756. 
Sir, — 

I am well informed that many of the French Inhabitants 
transported last year from this Province and distributed 
among the different Colonies upon the Continent, have pro- 
cured small vessels and embarked on board them in order to 
return by Coasting from Colony to Colony, and that several 
of them are now actually on their way. And as their success 
in this enterprise would not only frustrate the design of this 
Government in sending them away at so prodigious an ex- 
pense, but would also greatly endanger the security of the 
Province, especially at this juncture, I think it my indespen- 
sable duty to entreat your Excellency to use your utmost 
endeavours to prevent the accomplishment of so pernicious 
an undertaking by destroying such vessels as those in your 
Colony may have prepared for that purpose, and all that may 
attempt to pass thro' any part of your Government, either by 
land or water, on their way thither. I would by no means 
have given your Excellency this trouble were I not perfectly 
well assured how fatal the return of those people is likely to 
prove to His Majesty's interest in this part of the world. 

I am <fcc, 



Extract from Lettet Board of Trade to Governor Lawtencfy 

dated March 10, 1757. 

We are extremely sorry to find, that notwithstanding the 
great cxpence which the public has been at in removing 
the French inhabitants, there should yet be enough of them 
remaining to molest and disturb the Settlements, and in- 
terrupt and obstruct our partys passing from one place to 
another; It is certainly Very much to be wished, that they 
could be entirely driven out of the Peninsula, because untiH 
that is done, it will be in their power, by the knowledge they 
have of the country, however small their numbers, to distress 
and harrass the out-settlements, and even his Majesty's Troops 
so as greatly to obstruct the establishment of the Colony ; As 
to the Conduct of the Southern Colonys in permitting those 
who were removed to coast along from one Province to 
another in order that they might get back to Nova Scotia, 
nothing can have been more absurd and blameable, and had 
not the Governors of New York and Massachusetts Bay pm* 
dently stopped them, there is no attempt however desperate 
and cruel which might not have been expected from Persons 
exasperated as they must have been by the treatment they 
had met with. 

We entirely agree in Opinion with you that in the present 
situation of things, and vexed and harrassed as the Province 
is by the Hostilities of the French and Indians, it will be in 
vain to attempt to induce hardy and industrious People to 
leave Possessions, which perhaps they may enjoy in peace in 
other Colonies, to come and settle in a Country where they 
must be exposed to every distress and calamity which the 
most inveterate enemy living in the Country, and knowing 
every Pass and Corner of it, can subject them to ; and there- 
fore we do not desire, nor mean to press the measure upon 
you further than the circumstances of the province & of the 
times will admit of it. 

Governor Pownall* to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, Janry 2d. 1759. 

This waits upon you with the compliments and every 

good of the Season I also congratulate you on the very 

~ — - - — - — 

* Governor Pownall, afterwards Sir Thomas Pownall, succeeded William 
Shirley as Governor of Massachusetts in 1757. He was brother to John 
Pownall, Secretary of the Board of Trade, and partly through his brother's 


material success of Brigdr. Genl. Forbes on the Ohio. We 
have accounts of two men of War having sailed for Louis- 
bourg, and a large Fleet for different Ports on the Continent. 
I do not hear that any are yet arrived nor have we any news 
later than the 17th or 18th of October from Europe. When 
I was last down at the Eastward, I got upon the trac of a 
person suspected to be gone trading with the Neutrals, I 
<cou'd at that time make nothing of it. Since that time the 
person returned to Marblehead and brought, as I heard from 
Cape Sables, a letter or petition from the Neutrals there 
directed to me in Council — This was proof that he had been 
amongst them. I got this letter the very day Mr. Amherst 
arrived here the last time. I directed the Attorney General 
to prosecute Haskell as corresponding with the Kings Ene- 
mies — He took the man up who is in jail — but the Evidence 
against him will not Convict him — Desenclave the Priest, and 
the other Neutrals now prisoners with you, may possibly be 
evidence against him — the fact was committed in your Pro- 
vince. If you think you cou'd convict the man and think of 
bringing him to a Tryal he may be sent to you. As for tho 
case of the poor people at Cape Sables it seems very distress- 
ful and worthy any relief can be afforded them. If Policy 
cou'd acquiesce in any measure for their relief, Humanity 
loudly calls for itr— I send you a copy of their petition and in 
the Copy of the Journal of Council which I also enclose, 
You will see that Genl. Amherst was willing to relieve them, 
cou'd it have been done here — but by the same you will see 
the Council cou'd by no means advise me to receive them. 

I am with great Truth 


Your most obedient 

faithful humble Servant 

His Excellency 

B. Genl. Govr. Lawrence. 

influence obtained several important situations in the colonies. He first came ~ 
to America in 1753, as Secretary to Sir Danvers Osborne, who had been 
appointed Governor of New York. In 1762 Mr. Fownall was nominated to the 
Governorship of South Carolina, but never assumed the office. American life 
and politics became distasteful to him, and he returned to England, and was 
elected a member of the British Parliament for Minehead in 1775 or 6. He 
was the author of several works relating to the colonies, and other literary 
productions. He died at Bath in 1785, in the 85th year of his &ge.—ffutchin^ 
*q*$ Hist. Mass.; Gentleman's Magazine, 1805; Qov. PownaWs Letters. 



Copies of Papers accompanying Gov. PoxtmaWs Letter. 

Cafe Sables, September 15th, 1758. 

To His Excellency Thomas PowkaIl, Esq. and Honour- 
able Council in Boston. 

Dear Sirs, — 

We your humble petitioners have taken this opportunity 
to write to you these few lines, hoping they will obtain th© 
happy end for which they are designed and we hope above all 
things that your Excellency and worthy Council will have 
compassion on us your poor distressed fellow* creatures and 
grant to us this humble request that we earnestly implore 
of you and that it might please your Excellency and worthy 
Council to take us under your Excellencys Government, and 
if it might please your Excellency and Worthy Council to 
settle us here in this land where we now live we shall* ever 
holdlt our bounden duty to love and honour you with .our last 
Breath, and We will assure your Excellency and worthy Coun- 
cil that we are heartily willing to do whatever you require of 
us as far as we are able to perform. We are also willing to 
pay to your Excellency's Government our Yearly Taxes we 
are also willing to support and maintain the War against the 
King of France as long as we live and if ever any damage 
should be done here on our Territories by the Savages it shall: 
be required at our hands, we are in all about 40 families which 
consist of about 150 Souls the savages that live between here 
and Halifax do not exceed 20 men, and they are also willing 
to come under the same Government with us and to pay their 
yearly taxes to your Excellency's Government. And if we 
shall be so fortunate as to obtain so much friendship with your 
Excellency as to be received into your Excellency's Govern- 
ment, we will send in two men with a list of all our names 
and the Savages will send in two likewise with a list of their 
names and we will all submit to do whatever you require of 
us and if any others should desert from elsewhere Savages or 
French and come to us we will in no wise receive them unless 
they get from under your Excellency's hand liberty and now 
to conclude if we should be so unfortunate as to be denied 
this our humble request we will submit to your Excellency's 
goodness to do with us whatever may seem good in your sight 
only this we beg that if we may no longer stay here that we 
may be received into New England to live as the other Neu- 
tral French do for we had all rather die here than go to any 


French Dominions to live* We beg that your Excellency 
will send us word what we shall do as soon ad you can and we 
will do it as soon as you send, and if it be our hard fate to 
come away from here we will obey your Excellency and come 
though it would be to us like departing out of this world. 

Dear Sirs, Do for us what lays in your power to settle us 
here and we will be your faithful subjects till death. 


The foregoing is what I received from the mouths of Joseph 
Landrey and Charles Dantermong, two of the principal men of 
Gape Sables and I am in donbt of a punctual compliance of 
the Contents, 


Province Massachusetts Bay, 

At a Council held at the Province House in Boston upon 
Monday, December 4th, 1758 

His Excellency having communicated to the Board an ap- 
plication which he yesterday received from Joseph L'Andree 
dated Cape Sables September 15th, 1758 in behalf of himself 
and about forty French families settled there — praying that 
they may be quieted in their possessions there, as they are 
willing to take the Oaths to the Government, and to help 
maintain the War agains^ the French King. Or if that may 
not be, that they may be permitted to come and settle in this 

His Excellency also having acquainted the Board that he 
had communicated the same to General Amherst, who was 
willing to transport them hither at the Charge of the Crown. 

Advised, that his Excellency send a copy of said applica- 
tion to Governor Lawrence, and at the same time advise him 
that the Council could not be of opinion to receive those peo- 
ple into the province even although they should be indemni- 
fied as to all charge that might arise by means of their coming 

Extract from Letter of Governor Latvrence to The Lords? 
of Trade, dated Halifax, Septr. 20th, 1759. 

Since that time my Lords, the Indians & scattered neutrals 
particularly the latter, notwithstanding the success of the 
campaign 1758, against Louisbourg and the measures taken j 
both then and since to put a stop to their incursions upom 


this province, have infested us more than ever, and indeed in 
a manner, to which they never attempted before. Your 
Lordships will be surprised when I assure you that these 
land ruffians, turned Pirates, have had the hardiness to fit out 
Shallops to cruise on our coast, and that sixteen or seventeen 
vessels some of them very valuable have already fallen into 
their hands. I have represented this to Adl. Saunders who I 
presume will take proper measures for putting a speedy and 
effectual stop to such depredations, but your Lordships will 
perceive from such strokes as these, how enterprizing these 
people must be, & how difficult the poor settlers at Lunen- 
burg must find it to keep their ground and maintain them- 
selves on their farm lots, scattered as they are in a circle of 
little less than forty miles. 

Since my last we have had three men murdered on the 
Eastern Shore of this harbor, two near Fort Sackville, three 
in St. Johns River, some killed (of which I have not yet the 
particulars) at Annapolis, and in short in every part of the 
province the enemy have of late done us more or less mischief 
as may appear to your Lordships more at large by the minute 
of Council of July 16th. 

Governor Lawrence to Mr. Pitt 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
* November 3rd, 1759. 
Sib, — 

In the beginning of last Spring, part of the French 
inhabitants at Cape Sable, who had done us much mischief, 
finding themselves distressed, deputed some amongst them to 
come with offers of Surrender ; to be disposed of at His 
Majesty's pleasure. Accordingly I dispatched, as early as I 
could, the Province armed vessels to Cape Sable, where they 
took on board one hundred and fifty-two persons, Men, Women 
and children, and when they arrived here, I ordered them to 
be landed on George's Island, as being a place of the most 
security. On my application to Admiral Saunders he ordered 
an empty Transport to call in here, on board of which are em- 
barked (some having died here) one hundred and fifty-one per- 
sons, as by the enclosed return, to proceed to England under 
Convey of His Majesty's Ship " Sutherland," and there receive 
such orders as your Excellency shall judge proper. * * * 

I am, &c.f 
The Right Honble. ) CHAS. LAWRENCE. 

William Pitt, &c, Ac, &c. J 


At a Council holden at the Governor's House in Halifax 
on Fryday the 30th Novr. 1759. 

Present — 

His Excellency the Governor. 

Jon'n. Belcher, 
Jno. Collier, 
Chas. Morris, 
Richd. Bulkeley* 
Thos. Saul, 
Jos. Gerrish. 

- Councs. 

His Excellencv communicated to the Council Letters which 
he had received from Coll. Arbuthnot Commanding Officer at 
Port Frederick in the River St. John's acquainting him that 
about Two hundred Inhabitants, as they call themselves, of 
that Country with Two Priests, Pere Germain, Jesuit, and 
Pere Coquarte, had come down the River since the Reduction 
of Quebec, producing Certificates signed by Captain Cramahe, 
Deputy Judge Advocate at Quebec, of their having Taken the 
Oath of Allegiance to His Britannick Majesty, and in conse- 
quence thereof that Brigadier Monckton had given them leave 
to Return to their Habitations. That on their Arrival they 
presented themselves to him, begging leave to be suffered to 
remain upon their Lands on their Promise to be faithful and 
true to His Majesty's Government ; to which, he told them, he 

* The Hon. Richard Bulkeley accompanied Govr. Cornwallis to Nova Scotia 
as A. D. C. in 1749. He became Secretary of the province about the year 
1759, and continued to fill that important office, under thirteen successive Go- 
vernors, until the year 1793, when he was permitted to resign in favour of his 
son, Michael Freke Bulkeley. He was appointed a member of Council in 
1759, and administered the Government of the Province as senior Councillor 
on the death of Governor Parr, in 1791. Mr. B. held also several other 
offices of trust. He had been twice married ; his first wife was a daughter of 
Capt. John Rous, B. N. ; she died in Jany. 1775. His eldest and youngest sons 
both died in Jamaica; his son Freke, who succeeded him as Provincial Secre- 
tary, and was also a member of the Assembly for the County of Halifax, died 
suddenly in 1796, at an early age. Mr. Bulkeley died on 7th Deer., 1800, at 
the age of 83, beloved and respected by all classes throughout the province. 
He left a widow and one son ; the latter then residing in England. At his death 
he held the offices of Judge of the Admiralty, Grand Master of the Freemasons, 
and Brigadier General ot Militia, — a rank never since conferred upon any 
Militia officer in Nova Scotia. He maintained a character for uprightness and 
ability throughout his long career, and having outlived all his contemporaries,, 
he had for years been esteemed the father of the Province. The old stone 
house, formerly the residence of the late Hon. H. H. Cogswell, at the corner 
of Prince and Argyle Streets, was built by Mr. Bulkeley ; he resided there at 
the time of his death. His Escutcheon is in the West Gallery of St. Paul's 
Church, Halifax.— N. S. Council Books. Halifax Gazette, 1796 and 1800. 


could only make Answer that tbey mast come down to the 
Port, and remain there till he could apply to the Governor, to 
know what should be done with them; And that they had 
accordingly come down, and were to remain at the Fort, until 
His Excellency's Resolutions with regard to them, should 

His Excellency further represented to the Council, that 
from several Circumstances, it appeared plainly to him, that 
those Certificates had been obtained from Capt. CramahS upon 
Supposition that these Inhabitants belonged to some River or 
Place of that Name in Canada, and not to the River St. John's 
in Nova Scotia, and therefore that they never could have had 
from Brigadier Monckton any sort of Permission to return 
into this Province. 

Wherefore His Excellency desired the Council's Advice and 
Opinion, on what methods should be taken at this Season of 
the Year, for disposing of these People, who are represented 
to be in a Starving Condition ; it being, Jn His Excellency's 
Opinion, highly improper to suffer them to remain upon their 
former Possessions, which the French have always pretended 
is a Dependance of Canada, altho' contained within the Bound- 
aries oi the Province of Nova Scotia. 

The Council are of Opinion, and do Advise that His Excel- 
lency do take the earliest Opportunity of Hiring Vessels for 
having them immediately Transported to Halifax, as Prisoners 
of War, until they can be sent to England : and that the two 
Priests be likewise removed out of the Province. * * * 

At a Council holden at Halifax on Wednesday the 9th 

Present — 

His Excellency the Governor. 

Benj. Green, 

Cha&. Morris, 

Richd. Bulkeley, 1- Councs. 

Thos. Saul, 

Jos. Gerrish. 

* * * * His Excellency communicated to the Council 
for their Opinion, the following Extract of a Letter from 
Oolonel Frye the Commanding Officer at Chignecto, the Con- 
sideration whereof was adjourned to next Saturday. 


" Port Cumberland, Chignecto, Dec. 10th, 1759. 
« Sir " 

" On the 16th of Novr. past, Alexander Brusard, Simon 
Martin, Jean Bass, and Joseph Brusard, arrived here under a 
Flag of Truce, as Deputies for about One hundred and Ninety 
french men, Women, and Children, residing in the Departments 
of Pitcoudiack and Memoramcook whose Business was to 
Surrender up themselves and Constituents to English Govern- 
ment ; at the same time informed me they were in a miserable 
Condition for want of Provisions, having not more among them 
all, than could (by the most prudent use) keep more than two 
Thirds of their number alive till Spring ; therefore begged I 
would have Compassion on them, and allow them some, other- 
wise they must all Starve." 

" Being fully satisfied since their Canada is taken from them, 
there was no danger but their necessitous Circumstances 
would keep them under Command, I thought it might not 
be amiss to use my Endeavours, to make the Collecting them 
into a Body, as cheap to the Government as possible. There- 
fore told them I would Support no more of their number 
through the Winter, than exceeded the reach of their own 
Provisions. They then begged I would allow Provisions for 
one third part of them, assuring me they told the Truth at 
first, and that if I would not keep that number, they must all 
die by Famine ; upon which I agreed that they should send 
Sixty three of their People to Winter here, and that the 
remainder of them might come out of their obscure Habita- 
tions into the french Houses remaining on Pitcoudiack and 
Memoramcook Rivers, where they should live in Peace till 
Springy and Ordered that they all be here to attend Your 
Excellency's Orders concerning them." 

11 They manifested great Thankfulness for the Treatment 
they had received ; and on the 17th went off leaving Alex- 
ander Brusard, who I kept in Custody till I should see tneir 
further behaviour." 

" On the 18th Peter Suretz, John & Michael Burk arrived 
under another Flag of Truce, as Deputies for about Seven 
hundred Men Women and Children at Merimichi, Richiboucta 
& Bouctox ; their Business & Circumstances with regard to 
Provisions, was the same as those mentioned before, So I 
agreed that they should send two hundred and thirty of their 
People to Winter here ; and upon their informing me that 
they had Twelve Vessels in their Custody, that were Taken 
on the Coast of Canso the Summer past, I ordered the remain- 



der of them to come with their Effects in those Vessels to 
Bay Verte, as soon in the Spring as the Navigation opened, 
when they should know Your Excellency's pleasure concern- 
ing them." 

" They likewise seem-d well Satisfied, & promised to come 
according to Order if possible, but were afraid (as those Ves- 
sels were all drove ashore by the late terrible Storm) they 
should not be able to get them all off, but would use their 
utmost endeavour to do it, and would bring all they could." 

" The Affair being thus determined, they (on the 20th) took 
their departure, since which, there has arrived at this Place 
from Petcoudiack, of Men, Women, & Children fifty one ; the 
remainder of those to Winter hero are daily expected. As 
for those that were to come from Merimichi, Richibucta, and 
Bouctox for their Winter Support, the distance between this 
and those Places being so great, the Deputies told me I 
might not expect to see any of them till fourteen Days after 
Christmas, but that it was likely some of their Young men 
might be here upon Business sooner ; and accordingly on the 
4th Inst, four Men from Richibucta arrived here, who informed 
me those Deputies were got to their Place before they left it, 
that the People were agreeing who should come, and who 
should stay till Spring, and that I might expect to see them 
all then." 

" By all which it pretty evidently appear?, that early in the 
Spring, there will be at this Place & Bay Verte about Nine 
hundred Souls, to be disposed of as Your Excy. shall see fit. 
I have therefore taken this Opportunity to acquaint you with 
the Affair, and to request your directions for further Proceed- 
ings with them." 

Jno. Ddport, 

Sec. Cone, 

Extract from Minutes of a Council holden at Halifax on 
Saturday, the 12th January, 1760. 

The Council took into Consideration the Letter laid before 
them by His Excellency the last Council Day, and were of 
Opinion that notwithstanding the french Families, mentioned 
in the Letter, had been continually in Arms against His Ma- 
jesty, within the undoubted Limits of this, His Majesty's Pro- 
vince : yet in Compassion to this their distressed Condition, 
and in order to their being the more easily assembled in the 


Spring, when further measures may be taken in regard of 
them, their Submission to the pleasure of the Government 
should be accepted, provided that they deliver up their Arms ; 
and the Council were likewise of opinion that thev be assisted 
with so much Provisions as shall appear absolutely necessary 
for their Sustenance, upon their giving Hostages for their Ap- 
pearance in the Spring. 

- Councrs. 

At a Council holden at Halifax on Monday the 10th March, 

Present — 

His Excellency the Governor, 

Jon'n. Belcher, 
Jno. Collier, 
Chas. Morris, 
Richd. Bulkeley, 
Thos. Saul, 
Jos. Gerrish. 

# * * * jjj s Excellency also communicated an Extract 
of a Letter he had received from General Amherst, in which 
the General approves of the measures of bringing away the 
French Inhabitants from St. John's River, and advises His 
Excellency to send them away to Europe as Prisoners of War, 
as soon as possible. His Excellency also acquainted the 
Council that he was informed from Port Cumberland, that the 
number of French Inhabitants that might be collected there, 
would amount to near Twelve hundred Men : and that as he 
apprehended that these People are upon the same footing with 
those of St. John's, he desired the Advice of the Council 
whether it would' not be proper to Take up Transports to send 
away the whole. 

The Council having taken the same into Consideration, were 
of opinion that such a measure would be extreamly proper 
and seemed to be absolutely necessary, in order to facilitate 
the Settlement of the evacuated Lands by the Persons who 
are coming from the Continent for that purpose; who otherwise 
would be always liable to be obstructed in their Progress, by 
the Incursions of these french Inhabitants : whereas, on the 
contrary, if they are removed out of the Province, the Set- 
tlers will remain in perfect Security, as the Indians are unani- 
mously inclined to Peace, and Treaties are already made with 
several of the Tribes. 

Jo. Duport, Sec. Con. 


Extract from Minutes of a Council holden at Halifax on 

Tuesday, the 5th August, 1760. 

His Excellency also communicated to the Council, a Letter 
he had received from Colonel Frye, the Commanding Officer 
at Fort Cumberland, acquainting him that there were between 
three and four hundred of the French Inhabitants assembled 
at that Fort, who had submitted themselves to be disposed of 
at the Pleasure of the Government; also that he was in 
daily Expectation of receiving Proposals of the like Submis- 
sion from near seven hundred more who were now at Ris- 
tigoush : His Excellency therefore desired the Advice of the 
Council in regard to the disposal of these People. 

The Council having taken the same into Consideration, did 
Advise that His Excellency would be pleased to Take up 
Vessels to Transport such of those Inhabitants to Halifax, as 
were not able to Travel by Land : in order to their being 
disposed of, as may hereafter be thought proper. 

Jno. Duport, 
Sec: Con: 

At a Council holden at the President's House in Halifax 
on Fryday, the 20th February, 1761. 

Present — 

The Honble. Jonathan Belcher, Esq., President, 
Jno. Collier, 

Chas. Morris, 
Richd. Bulkeley, 
Jos. Gerrish, 
Alexr. Grant. 

- Councrs. 

* * * * The President having communicated to the 
Council, a Paragraph of a Letter from His Excellency Major 
General Amherst to Colonel Forster, bearing date the 17th of 
January last, recommending the Continuation of the French 
Accadians in this Province, the Council proceeded to take the 
same into Consideration, together with the order of His Ma- 
jesty in Council of the 16th February 1760, and the Law of 
the Province relating to the French Accadians, and also the 
opinion of the Council of the 10th March 1760, in consequence 
of a Letter laid before them by the late Governor from Gene- 



ral Amherst ; and were unanimously of Opinion that the said 
order of His Majesty, a copy of the said Law, and also of the 
former Opinion of the Council, should be transmitted to the 
General ; and that His Excellency should be informed of the 
present Situation of the French Accadians in the Province, 
who had not yet surrendered, and their danger to the Settle- 
ments ; and that it is their present unanimous opinion that the 
said French Accadians cannot, by the said Royal Order and the 
said Provincial Law, be permitted to remain in the Province, 
and the Council did Advise that this their Opinion may be 
submitted with all deference to the Consideration of His Ex- 
cellency General Amherst. 

J. Duport, Sec. Con. 

To the Honorable Jonathan Belcher*, Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of His Majesty 1 8 Province of Nova 

The Humble Address of the House of Representatives of the 
said Province met in General Assembly — 

Sheweth — 

That previous to the commencement of the present war, 
the ancient Inhabitants of this Province, who called, or had 
been taught to call themselves neutrals, were expelled on 
account of their refusing that allegiance due from subjects to 

* Jonathan Belcher was second son of Governor Belcher, of Massachusetts. 
He graduated at Harvard, Cambridge, and was educated for the profession of 
the law. He afterwards went to England to complete his studies, where he 
became a member of the Society of the Middle Temple. He received the 
appointment of Chief Justice of Nova Scotia in 1754. Soon after assuming that 
office he urged upon Government the necessity of calling a Representative 
Assembly, being of opinion that the Governor and Council, under the Gover- 
nor's commission and instructions, did not possess the power of passing ordi- 
nances for levying taxes. The early enactments of the Legislature, which 
form the groundwork of the statute law of Nova Scotia, were prepared by him. 
Chief Justice Belcher was President of Council, and administered the Govern- 
ment of the Province on the death of Governor Lawrence in October, 1760. 
He died at Halifax in 1776, aged 65, leaving a son and daughter. The House 
of Assembly allowed a pension to the daughter until her marriage. His son, 
the Hon. Andrew Belcher, was for several years a member of Council. He 
was father of Vice Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, distinguished for his nautical 
surveys on the coast of Africa and the Arctic seas. Sir Edward was born at 
Halifax, and educated at the old Grammar School, in Barrington street, under 
the Rev. George Wright.— iV. S. Council Minutes; JV. S. Almanac, 1776/ Chief 
Justice Belcher's Letters among N. 8. Archives, 


their Sovereign ; and of the underhand support assistance and 
encouragement which they gave to the Savages to distress 
and annoy the new settlers with the most frightful and bloody 

That notwithstanding their expulsion in the year 1755, 
great numbers returned and joined the French parties and 
were headed by French partizans in defence of Canada, in 
Piratical depredations upon the coast of Nova Scotia, and with 
small parties scouring the internal parts of the province, de- 
stroying the inhabitants and driving off their Cattle in spite 
of the Troops sent against them, which they could easily 
evade from their thorough knowledge of the Country. 

That since the capitulation of Canada, in which they were 
not included, many of them finding it impossible to subsist, 
came out of the woods and surrendered with their families ; 
others have been surprised and ferreted out of their lurking 
places, by parties sent on purpose, and many yet remain who 
subsist upon hunting and fishing, in and about the Bay Cha- 
leur, Gaspe, Merimichi and other Rivers upon the coast of the 
Gulph of St. Lawrence and in the River St. John. 

That the lenity with which these people have been treated 
by the Government, since they have been prisoners, in allow- 
ing them the liberty of working at high wages, furnishing them 
with provisions and retaining them so long in the province, 
we conceive has been done on a presumption, that these mea- 
sures would shew them the sweets of the English Government 
and incline them to become real good subjects ; but we had 
reason to be convinced that this can never be effected, at least 
while they remain in the province ; for no sooner was the 
Spanish war declared, and the junction of Spain with France 
known, than they assumed fresh courage, and began to be in- 
solent to the Settlers in the Townships where they were at 
work, telling them that they should soon regain possession of 
their lands and cut every one of their throats. And the 
numerous appearance of savages, this summer from the most 
distant parts ot the province, joined with their insolence, and 
the invasion of Newfoundland has had such an effect upon the 
minds of the new Settlers, who by the necessity of their situa- 
tion, are considerably detached from one another in the coun- 
try, that great numbers have been induced thereby to quit 
their habitations, and retire to the Continent for safety ; and 
there is much reason to apprehend that if this panic should 
spread itself further among them, most part of the rest will 
follow the same example. 


To remedy this evil, and to prevent many other bad conse- 
quences to the province, we humbly apprehend the most effec- 
tual means will be speedily to remove these French pri- 
soners, for the forgoing as well as the following reasons — 

1. From the extraordinary convention and insolence of the 
Indians this summer upon the coast, the threatenings of the 
French, and the intelligence they seem to have spread among 
them by French partizans, there is the highest reason to 
believe, that the designs of the enemy, could they have been 
carried into execution, were much more extensive than the 
invasion of Newfoundland with so small an armament. 

2. That such prisoners as could have escaped would un- 
doubtedly have joined and taken arms with the enemy, in case 
they had appeared upon the coast, and attempted a descent ; 
and that they still would do so on any future occasion. 

3. That these people seeing the English daily in possession 
and enjoyment of the lands forfeited, and formerly occupied 
"by them, will for ever regret their loss ; and consequently 
will lay hold of every favorable opportunity for regaining 
them, at any, even the most hazardous risk. 

4. That their religion, wherein they demonstrate the highest 
bigotry ; and the early principles of policy which has been 
instilled into them by French Priests & emissaries Vizt. " that 
they are still Frenchmen and should pay obedience to the orders 
of their Grand Monarch," must constantly influence their 
conduct ; and make them in their hearts, enemies to a British 
Government, however mild & beneficent. 

5. That being born & bred among the savages, and knowing 
their language, and strictly connected with many of them by 
intermarriages and ties of blood, as well as religion, they 
never fail to inculcate a sperite of dislike to English heretics, 
as they term it, and to paint them to those ignorant wretches, 
in the most disadvantageous and horrid colors ; and should a 
favorable opportunity offer, may easily prevail with them to 
break the peace, and to chace away the settlers from their 
habitations, to the great hurt and utter ruin of the province ; 
and altho 7 we have possession of Canada and Cape Breton, 
yet there are numbers even of his Majesty's subjects, who from 
sordid views and an invincible avidity of gain, would be 
wicked enough to furnish them with as much amunition and 
provisions by stealth, for their peltry <fcc. as would be suffi- 
cient to do abundance of mischief; and this is what we have 
but too frequently and fatally experienced since the first 
settlement of Halifax. 


6. That these French neutrals, as they are now collected 
together, are at present a heavy charge upon the inhabitants, 
especially the laboring people, who are obliged to mount 
guard every third day and night in their turns, to prevent the 
escape of the prisoners confined only in open Barrracks, there 
being no place of close confinement to contain such a number. 

These sir, and many more cogent reasons that might be 
enforced, and which we presume will naturally occur to you, 
who are perfectly well acquainted with the present state of 
this province, we humbly submit to your consideration, and 
we flatter ourselves, that you will join with us in opinion, 
and give the necessary orders that these French prisoners 
may be forthwith removed out of the province. 

President Belcher to General Amherst. 

(Govrs. Lett Book.) 

Halifax, 25th February, 1761. 
Sir, — 

Colonel Forster having communicated to me a Paragraph 
of Your Excellency's Letter relating to the Acadians in Nova 
Scotia, wherein Your Excellency seems pleas'd to refer the 
Consideration of their continuance or removal from the Pro- 
vince to the deliberation of our Legislature, I thought it my 
duty to represent this affair to the Council for their Opinion, 
and they immediately took the same into Consideration & 
unanimously agreed to submit it to Your Excellency's advice 
for such measures as may be necessary to be pursued for the 
advantage and security of the Province ; and this their deter- 
mination, I have the honor to lay before you together with the 
papers referr'd to in the Opinion of Council. * * * * 

I am, <fcca., 


To His Excellency ) 

Major General Amherst, New York, j 


Extract from Minutes of a Council holden at the President's 
. House in Halifax on Saturday the 2\st March 1761. 

Present — 

The Honble. Jonathan Belcher Esqr. President, 

The Honble. Jno. Collier, 

Chs. Morris, 
Richd. Bulkeley, 
Jos. Gerrish, 
Alexr. Grant. 


The Council having taken into Consideration the extream 
ill Behaviour of Mr. Menac* a french Priest in this Province, 
who had, in a most notorious manner, publickly drauk the 
Pretender's Health, and had endeavoured to create uneasi- 
ness among the Indians, and to draw them over to the 
french Interest, and had also otherwise misbehaved, it was 
Advised that the said french Priest should be sent to England, 
as a Prisoner of War, by the first opportunity. 


Jno. Puport, Sec. Con. 

President Bdcher to Col. Forster. 

(Govrs. Letter Book.) 

Halifax, 18 June, 1761. 

By representations made to me from the New Settlements 
in this Province, it appears Extremely necessary that the in- 
habitants should be assisted by the Acadians in repairing the 
Dykes for the preservation ana recovery of the Marsh Lands, 
particularly ad on the progress of this work, in which the 
Acadians are the most skilful! people in the Country, the sup- 

* The Abbe Miniac, or Menach, came to Acadia in company with Father 
Gerard in 1742. He brought letters to Governor Mascarene from the Bishop 
of Quebec. The Bishop represented him as a man of birth, capacity, and 
experience, who had held the offices of Grand Vicar and Archdeacon. His 
first cure was at Minas. In 1755 he was stationed at Miramichi in charge of 
the Indian mission, as successor to M. La Corne the Recollet. After the fall of 
i/ouisbourg and Quebec, he went over to the 'English with several families of 
Acadians and some Indians — a course which was also pursued by M. Maillard 
at Cape Breton, and Father Germain, of the Indian missions at St. John's 
River and Miramichi. He, however, appears to have afterwards shown hostility 
to the British. — Governor Mascarene* s Letter at page 121; N. S. Documents ; 
Murdoch's Hist. N. 5., vol. 2. 

Father Charles Germain, of the Society of Jesus, above mentioned, was another 
active emissary of the Canada Government* He was appointed missionary to the 


port and Subsistence of several hundred of the inhabitants 
will depend. 

This weighty reason, together with the Consideration of the 
great Service rendered these Settlements thro' the Acadians, 
by the late Governor last year, urge me to repeat my Appli- 
cations that you may please to give such orders on this 
Occasion, that the Government may not incur an Expence in 
supporting the indigent inhabitants, and that no delay may be 
made in the progress of those Settlements which are so much 
the Object of the public regard, and the attention of His 
Majesty's Ministry ; and I shall expect the less difficulty on 
this occasion, as the Secretary for Military Affairs assur'd me 
some time since, from you, that the Acadians should be ready 
to receive my orders at half an hour's warning. 

I have the honour, &c, 


*To Colonel Forster, 

Commanding His Majesty's Troops 
in Nova Scotia. 

Eoctract of Letter from Lords of Trade to Chvr. Belcher. 

Whitehall, June 23d, 1761. 

The number of Acadians which you state to have been 
collected together in different parts of the Province, and their 
hostile disposition, appears to Us to be a very untoward cir- 
cumstance in the present state of the Province, but as it does 
not properly belong to our department to give directions upon 
a matter of this nature, We must refer you to His Majesty's 
Secretary of State, to whom We have transmitted Copies of 
such of your letters, and the papers received with them, as 
relate to this subject. 

Abenaki Indians, on the River St. John, about the year 1745, from which place 
he was in the habit of visiting Beaubassin, to co-operate with Le Loutre in hit 
operations against the British. For several years he was the authorized agent 
of the Quebec Government, and transmitted to the Governors of Canada intelli* 
gence of all movements in Acadia. Dispatches from Quebec were frequently 
addressed to him, and military officers were ordered to communicate with him. 
He assisted De Ramesay in his plans for the attack on the garrison of Minas 
in 1747, and the same year he proposed to the Governor of Canada a plan for 
an attack on the fort of Annapolis Royal, then, as he represented it, in a 
ruinous conditiou. In 1757 he removed to Miramichi, whence he frequently 
visited Quebee to obtain supplies for his Indians and refugee Acadians. 
After the fall of Quebec, he appears to have yielded to the force of circum- 
stances, and espoused the cause of the conquerors. In September, 1761, a 


Lt. Governor Belcher to Lord Egremont. 

Halifax, 9th January, 1762. 
My Lord, — 

I have the honour to inform your Lordship that a very 
considerable body of Acadians, having withdrawn their allegi- 
ance from His Majesty, and retired to the Northern Part of 
this Province in the Gulph of the River St. Lawrence ; and 
there having taken up Arms, and by the means of small vessels 
infested the navigation of that River, and committed many 
depredations on His Majesty's Subjects, — I thought it my duty 
to bestow all the attention I could to check and prevent the 
further progress of such great mischiefs ; and therefore hav- 
ing received an account from Captain Roderick McKenzie of 
Montgomery's Highlanders, who commanded at Fort Cumber- 
land, that an attempt of this kind was practicable, I gave 
directions for equipping two small Vessels, on board of which 
Captain McKenzie, with some of the Troops, proceeded about 
the end of October, to the place of their rendezvous, where 
he surprised seven hundred & Eighty seven persons including 
Men, Women & Children. Of this number, he brought away 
three hundred and thirty five, as many as he could in that late 
Season of the year remove, and the remainder have made 
their submission, and promised to come in when it shall be 
thought proper or convenient to request it. * * * * * 

I beg leave to represent to your Lordship, that besides 
these persons, there are many others of the Acadians in this 
Province, who altho 7 they have surrendered themselves, are 
yet ever ready and watchful for an opportunity, either by 
assistance from the French, or from hopes of stirring up the- 
Indians to disturb and distress the new settlements lately 
made, and those now forming; and I am perfectly well con- 
vinced, from the whole course of their behaviour and disposi- 
tion, that they cannot with any safety to this Province become 
again the inhabitants of it, * * * * 

I am <fcc. 
The Right Honble. JONATHAN BELCHER. 

The Earl of Egremont* 

pension of £50 per annum was granted him by the Government at Halifax for 
his services in quieting the Indians and Acadians at the River St. John. In 
1762 he wrote to Halifax, acknowledging the receipt of his pension, and 
declaring his inability to control the Indians. He finally retired to Quebec 
with 80 Indian families, and died at St. Francis, Canada East, in August, 1779. 
Jtept. on Indian affairs, N. Y. Col. Doc, vol. x. Shey's Missions, 163, quoted 
by Ed. ofN. Y. Doc. Murdoch's Hist. N. S.j vol. 2, 422. N. S,. Council Min- 
«fes, 21 Sept., 1761. 21 


At a Council holden at Halifax on Monday the 22d March 

Present — 

The Honble. the Lieutenant Governor, 

The Hoiible. Jno. Collier, 

Chas. Morris, 

Richd. Bulkeley, I Counclg 
Alexr. Grant, y bounds. 

Edmd. Crawley, 
Hen. Newton. 

The Lieutenant Governor communicated to the Council the 
following Letter from Brigadier General Murray, Governor of 
Quebec — 

" Quebec, 20th Sept. 1761. 

" Having had General Amherst's Directions for that pur- 
pose, I sent some time ago a Person to Ristigouche to take an 
account of the number of Acadians there, as also of those 
dispersed in the different Bays of that part of the Country, 

" By his Report, I find the number considerably less than I 
Imagined, and that many of them have departed from thence 
to Beausejour and Louisbourg, owing it may be supposed, to 
tbe Countenance and favour they meet with there. 

•'As this is diametrically opposite to General Amherst's 
Views and the orders he has given to bring them up, in order 
to their being settled somewhere in the upper parts of Canada, 
least the Government should be put to an extraordinary need- 
less Expence, I am to request you will let me know, by the 
way of the Lakes, whether you propose settling again in Nova 
Scotia, for in that case it will be unnecessary to send for them, 
as I propose the Instant the Season will permit their Removal 
next year, the present one being too far advanced to effect the 
.same immediately. 

■" You must know best the Consequences of settling them 
among you : the measure indeed does not appear to me so 
eligible as the very spot must renew to them, in all succeeding 
Generations, the Miseries the present one has endured, and 
will perhaps alienate for ever their affections from its Govern- 
ment however just and Equitable it may be." 

I am with regard, 
Your most obedt. & most humble servt. 
J*. Belcher Esq. JA : MURRAY/' 

Lieut. Gov. of Nova Scotia. 


The Council did thereupon Adviso that General Murray- 
should be acquainted, that it was by no means thought conve- 
nient or safe, by the Government, to give Settlements to the 
Acadians, mentioned in his Letter, in this Province ; and that 
they were here to be disposed of according to the directions 

•of General Amherst, or agreeable to His Majesty's pleasure, 

J, Duport, Sect Con: 

AtaOouncif foolden Tit Halifax on Monday the 26th July 


The Honble* the Lieutenant Governor* 

The Honble. Jno. Collier, 

Chas. Morris, 
Richd. Bulkeley, 
Alexr. Grant, 
Edmd. Crawley, 
Hen. Newton,* 
Michl. Francklin. 

- Council 

The Lieut. Governor desired the Council to take into Con* 
sideration, the present Circumstances of the Province, from 
the number of Acadians in many parts of it, and particularly 
the large Body of them now in this Town ; and to give him 
their Opinion of the fittest measures to be taken at this Time > 
for the Security and Safety of the Province. 

The Council took the same under Consideration accord- 
ingly, and were of Opinion that so long a Continuance of so 

* Hon. Honry Newton was for many years Collector of Customs at Halifax. He 
xvas soft of Mr. Hibbert Newton, a member of H. M. Council at Annapolis Royal, at 
the first formation of the Board by Gov. Philipps, in 1720, and afterwards Colleo 
tor of Customs at Annapolis and Canso. 

Henry Newton was appointed a Councillor by Governor Belcher, 24 Oct., 
1761, and became President of Council in Febry. 1790. He died at Halifax, 
January 29, 1802. His son, the Hon. Ed. Newton, born at Halifax, settled in 
Massachusetts, and was some time a member of the Executive Council of that 
State. He - had another son, the late Joshua Newton, of Liverpool, N. S> 

Hibbert Newton, of Annapolis, had two other sons and a daughter : John, 
Surveyor of the Customs, who was the elder brother of Hon. Henry Newton, and 
was father of the late William Newton, of Halifax; Philip, an officer in 
the Army whose daughter married the Hon. JL J. Uniacke, Attorney General 
of Nova Scotia ; and Thomas, who died in Ireland. Hia daughter married the 
Hon. Jonathan Binney, of Halifax. The late Maunsel Newton, of Halifnx. was 
a descendant of Hibbert Newton, — MS. Memoranda, by Hon, Ed» Newton 
of Pittsfield, Mass, Council Books *f N. S* 

324 kova scotia Doctmmvs. 

?:eat a number of the Acadians as Prisoners of War, in the 
own of Halifax, and in other parts of this Province, had 
much endangered the Safety thereof, and had caused great 
uneasiness to, and distressed the Minds of His Majesty's Sub- 
jects, and retarded the Progress of the new Settlements r 
That from a continued Series of Experience, they were fully 
convinced of the strict Attachment of the said Acadians to, 
and readiness at all times to take part with and assist His 
Majesty's Enemies, the French King and his Subjects to the 
utmost of their power, they having been more than once ac- 
tually in Arms against His Majesty and his Subjects. That a 
Reflection on the Circumstances of this Province at this Junc- 
ture, when for the Safety and Security of the Settlers of 
King's County, it is found indispensably necessary to March 
one hundred and thirty of the Acadians under a Guard of the 
Militia of that County into this Town, not only revives in their 
Minds these considerations with regard to the said Acadians, 
but impresses it with double weight, and they apprehend 
calls on them for an exertion of the most effectual means to 
prevent any ill Effects that might arise from them, more 
especially when they consider the behaviour of the said Aca- 
dians upon the present occasion, which is remarkably insolent 
and exulting, insomuch that it is absolutely necessary to cause 
them to be close confined, under a Strong Guard of the Militia 
of the Town of Halifax, to the great Inconvenience and Dis- 
tress of the said Inhabitants, near a fourth part of them being 
called on for that Duty daily ; that there is sufficient reason to 
believe some late Threats and Insults of numerous Bodies of 
the Indians, assembled in various parts of the Province to the 
Terror of His Majesty's Subjects in the new Settlements, has 
been occasioned by the Stimulations and artful Insinuations of 
the said Acadians. That they apprehend there cannot be any 
hopes of a sincere Submission of the said Indians to His Ma- 
jesty's Government while the said Acadians are suffered to 
continue in this Province, they being connected by Intermar- 
riages with them, and thereby maintain a considerable Influ- 
ence over them at all times. That it has lately been dis- 
covered that the said Acadians bad collected and concealed in 
Secret Places in King's County in this Province, a consider- 
able Quantity of Ammunition for Small Arms. That at this 
Time the necessity of drawing all the Troops together at 
Halifax, had stripped the new Settlements so effectually of 
Protection, that, except the very small Garrisons at Anna- 
polis, St John's River, and Port Cumberland, not amounting 


in the whole to one hundred Men, there was no Protection to 
any of the Settlements, the Interior part of the Country being 
intirely destitute of any, and the Garrison at Port Edward 
wholly occupied by the Militia of that County, to the great 
detriment of the Inhabitants, who are forced to neglect their 
Husbandry ; and so much to their Terror that not only one 
hundred and fifty of the Settlers have on this Alarm quitted 
one of the new Towns in the Country, but others are prepar- 
ing from other parts to follow them. For all which Reasons 
the Council are of Opinion that in this Time of danger, it is 
absolutely necessary immediately to Transport the said Aca- 
dians out of this Province, as their continuing longer in it 
may be attended with the worst Consequences to the pro- 
jected new Settlements in particular, as well as to the General 
Safety of the Province. The Council do likewise observe 
that in case of an attack on the Town of Halifax by the 
Enemy, the placing a sufficient Guard on the said Acadians 
would become very inconvenient and weaken the Forces, 
more especially as there is no Stronghold or Place to secure 
them in; and that during any Attack they might take the 
Opportunity of Setting Fire to the Town and Joining the 
Enemy. And therefore the Council do unanimously Advise 
and recommend, in the most earnest manner, for the Safety 
and Security of this Province and its new Settlements, that the 
Lieutenant Governor would be pleased to take the speediest 
method to collect and Transport the said Acadians out of this 
Province ; and do further Advise that as the Province of the 
Massachusetts is nearest adjacent to this Province, that the 
Lieutenant Governor would be pleased to cause them to be 
transported to that Province with all convenient dispatch. 

Jno. Dupoet, Sec. Con. 

At a Council holden at Halifax on Thursday the 5th August 

Present — 

The Honble. the Lieutenant Governor. 

The Honble. Jno. Collier, 

Chas. Morris, 
Richd. Bulkeley, 
Edmd. Crawley, 
Hen. Newton, 
Michl. Francklin. 

The Lieutenant Governor desired the Council would give 



him their Opinion and Advice, Whether, upon the Arrival of 
the Acadian Prisoners at Boston, they should be discharged 
and set at liberty, or Whether they should be continued in 
Custody, to be disposed of as General Amherst should think 
proper : And for this purpose the Lieutenant Governor laid 
before the Council, the whole Correspondence between him 
and the General, relative to the Acadians in this Province, the 
same being contained in the following Letters, which were 
read and ordered to be Entered, vizt., 

" New York, 22d March 1761. 
" Sir,— 

li Your Dispatch of the 25 th February reached my Hands 
last Night ; I have nothing more at heart than the Advantage 
and Security of the Province of Nova Scotia ; If the removal 
of the Acadians still remaining within the same could add to 
either, I should be the first to advise their Expulsion ; but as 
under the new Circumstances of that valuable and flourishing 
Province, I do not see that it can have any thing to fear or 
apprehend from those Acadians, but on the contrary that 
great Advantages might be reapt in employing them properly : 
I must own I should incline towards letting them remain in 
the Province under proper Regulations & Restrictions. 

•' Another motive that induces me to lean on that side is, 
that their Transportation to England must be a heavy burthen 
on the Pnblick, and their Maintenance when there, a still 
greater ; I would therefore recommend it to you, prior to 
taking any further Steps hereupon, to represent these, and any 
other Considerations that shall occur to you to His Majesty's 
Ministers, and to wait the King's pleasure thereupon. 

" I am much obliged to You for Mr. Morris 7 Map of the Pen- 
insula of your Province ; it is not yet come to my Hands, Mr. 
Hancock having thought it too bulkey to send it by Post; but 
acquaints me that he forwarded it in a Vessel bound to this 

I am with great regard 


Your most obedient 

humble servant 

(Signed) JEFF. AMHERST." 
Mr. President Belcher. 


Lieut. Grow. Belcher to General Amherst. 

" Halifax, Nova Scotia, 15th April, 1761. 
" Sir,— 

" By this Opportunity I don't doubt that Colonel Forster 
has laid before Your Excellency, the Informations he has 
received relating to the hostile Designs of the numerous Body 
of Acadians at Ristigouch, and the neighboring parts ; in 
fitting out Piratical Vessels to Cruize on His Majesty's Sub 
jects, and that the Lord Colvill is now taking the most effec- 
tual methods to frustrate their Designs. But I think it my 
indispensable Duty to represent to Your Excellency, my Appre- 
hensions for the Settlements which are to be established this 
Summer in the District of Chignecto. 

" The Acadians have at all times shewn a readiness to 
attempt any thing against the present Establishment of this 
Province, and I think in this new Instance, they have given a 
fresh proof of this Disposition, joined with a high degree of 
Obstinacy ; for notwithstanding the Conquest of Canada, and 
the mild Treatment and Indulgences shewn to those who have 
surrendered themselves, they have not only used means to 
prevent the Indians in their Neighbourhood from making 
Peace, but are now forming desperate Designs, which cannot 
be imputed to a necessity of procuring Provisions, as they 
know that on their Submission, they would receive Supplies of 
that sort. And I beg leave further to remark to Your Excel- 
lency that none of the Acadians have ever made voluntary 
Submission, but on the contrary, their wants and Terrors only 
have reduced them to it, of which there's an Instance from 
some of them remaining at the Village St. Ann's on St. John's 
River, to the amount of Forty, who have yet made no Offers 
of Surrender, as they are subsisted through the means of the 
Indians there, and whom, according to some well grounded 
Intelligences I have lately received, not long since, they have 
been exciting to mischievous, tho' vain Attempts. 

'•' Besides the reasons I have already offered to you, Sir, why 
Attempts from these People are to be fear'd, there yet remains 
one of some weight, which is that there are many amongst the 
Acadians at Restigouch, who were formerly in possession of 
some of those Lands in the District of Chignecto, and as they 
have not yet lost hopes of regaining them, through Notions 
which they have received from Priests and Frenchmen, I think 
it at least probable that they will disturb the beginning of 
these Settlements, in which case, the loss of two or three 


Lives, will strike such Terror as may not only intimidate and 
drive away the People of Three Townships, but may also 
greatly obstruct the Settlements in other parts. The late 
Governor was so sensible of the necessity of receiving the 
new People in perfect Security, that he postponed the Estab- 
lishment of these Settlements last year, until a Time of Safety 
might offer. 

" I have made Representations to tho Ministry of what 
relates to the Acadians, and as it is a matter of great Impor- 
tance to that Share of His Majesty's Service which falls under 
my care, I apply, Sir, to you for such means as may be suffi- 
cient to ward off any threatening danger, and think myself 
•happy in making this Application where there is so much 
Zeal for the Public Good, and for the Welfare of this Province 
in particular. 

" I have the Honor to be with the greatest 


Your Excellency's most obedient 

and most devoted Servant, 


His Excellency Major ) 
General Amherst. ) 

Major General Sir Jeff. Amherst to Governor Belcher. 

" New York, 28th. April, 1761. 

***** I have sent your Despatches to Captain 
Tonge who takes Manac the Priest with him when lie sails 
from hence. ***** 

" I can't say I am under any Apprehensions for the Settle- 
ments which are to be established this Summer in the District 
of Chignecto ; the number of Regular Troops with the Rang- 
ing Companies still remaining in the Province of Nova Scotia, 
can certainly furnish whatever may be wanted for the Protec- 
tion of those Settlements. 

" The Acadians may not be so thoroughly well disposed, as I 
could wish, but I expect a different behaviour from them, 
than what has yet appeared, for they have never been in the 
Scituation they are now in, and they can hardly be mad 
enough to attempt any thing against the Establishment of the 
Province at this Time. If they are, they must be made to 
suffer for it as they deserve* 


" The Settlements in the beginning must not be permitted to 
be disturbed, but must bo protected with great Care, that no 
Terror may creep in amongst them, and frighten the People 
from their Townships. 

" Colonel Forster shall have my directions to have a particu- 
lar regard to the Quiet and Safety of the new Settlers, in 
furnishing any Troops that may be wanted for that purpose* 
I am with great regard, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

(Signed) JEFF. AMHERST." 

Mr. President Belcher. 

The Lieutenant Governor also informed the Council that in 
consequence of General Amherst ? s first Letter, dated the 22d 
March 1761, he had wrote to their Lordships of the Board of 
Trade on the Subject of the removal of the Acadians out of 
this Province, in answer to which they had informed him that 
it appeared to them to be a very untoward Circumstance, in 
the present State of the Province, but that as the Subject 
was in the Department of His Majesty's Secretary of State, 
their Lordships referred the Lieutenent Governor for direc- 
tions from the Secretary of State, to whom Copies were trans- 
mitted by their Lordships of such of the Lieutenant Gover- 
nor's Letters, and the Papers received with them, as related 
to that Subject. 

The Council having taken the same into Consideration and 
having referred to the Minutes of Council of the 20th Feb- 
ruary 1761, the 22d March 1762, and the 17th May 1762, 
relative to the said Acadians in this Province, were unani- 
mously of Opinion, that the said Acadian Prisoners, upon their 
Arrival at Boston, should be still detained in Custody, to be 
disposed of as General Amherst should think proper to direct. 

Jno. Duport, Sec : Con : 

Sir Jeffery Amherst to Governor Belcher. 

New York, 30th August, 1762. 

By an Express from Boston I was last night favored with 
your Letter of the 12th Instant, and its several enclosures ; 
And at the same time learn from Mr. Hancock that Five 
Transports, with Accadians, were arrived at that place. 


Altho' I can't help thinking that these People might have 
been kept in proper subjection while the Troops remained in 
Nova Scotia, yet I must own I am glad you have taken the 
measures for removing them, as they might have become 
troublesome when the Province was drained of the forces, 
which I have been obliged to employ on a very essential 
service : I doubt not but you have wrote to Governor 
Bernard concerning them, but I shall by the return of the 
Express, desire he be pleased to dispose of the Acadians in 
such a manner as he judges best, in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, where they must remain for the present, 
taking care to seperate them as much as possible, to prevent 
their doing any mischief, as well as Returning to their Old 

I could have wished that those who inhabited the back 
parts of the Province, had been sent to Canada, agreeable to 
Govr. Murrays request, by which means you would not only 
have saved the expense of bringing them down the country at 
this time, but have been eased of any dread from that quarter. 

I am persuaded that neither the Accadians, Canadians or 
Indians, had any knowledge of the intentions of the Enemy 
who have been landed at Newfoundland: how far their 
success at St. John's might have tempted them to establish a 
Correspondence with the neighbouring Indians & Accadians 
is uncertain : but I flatter myself they will be effectually 
prevented from carrying any plan of that kind into execution, 
by the arrival of the ships under Lord Colvill, and the Troops 
under Lt. Colonel Amherst. * * * * 

The protection of the valuable Colony of Nova Scotia 
certainly cannot be too much attended to, but at this time 
when we know where the Eneniys Force is, and that it is 
absolutely necessary to have them dislodged before the 
Winter sets in. I think if any single man of war arrives at 
Halifax and that you have no certain advice of Lord Covills 
being superior to the French Fleet the Captain should be 
ordered immediately to Joyn His Lordship : From the steps 
that have been taken to send advice to Sir George Peacocke 
and Admiral Rodney as well as to England of the enemys 
being at Newfoundland, I am persuaded We shall soon have 
ships sufficient not only for the protection of the Northern 
settlements, but for that of the Coast in General. 

I enclose a letter for My Lord Colvill, with one for Lt. 
Colonel Amherst, which require no particular dispatch ; but 
as I imagine there may be opportunitys from Halifax of for- 


warding them, I must beg the favor you will send them by 
the first occasion that may offer. * * * 

I am, with great regard, 

Your most obedient 

Humble Servant, 
Honble Lt. Govr. Belcher. JEFF : AMHERST. 

Indorsed — Reed, by inclosure from Mr. Hancock 18 Sept. 1762. Answered 
22 Octr. 

Extract of the first two paragraphs respecting the Acadians sent to the 
Earl of Egremont and Lords of Trade, 18 Oct., 1762, by the Minerva Frigate. 
Do. sent Do. in Duplicate letters 18 Oct. by 

Extract from two first paragraphs sent to Lds. of Trade 7 Sept. 1762 by 
Cap Brett, 

Extract from Oovernor Belcher's Letter to Sir Jeffery Amherst ', 

dated 12th August, 1762. 

I shall give orders to the transports to proceed to Boston, 
& there remain with the people on board, until they receive 
your Excy's directions for the disposal of them, & that they 
may lye in that Harbour under the Command of the Castlo 
until that time, as they are treated as prisoners, I presume it 
may be indifferent in what part of the King's dominions they 
are detained, provided they are much inferior in number to 
the Inhabitants whose superiority may keep them in awe, & I 
would hope, that this measure can little interfere with your 
Excellency's views of settling some of the Acadians in the 
Upper parts of Canada, as General Murray informed in his 
letter of 20 September last. 

At a Council holden at Halifax on Monday the 18th October 

Present- - 

The Honble. the Lieutenant Governor. 

The Honble. Jno. Collier, 

Chas. Morris, 
Richd. Bulkeley, 
Alexr. Grant, 
Edmd. Crawley, 
Heny. Newton, 
Michl. Prancklin. 

The following Report of the Committee appointed on Tues 

- Councls. 


day last was read and unanimously approved by the Board, 
and Ordered to be Entered, vizt. 

" Halifax, 18th October, 1762. 

" The Committee of Council appointed to enquire into the 
Motives which occasioned the Return of the Transports with 
the Acadians from Boston, do Report as follows. 

" 1st. That it having appeared indispensably necessary for 
the Safety of this Province, to remove the Acadians from 
thence at a time when the Enemy were in possession of St 
John's in Newfoundland with a considerable Force, they were 
accordingly put on board several Transports in this Harbour, 
from whence they sailed in the beginning of August to 

u 2d. That the Lieutenant Governor had by Letter ac-. 
quainted Sir Jeffery Amherst of this Proceeding, and acquaint- 
ed him farther that they were to remain in the Harbour of 
Boston until his pleasure concerning the disposal of them 
could be known ; and had also wrote to Governor Bernard 
requesting of him, that he would permit the Transports to lie 
under the Guns of Castle William for the further directions of 
Sir Jeffery Amherst, and that all necessary Charges were to 
be defrayed by Mr. Hancock, to whom the Lieutenant Gover- 
nor had wrote to that purpose, acquainting him that the 
Transports were to remain in the Harbour of Boston, until 
further Orders could arrive from Sir Jeffery Amherst. 

" 3d. That Sir Jeffery Amherst had, by Letter to the Lieu- 
tenant Governor, approved of what had been done with the 
Acadians ; and that Mr. Hancock had acknowledged the Re- 
ceipt of the Lieutenant Governor's Letter, acquainting him 
the Transports would immediately be Ordered under the Guns 
of Castle William, and that he would discharge what Expences 
might attend them ; there appeared also another Letter from 
Mr. Hancock to the Secretary of the Province, and to the 
same purpose, particularly that he would pay the necessary 
Expences on this occasion. 

" 4th. It appeared from the Votes of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Massachusetts Bay, that in consequence of Sir 
Jeffery Amherst's Letter to Governor Bernard, the Governor 
had recommended to the General Assembly to make a Tem- 
porary Settlement for the Acadians, but that they had abso- 
lutely refused it, and requested that the Governor would not 
permit them to Land : of which Vote Sir Jeffery Amherst was 
informed by Mr. Hancock by a Letter of 17th September; 


that Sir Jeffery Amherst had further wrote to Governor Ber- 
nard on this matter, hoping that the General Assembly would 

, xeconsider their Votes, and make provision for disposing of 
those People ; but by Mr. Hancock's letter to the Lieutenant 
Governor of 29th September, it appears thai before the Gene- 

\ laFs letter, sollicking a reconsideration of the Vote, had 
arrived, the General Assembly had been prorogued. 

"5th. It appeared that Captain Brooks Commanding the 
Convoy of Transports, having been directed by Instructions 
from the Lieutenant Governor, to follow the orders and direc- 
tions of Governor Bernard, and Advise with Mr. Hancock, he 
iad accordingly applied for Orders to the Governor, who 
acquainted him, that according to the desire of the General 
Assembly, he could not permit the landing of the Acadians, 
; Bor could he give him any Orders, but directed him to receive 
his Orders from Mr. Hancock, who advised him to return to 
Halifax, for that he had no Authority to supply any Provi- 
sions for the Transports in case they were to remain any 
longer ; and it further appeared that Mr. Hancock disapproved 

■ of Captain Brooks's Proposal to send Expresses to Sir Jeffery 

, Amherst, or to the Lieutenant Governor, on account of the 

[ Expence of the Transports being longer detained, and his 

? Want of power to furnish Provisions. 

* " Upon the whole the Committee are of Opinion that full and 
explicit Orders were given to Mr. Hancock, to supply the said 
Acadians with Provisions and all necessaries till the final de- 
termination of Sir Jeffery Amherst in what manner they 
should be disposed of, under whose more immediate direction 
they were. 

" That Mr. Hancock being Agent for this Province and fully 
acquainted with the purpose & Intentions of sending the 
said Acadians to New England, as they had been kept here 
only as Prisoners of War ; and as he well knew the dangers to 
which this Province was exposed by their Residence here, We 
are further of Opinion that he had neglected the Interest and 
Safety of this Province, which the Lieutenant Governor had 
reposed in him, by discouraging the Proposal made by Cap- 
tain Brooks of sending a fresh Express, and waiting for fur- 
ther Orders from Sir Jeffery Amherst, or sending an Express 
to the Lieutenant Governor of this Province ; and particu- 
larly by declaring to Captain Brooks that he was not empow- 
ered to furnish him with any thing but such little Expences as 
might occur till Sir Jeffery Amherst's pleasure could be 
known, as appears by Capt. Brooks's own Declaration, and by 


precipitately advising and perswading Captain Brooks to t&* 
turn with the Acadians back into this Province, to the great 
danger thereof, and Distress of all its Inhabitants. 

" By all which Management, the Public has incurred a very 
considerable and fruitless Expenoe, and Sir Jeffery Amherst's 
intention for the disposal of those Prisoners has, tor the pres- 
ent, been intirely baffled, and his Expectations disappointed, 
as appears by Mr. Hancock's Letter 5th October, wherein he 
says the General has signified that he hoped the Province of 
the Massachusetts had taken the Acadians, and that an End 
was put to that affair." * * * * 

Jno. Duport, Sec. Com 

Governor Belcher to Lord Egremont, Secretary of State* 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 

20th October, 1762. 
My Lord,-— 

# # * # The prisoners became more submissive 
to Government, and desisted from their hostile measures ; 
yet upon the first notice of the enemy's invasions on the coast 
of Newfoundland, their insolence broke out afresh, to the 
terror of the Inhabitants, as will be under your Lordship's 
notice, by the representations of the legislative body of the 
Province, and minutes of a council of war, copies whereof I 
have the honor to transmit to your Lordship. Among other 
precautions for the safety of the province, in a time of so 
much seeming danger from the Enemy, it was considered as 
of instant necessity, that these Acadians should be removed, 
and they were accordingly, My Lord, transported to the 
Massachusetts Government, under address to the Governor 
for their remaining there, for the pleasure of His Excellency 
General Amherst, as Prisoners of War. The General, having 
approved of their removal, as by the extract from His Excel- 
lency's Letter humbly presented, recommended the Disposal 
of them to that Government, where, by the House of Assembly, 
they were refused permission to land, and were with great 
precipitation sent back to this Province, before General 
Amherst's final resolution could be known, contrary to the 
very candid and earnest recommendation of His Excellency 
Governor Bernard, for their being received in the Massachu- 
setts. This disappointment, My Lord, to a very essential 


branch of His Majesty's Service, and of the necessary and 
great expence of their transportation, I committed to tho 
Deliberations of His Majesty's Council of this Province, whose 
opinion, together with the several Facts in tho letters and 
Papers leading to it, I beg permission humbly to lay before 
your Lordship, as well in justification of Government upon 
this occasion, as for being under the favor of your Lordship's 
Consideration, for the future security of the Province, against 
the exasperated minds of this disaffected set of people, thro' 
their repeated expulsions, and for the quiet and progress of 
tho new settlements, in being freed from the fears of their 
dispositions and attempts by themselves and the Savages to 
distress the more exposed Townships in their possessions and 
Improvements. ***** 

My Lord &c. 
The Right Honblo. JONATHAN BELCHER. 

The Earl of Egrement, 
&c. &c. &c. 

Governor Belcher to Board of Trade. 


Nova Scotia, 

21st October, 1762. 
My Lords, — 

In my last address 7th September (Duplicate whereof 
with the Laws of the last Session and Copies of the Papers 
therein humbly referred to, is now presented) I had the honor 
of laying before your Lordships, the Measures of Govern- 
ment, in the threatening danger to the Province by the neigh- 
bourhood of tha Enemy at Newfoundland, for removing the 
Acadians. I have the satisfaction humbly to apprise your 
Lordships, that this proceeding was approved by His Excel- 
lency General Amherst, as will be before you, My Lords, by 
the Extract from his Letter to me which I have the honor to 
present. In the midst of the General's expectations for land- 
ing and disposing these people in the Massachusetts Govern- 
ment, the most precipitate means were used to send them 
back to this Province, and to defeat the General's humane 
intentions to us in not permitting them to return to their old 
habitations, and thereby frustrating the great expense of their 
transportation. I conceived it my Lords, to be immediately 
necessary to commit this proceeding to the examination and 


opinion of His Majesty's Council, whose Resolutions are now 
humbly submitted, together with Copies annexed of the 
several Letters and Papers upon which their opinion is 
founded. I cannot, my Lords, but exceedingly lament so 
unfortunate a circumstance against this Government, and at a 
time when the Province was necessarily drained of its 
forces, for retaking St. Johns Fort in Newfoundland, and the 
more is it to be regretted, my Lords, as so many repeated and 
nugatory expulsions must naturally exasperate the minds of 
this dangerous set of people, who may become desperate for 
the worst mischiefs, by themselves, and their instigations of 
the Savages, to the possessions and improvements of the new 
Settlers. This sentiment I have the honor to be confirmed 
in, by a paragraph of a Letter from your Lordships Board to 
Governor Lawrence, dated 10th March 1757, expressing the 
sense of their Lordships, upon the bare permission of the 
Southern Colonies to some of the Acadians removed there 
from hence, to coast along from one Province to another, in 
order that they might come back to Nova Scotia, " that 
nothing could have been more absurd and blameable, and that 
had not the Governors of New York and the Massachusetts 
Bay prudently stopped them, there is no attempt, however 
desperate and cruel, which might not have been expected 
from persons exasperated, as they must have been, by the 
treatment they had met with." 

" The conduct of the Massachusetts Assembly, and more 
especially the Agent upon this occasion, will remain for your 
Lordships consideration. Having been referred by your 
Lordships to His Majesty's Secretary of State upon the sub- 
ject of removing the Acadians, I do by this opportunity ad- 
dress my Lord Egremont, with the state of this proceeding, 
and have again humbly interceded in favor to this Colony and 
the new Settlements, that the Province may be freed from the 
dangers to be dreaded from so inveterate an Enemy. In the 
same paragraph of the Letter, their Lordships of the then 
Board of Trade, further express themselves to the late Go- 
vernor, in terms the most pointed and conclusive, upon the 
matter before them of the Acadians, " it is certainly very 
much to be wished, that they could be entirely driven out of 
the Peninsula, because until that is done, it will be in their 
power, by the knowledge they have of the Country, however 
small their numbers to distress and harrass the outsettlements, 
and even His Majesty's Troops, so as greatly to obstruct the 
establishment of the Colony. 


When 1 receive,. mv Lords, General Amherst's sentiments 
Upon the procedure of the Massachusetts in contradiction: to 
his indisputable ri^ht of disposing of all prisoners of War, in 
any part of His Majesty's Dominions, I shall repeat my humble 
Addresses to your Lordships and His Majesty's Secretary of 
State, with such further intelligence as may appear to be 
necessary for finally deciding upon a subject so interesting to 
His Majesty's future Service in the Province. As the Gene- 
ral, my Lords, did so fully approve the removal of these Aca- 
tlians as Prisoners of War, I natter myself, that His Excellen- 
cy will not object to the payment of their transportation, in 
the Military method, by Bills and Certificates on the Navy 
Board, to save the trouble of any applications to Parliament. 

I have the honor <fcc. 


The Lords Commissioners 

for Trade and Plantations. 

Extract from the Minnies of the Proceedings of the Lords 
Commissioners qf Trade and Plantations. 


December 3d, 1762. 

Their Lordships upon consideration of that part of Mr. 
Belchers letter of 26th October 1762, which relates to the 
removal of the Acadians, were of opinion' that the whole of 
this measure both in respect to the refusal' of the Gov. of 
Massachusetts Bay to admit the said Acadians into that pro- 
vince, and to the future disposition of them is entirely within 
the department of the Secretary of State for such directions 
as he shall think proper to give. Their Lordships, however 
could not but be of opinion, that however expedient it might 
have been to have removed them at a time when the Enter- 
prizes of the Enemy threatened danger to the province, and 
it was weakened by the Employment of great part of the 
troops stationed there upon another service, yet as that danger 
is now over and hostilities between the two nations have 
ceased, it was neither necessary nor politic to remove them, 
as they might, by a proper disposition, promote the interest 
of the Colony and be made useful membes of Society agree- 


able to what appears to be the sentiments of General Amherst in 
his letter to the Lt. Govr, Entered upon the minutes of Council* 

Secretary Bidkdey to Joshua Window. 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax, 22 February , 1763. 


The Lieutenant Governor desires that the inclos'd may be 
transmitted to yon, setting forth a Complaint against some of 
the inhabitants who have unjustly withheld what was due to 
the Acadians. If these people do not immediately discharge 
their debts due on this Occasion, Colonel Forster will forbid 
their working for the future, and the Lieutenant Governor 
desires that the names of the persons so indebted may be 
transmitted to him that proper measures may be taken to pre- 
vent such injustice for the future. 

I am &c* 

To Joshua Winslow, Esq., ) RICHD, BtTLKELEY. 

at Fort Cumberland. ) 

Extracts from Minnies of a Council holden at Halifax on 

Tuesday, the 5th July, 1763. 

The Lieutenant Governor laid before the Council a Letter 
from Mr. Henry Green dated at Fort Frederick on St. John's 
River, setting forth that many of the Acadians had taken pos- 
session of Lands on that River, and had disputed the posses- 
sion with several English Settlers, and behaved in many 
respects with Insolence. 

And at the same time the Lieutenant Governor acquainted 
the Covncil that he had the Opinion of the Lords of Trade 
against the general removal of the Acadians from this Pro- 

Extract from a Letter of the Earl of Halifax to Montague 

WUmot, Governor of Nova Scotia. 

St. James's, Novr. 26th, 1763. 

Having lately received, and laid before The King, a 
Letter from Jonathan Belcher, Esq., of the 25th of August, 


inclosing some Extracts of the Minutes of the Council of 
Nova Scotia, by which it appears that the French have been 
endeavouring thr6 the Agency of a certain Monsieur de la 
Rochette, (who is said to be a Clerk to the Duke of Nivernois) 
to inveigle the French Acadians who remain in that Province, 
and persuade them to return to France, I herewith transmit to 
You a Copy of the Letter, by which I have signified His Ma- 
jesty's Commands to His Ambassador at Paris to make imme- 
diate Remonstrance to the French Ministers upon this extra- 
ordinary Proceeding. By that Letter You will be fully in- 
formed of His Majesty's Sense of these underhand Practices, 
and of His Resolution to prevent their taking Effect. You 
will, therefore, consider it as Your Duty to keep the most 
watchfull Eye on the Persons who have been employed in this 
secret Negotiation, and to take every lawfull means of pre- 
venting any of the French Acadians from being clandestinely 
withdrawn from His Majesty's Government. 

But necessary as it is, on the one Hand, to put a Stop to the 
Seduction, and secret Removal, of these His Majesty's Sub- 
jects, it seems but just & reasonable on the other that Care 
should be taken to provide proper Settlements for Them, as 
much to Their own Satisfaction as may be, consistently with 
the publick Safety. By the Correspondence in my Office, this 
Matter appears to have been under the Consideration of Sir 
Jeffery Amherst, General Murray, and the Government of 
Nova Scotia in 1761, and You will see by the inclosed Copies 
of Letters between The Governor of Quebec, and the late 
Lieutenant Governor Belcher, that a Resolution was actually 
taken to remove all the Acadians remaining in Nova Scotia, 
and settle them in some distant District of Canada. As I 
have no further Account of the Progress of that Measure, 
which appears to me the most prudent and proper that coulct 
be devised for disposing of these People to Advantage, I must 
desire You to lose no Time in informing me of the Reasons 
upon which the Execution of it was laid aside; What is the 
Number, and present Situation, of the French Acadians 
within Your Government? What are the present Intentions 
of Yourself, and Your Council, with respect to these People ?: 
and whether, in Your Judgment, They may, with equal Safety 
and greater Satisfaction to Themselves be settled in any other 
Province, than that of Quebec ? 


Governor Wilmot* to Board of Trade. 


Noya Scotia, 

10th December, 1763. 
My Lords, — 

Since my arrival here I have received Letters dated at 
London from a person named Jacques Robins, who calls him* 
self a protestant, and mentions a considerable possession of 
Lands at Mirimichy in the River St. Lawrence, which he says 
he is to obtain from the King. I enclose copies of these 
Letters for yotir Lordships perusal ; at the same time he trans- 
mitted Letters to the leading persons among the Acadians 
inviting them in the strongest terms from all quarters wherein 
dispersed to collect themselves at mirimichy to settle on those 
Lands, of which for their encouragement he assures them of a 
very ample distribution, and a sufficient supply of provisions. 
He advises them to cultivate a perfect intercourse with all the 
Indians, and as the highest inducement he can offer, he assures 
them of the free exercise of their religion ; for which purpose 
they are to build a Chapel, and that he will do his utmost to 
bring with him a French Priest named Manach. This Man 
Manach has formerly been a Missionary from France amongst 
these people ; and his furious Zeal in Religion and Politics 
became so turbulent and he althogether so negligent of any 
decorum, that the Government of this Province about two 
years ago, found it highly necessary to Arrest and send him to 
Europe in one of the King's Ships ; but I find his zeal is not 
abated, for he has, in the most pressing manner, wrote to the 
leading Acadians, entreating them to use their supplications 
with the Government for his return, and promising to quit his 
habit and wear that of a layman, on condition of such a liberty. 

As these letters have come to my hands, I thought it my 
Duty to take this notice of them to your Lordships, and at the 
same time to submit to your Judgment the following Observa- 
tions on any such project. 

That the people who are to form this Settlement are a very 

* Montague Wilmot succeeded Mr. Belcher as Lieut. Governor in 1763, and 
was sworn in Governor-in-Chief May 31st, 1764, on the resignation of Mr. 
Ellis, who had been appointed but never assumed the government of the Pro* 
vince. Mr. Wilmot became Lieut. Colonel in the Army in April, 1755, and 
served for a short time under Governor Lawrence who sent him with a party of 
400 men to Fort Cumberland in 1756. In 1758 he was in command of Warbur- 
ton's Regiment of foot (the 45th). Governor Wilmot died at Halifax on 23rd 
.May, 1766. N. 8, Council Boohs ; Army Lists, 


numerous people, and in the highest degree bigotted to Prance 
and the Church of Rome. They hold a strong confederacy 
with the Indians and in proportion to these attachments their 
Antipathy to the English is very high. 

This place of Settlement would be very advantageous for 
them to pursue every scheme which could be immediately, or 
hereafter beneficial to France, and to the detriment of His 
Majesty's Subjects ; for I conceive, My Lords, that the French 
King would find these people a numerous, active, zealous, and 
steady body of Subjects, for the employment of whom on 
future enterprizes, it would be very easy to lodge considerable 
quantities of Military Stores, and effectually conceal them. 
In the mean time, their situation for the importation of French 
commodities would be most inviting, with which whilst they 
supplied our Colonies, to the great detriment of the English 
Trade ; they would be enabled to make large returns to 
France, in Furs obtained partly by their own Industry, and 
their wide extended intercourse with the Indians. * * * 

I have &c 
The Right Honourable ' M. WILMOT. 

The Lords Commissioners 

for Trade and Plantations. 

Chvernor Wilmot to Lord Halifax. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
28th January, 1764. 
My Lord, — 

Since I had the honour of writing to your Lordship the 
10th of last month, I have received information that the Aca- 
dians in this Province, have transferred a Memorial to be laid 
before the King of France, setting forth their desire to bo 
moved from hence, and that if their application shall meet 
with an unfavorable reception, they will then be willing to 
take the Oaths of Allegiance to the King. In the mean time 
I beg your Lordships directions, that I may be instructed how 
to act in such an event, and beg leave to repeat here, what I 
observed on the same subject in my last letter to your Lord- 
ship, that these people would be perhaps most useful, and 
least mischievous to His Majesty's American Dominions, were 
they settled on some of the last conquered Islands in the West 

I have &c 

The Right Honble. ' M. WILMOT. 

The Earl of Halifax, <fec, &c, Ac. 


Lord Halifax to Governor WUmot. 

St. James's, Feby. 11th, 1764, 


In my Letter of the 26th of November last. I transmitted 
to You the Copy of the Letter by which I signified The King's 
Pleasure to His Ambassador at Paris to make Remonstrances 
to the French Ministers on the Intelligence given me by the 
late Lieutenant Governor Belcher that Endeavours had been 
used through the Agency of the Sienr de la Rochette (who 
was said to be a Clerk to The Due de Nivernois) to seduce 
away the Acadians from your Government, & persuade them 
to return to France. 

From the Knowledge which I have of that Nobleman's 
Character, I was from the first persuaded that he was incapa- 
ble of being concerned in so dishonourable a Proceeding. 
And I have now the Satisfaction to acquaint You that I have 
received a Letter from His Grace containing the Strongest 
Assurances of his being entirely innocent, and ignorant, of 
any such Attempt, and considering the very Suspicion as in- 
jurious to His Honour. I have, also, at His Grace's Desire, 
interrogated the Sieur de la Rochette, who positively denies 
having ever written a Line to any Acadian in Nova Scotia, 
either with, or without, The Duke of Nivernois's Orders. 
But having been employed by that Nobleman to transact the 
Removal of a Number of Acadians who were brought hither, 
and whom His Majesty gave leave, at The Duke's Request, to 
return to France, he presumes that some of those People have 
written in his Name the Letters which were laid before The 
Council of Nova Scotia. 

Since these Transactions the French Ambassador here hav- 
ing taken Occasion in a Memorial, to mention the Situation of 
the Acadians, and to desire that His Majesty would permit 
them to retire to France, Lord Hertford was instructed to 
return a proper Answer thereupon to the Court of France. 
And You will see, by the inclosed Extract of His Excellency's 
Letter to me, that the French Ministry entirely acquiesce in 
His Majesty's Right to dispose of those People, as He sees 
proper, and do not pretend, in any Degree, to interfere in 
Their Behalf. I therefore send vou these several Informa- 
tions, that You may be enabled to do Justice to the respectable 
Character of the Due de Nivernois, and to disabuse the poor 
Acadians, and prevent their entertaining any future Hope of 


Encouragement from The Court of Prance, either by the 
Means of private Intrigue, or publick Interposition. 

I am with great Truth and Regard, 

Your most Obedient 

humble Servant 


Governor WUmot to Lord Halifax. 

Nova Scotia, 
Halifax, 22nd March, 1764. 
My Lord, — 

Your Lordship's letter of 26th of November, respecting 
the Acadians, and the disposal of them, I had the honour of 
receiving on the 18th of this month, and I take the earliest 
opportunity of laying before your Lordships, the fullest infor- 
mation I can obtain in the several points referred to me, on 
that subject. 

On enquiry into the reasons on which the Settlement of 
those people in Canada wa*s laid aside, I do not discover that 
this measure had ever been proposed to this Government, 
except by General Murray, And that seems to relate only to 
the Acadians, who were then residing in the more northern 
parts of the Province beyond the Isthmus, who were but few 
in number, in respect of those in the other parts, particularly 
at Halifax ; but no steps could have been taken towards the 
execution of this design, but by Orders of General Amherst, 
As these people from having been in arms against the Govern- 
ment, were treated as prisoners of war, and fell under the 
immediate inspection of the Officer commanding the Troops 
here, who received all orders relating to them from Sir Jeffery 
Amherst ; but it does not appear that Sir Jeffery had com- 
municated any such intentions, either to the civil or Military 
department in this Province. The Government here was 
certainly at all times very apprehensive of these people, and 
would have cheerfully concurred in any measure to be freed 
from them ; and in the summer of 1762, when the French were 
in possession of St. John's in Newfoundland, their further 
intentions unknown, and but a small body of Troops in this 
Province, the Acadians, from their hopes of seeing a descent 
made on it, were so menacing in their behaviour, and so active 
in spiriting up the Indians, that, by a resolution of a council 
of War, and the vote of the General Assembly then sitting, 


they were collected from most parts and transported to Boston, 
in order to prevent the imminent danger to which this Pro- 
vince must have been exposed, from the aid and assistance 
the Freneh would have received from them, in case they had 
made any attempts on it. This measure, My Lord, was com- 
municated to General Amherst, and he was at the same time 
acquainted, that the Masters of the Transports had directions 
implicitly to obey his orders in regard to the future disposal 
of those people ; on whose arrival at Boston, he writes that 
he would apply to Governor Bernard for their reception. 
Then indeed, the General says, that he could have wished that 
those who inhabited the back parts of the Province, liad been sent 
to Canada agreeable to Governor Murray's request, by which 
vko/as you would not only have saved the expence of bringing 
them down the country, at this time, but have been eased of any 
dread from that quarter, which is the first time I am informed, 
that he made any mention of this measure, his whole attention 
being perhaps employed on the important matters of Marti- 
neco, the Havannah, and Newfoundland ; he had not leisure 
to reflect that no movement could have been made of any of 
these people, without his express orders sent here for that 
purpose. This is all the information which I can gain as to this 
point, and as I could not set forth the reasons on which the 
execution of this measure was laid aside, I have endeavoured 
to show your Lordships how perhaps it failed. 

The number of these people is very considerable as your 
Lordships will observe from the enclosed return, which shews 
the different parts of the Province in which they are at this 
time. The chief means of their support is from the provisions 
they receive on the Military list, in proportion to their age 
and number in each family ; and they supply themselves with 
clothing by the wages they get for their work ; but they are 
far from being an industrious or laborious people. The price 
they demand for their labour is highland in the work of a day, 
they fall short of the Settlers, even when they exert them- 
selves ; so that few persons can afford to employ them. I 
have already represented in my letter to your Lordships of 
10th Deer., that they are most inflexibly devoted to France 
and the Romish Religion, and being much connected with the 
Indians by intermarriages, their power and disposition to be 
mischievous is more to be dreaded. And as they flatter them- 
selves with some favourable revolution from another War, I 
conceive they would never sincerely submit themselves to 
His Majesty's Government, Tho perhaps, they might preserve 


appearances, until some event might offer, which would invite 
them to exert themselves. I humbly offer these arguments to 
your Lordships as having weight in the present condition of 
the Oolony, when a few mischievous efforts, secretly supported, 
might have a very fatal influence. For was the Country filled 
with people well established, the Acadians judiciously divided 
and distributed, might be kept in subjection by the ordinary 
attention of Government. 

After what I have already said, I hope it will clearly appear 
to your Lordship, that we cannot form any intentions in 
respect of these people, only in consequence of his Majesty's 
pleasure ; for it has always been the opinion of this Govern- 
ment, and is at this time, that the Settlement of them in this 
Province is inconsistent with the safety of it, which has been 
at different times set forth to His Majesty's Ministers, and the 
measure of transporting them into another Country, without 
immediate necessity, cannot I apprehend be undertaken 
without your Lordships directions. 

As to the degree of safety and of satisfaction to themselves, 
from settling them in any other Province, than that of Canada, 
I believe, My Lord, that both would be considerably greater, 
provided that in respect of the former, they were^aot settled 
in any of the Neighbouring Colonies of New England ; for I 
conceive, My Lord, that their vicinity to Nova Scotia would 
on all occasions strongly induce them to be active in disturbing 
the Province, from the facility of returning into it, and the 
hopes that their assistance might bo successful, in regaining 
them the possession of it. Of the probability of this, there 
was a strong proof after their expulsion in the year 1755, 
when several of them, from so considerable a distance as South 
Carolina, and many from the intermediate Provinces, returned ; 
and not only opposed but had the audacity to attack the King's 
Troops more than once. This My Lord, among many instances 
which might be given is I hope sufficient to shew of what they 
are capable ; and that the further they are distant, the greater 
our safety. As to what might be most satisfactory to them- 
selves, I do not believe that Canada would by any means be so, 
for some of them who went there in the late War, to assist the 
french, were not only treated with the utmost neglect, but 
also with contempt and dislike by the Canadians; and as 
Canada borders on this province, I don't apprehend that it 
would be either safe for us or satisfactory to them, that their 
settlement should be in that Country. 

It is on account of all these considerations, that I have in 


my two former letters offered to your Lordship the measure 
of transporting them to some of the West India Islands. 
There cut off from the Continent, and from all hopes by the 
difficulty*of returning (which was the most powerful influence 
and temptation employed on them by the french) they would 
content themselves with a settlement, especially if they were 
placed amongst those who were formerly french subjects, and 
who perhaps being contented with their Condition, would set 
them an example of cheerful obedience and submission. 

Your Lordship may be assured that I shall be strictly atten- 
tive to obviate any means which may be offered to seduce 
them from His Majesty's Government; but, I trust His 
Majesty's Ships employed in cruising in these coasts, will 
sufficiently overawe any such attempts, as well as effec- 
tually suppress illicit and contraband Trade. I must en- 
treat that your Lordship's future dispatches to me, may be 
directed to the care of the Governor or Commander in Chief 
of New York ; for by the negligence of the Post Masters, the 
public letters are suffered to lye in their Offices until many of 
them have been discovered by mere accident, which has hap- 
pened to your Lordships last letter, and has prevented the 
receipt and answer of it for Six weeks at least. 

I have &c» 
The Right Honble. ' " M. WILMOT. 

The Earl of Halifax, &c, Ac, Ac. 


Halifax, Nova Scotia, 

22nd March, 1764. 

The number of Families of French Acadians still remaining 
in the different parts of this Province, 


No. of Persons. 

At Halifax and the Environs, 



King's County, Fort Edward, 



Annapolis Royal, 



Fort Cumberland, 



405 1762 

In addition to the above, there are 300 on the Island of St. 
John, who have lately, in a solemn manner, declared the same 
intentions as those above mentioned to the officer there in 


(Translated from the French.) 

At Halifax, May 12th, 1764. 
To His Excellency 

The Governor at Halifax, — 

The Acadian french prisoners had the honor, on the 29th 
of April last, to represent to His Excellency, that, acknow- 
ledging no other sovereign than the King of France, the sup- 
pliants most earnestly requested the government to provide 
vessels and provisions necessary for their transportation. 
Maintaining still the same sentiments, in every respect, they 
beg His Excellency to listen to their petition, and to grant 
them the j ust demands which they have already made in this 
case, since peace is made, and since all prisoners, from what- 
ever place they may be, are given up; and particularly as 
the Acadians who were in England, are now in France, and 
those of Carolina, at French Cape. In this case, the Govern- 
ment will not refuse vessels to convey them to Franco, in 
order that the suppliants may prove to their prince how de- 
voted they are to his service, and how ready they are to 
sacrifice, not only their own lives, but the lives of their women 
and children, to testify their zeal and love for their country. 
Besides, the religion which they profess causes them to persist 
earnestly in the matter, even at the peril of their lives, and of 
their property, if they had any, which they have already proved 
to the Government. 

Thus, His Excellency, seeing the unanimous sentiment of 
the Acadians, as good citizens of the King of France, will 
deign to order that vessels and provisions be provided for the 
purpose of removing them to some French place, should the 
government be unwilling to convey them to France. 

Doing this, tho suppliants will never cease to address their 
prayers to heaven for your preservation and prosperity. 

And 75 more heads of families. 

Lord Halifax to Governor Wilmot. 

St. James's, 9 June, 1764. 
Sir — 

Your Letters of the 10th December and 18th of January 
last have been received and laid before The King. 


Your Apprehensions of the Mischiefs & Dangers which 
might arise from the settling the Acadians in a collective 
Body in any Part of your Province, are certainly well 
founded; and I agree with You in Opinion that the safest 
Method of disposing of them would be to disperse them in 
small Numbers among the Settlements within Your Govern- 
ment. And this, indeed, seems to be the only practicable 
Method of disposing of them, for the Removal of those People 
into the Government of Quebec does not appear to me to be 
an eligible Measure, neither, as I am informed, would it be 
agreeable to themselves, and Your Proposal of settling them 
in one of the ceded Islands, can by no means take place, as 
His Majesty has determined to dispose of all Lands belonging 
to Him in those Islands by publick Sale. 

With regard to the Information you have received of the 
Acadians having applied to the Court of France to be removed 
out of His Majesty's Dominions, there is great Season to 
believe that such Application (if it should be made) would not 
meet with any Encouragement, as His Mo ft Christian Majes- 
ty's Ministers assured me, in Answer to my Remonstrances 
occasioned by some Intelligence of the same Sort received 
from Boston in September last, that His Court had no Inten- 
tions of Interfering with respect to the Removal of the 

His Majesty considers the French Acadians in the same 
Light with the rest of His Roman Catholic Subjects in Ame- 
rica. If they shall be willing to take the Oaths of Allegiance, 
and to become good Subjects and usefull Inhabitants, it will 
be Your Care to settle them in such Parts of Your Govern- 
ment as may be agreeable to themselves, and at the same 
Time consistent with the publick Peace and Security. If, on 
the contrary, they cannot be prevailed on so to settle, in good 
Humour and for good purposes, the Liberty of removing 
Themselves out of the Province, or out of His Majesty's Do- 
minions, cannot be denied to them as Subjects. But you will 
never suffer them to be carried away by* the open Attempts or 
secret Practises of any foreign Power. 

I am with great Truth and Regard 

Your most Obedient 

humble Servant 



Extract from a Utter of Ghvr. WUmot to the Earl of Halifax, 
Dated Halifax, N.S., 29th August, 1764. 

My Lord, — 

I have lately had information that several families of the 
Acadians to the amount of One Hundred and fifty persons, 
residing about Cansoe, had applied to the Magistrates there, 
for leave to transport themselves to the Island of St. Peter, 
and having met with a refusal, immediately departed for that 

By the enclosed Copy of a Paper dispersed about here in 
the name of the Governor General of the French Leward 
Islands in the West Indies, your Lordships will perceive the 
method made use of to withdraw these people from His 
Majesty's Dominions. What effect it will have on them I 
can't tell, as great numbers of them have lately died at Cape 
Francjoise who went there from Philadelphia, and the Report 
of that mortality has had a great effect on their Countrymen 

Chvernor WUmot to Earl of Halifax. 

Halifax, 9th Novemr. 1764. 
My Lord, — 

In obedience to the King's pleasure signified to me by your 
Lordship's letter of the 9th of June, and His Majesty's In- 
structions of 20th July, for admitting the French Acadians to 
take an oath of Allegiance, and permitting them to make a 
settlement in this Country, I proposed both these matters to 
the consideration of the Council, who accordingly drew up 
the form of such an oath in terms least liable to an equivocal 
sense, and also assigned such places in the Province for their 
settlement, as might be most out of the way of any inter- 
course for ill purposes ; but My Lord, these people have been 
too long misled and devoted to the French King and their 
religion, to be soon weaned from such attachments, and when 
oven those objects are hung out to them, their infatuation 
runs very high. Some prisoners taken in the course of the 
War and residing here have much fomented this spirit, and 
thence and from the invitation dispersed amongst them as 
they say from the Governor of the French Leeward Islands, 
of which I lately transmitted your Lordship a copy in my 
letter of 29th August, I apprehend that all those people who 


live in and about this Town, have so peremptorily refused to 
take the Oath of Allegiance, by the best information I can 
obtain of their purposes, they intend going directly to Cape 
Francois, from thence to the Mississippi and finally to the 
Country of the Illinois and there to make a settlement. Their 
design of going to Cape Francois they avow, and made appli- 
cation to me for transports and provisions for that voyage ; so 
improper a demand merited the refusal they met with, which 
has obliged them to exert the means in their own power, and 
provide for their future designs at their own expence; for 
which they are sufficiently able, having amassed a consider- 
able sum of money from the profits of their labour, purchased 
at a high price, during these four last years. 

I have <fcc. 

The Right Hon. 

The Earl of Halifax, Ac, <fcc. 

Governor WUmot to Lord Halifax. 

Nova Scotia, 

Halifax, 18th Deer. 1764. 
My Lord, — 

I had the honor in my letter of the 9th of last month, to 
lay before your Lordship some further particulars of the dis- 
position of the Acadians, after the Oath of Allegiance had 
been tender'd to them, and offers of a settlement in this 

Since that time, no reasonable proposals being able to over- 
come their zeal for the French and aversion to the English 
government, many of them soon resolved to leave this Pro- 
vince ; and having hired Vessels at their own Expence, six 
hundred persons including women and children, departed 
within these three weeks for the French West Indies, where, 
by the last information I have had, they are to settle for the 
cultivation of lands unfit for the sugar cane. And although 
they had certain accounts, that that climate had been fatal to 
the lives of several of their countrymen, who had gone there 
lately from Georgia and Carolina, their resolution was not to 
be shaken ; and the remainder of them, amounting to as many 
more, in different parts of the Province, have the same desti- 
nation in view, when the Spring shall afford them convenience 
and opportunity. 


Tims my Lord, we are in the way of being relieved from 
these people who have been the bane of the Province, and 
the terror of its settlements. This consideration including 
the many mischiefs they committed, the check they gave to 
peopling the country and the progress of Industry, from the 
zeal and activity with which they served the French as spies 
and Partizans ; and lastly the determined and resolute manner 
in which they refused their Allegiance to the King, and the 
Insolence with which they avowed their duty to the King of 
Prance only, together with the danger which might in a future 
War arise from their numbers, their interest with the Indians 
and knowledge of all parts of the country, induced the 
Council, at which Lord Colvill His Majesty's Rear Admiral 
assisted, to be unanimously of opinion that they should be at 
full liberty to depart ; and indeed, My Lord, had any mea- 
sures been taken to obstruct them in this project, they would 
have withdrawn themselves to the eastern parts of this Pro- 
vince ; from whence they would have been easily and readily 
transported to St. Peters and Miquelon by the assistance of 
their friends there ; and at those places they would have been 
a most valuable acquisition to the french, particularly imme- 
diately in the fishery, with which they are not unacquainted ; 
and by their situation would be dangerous to this Province. On 
the contrary their settlement in the West Indies removes them 
far from us, and as that Climate is mortal to the natives of the 
Northern countries, the French will not be likely to gain any 
considerable advantage from them. As the departure of these 
people will relieve the public from a very considerable ex- 
pence, on account of provisions, those who remain are only 
supplied in such proportions as to keep them from want ; and 
even for such supplies, they are obliged to work in opening 
Roads and communications into the principal parts of the 
country. On the whole I flatter myself that the conduct to 
wards these people fwho if any means to detain them had 
succeeded, must have been inveterate enemies, and not sub- 
jects willingly and in good humour submitting themselves) 
will be agreeable to your Lordship's sentiments, and have 
your approbation. * * * * * 

I have &c, 


The Right Honble. 

The Earl of Halifax, 
<fec. <fcc. &c. 


Governor Wilmot to Captain Williams. 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax, 2nd Deer., 1765. 

Colonel Haldimand having applied to me for Leave to 
take the Accadians on St. John's Island to settle them on his 
Lands in the Province of Canada, I very readily give my con- 
sent for so good a purpose, as tinder his care and inspection, 
there's great Reason to hope that they will soon be brought 
over to their duty & Allegiance. 

Colonel Haldimand's undertaking being a public good, in 
order to Enable him to succeed more Effectually, it will be 
necessary that the people shall be at Liberty to take with 
them a proportion of their Cattle and that they may build as 
many Shallops as may be sufficient to carry them up the River 
St. Lawrence. 

I would likewise recommend that you would be pleased to 
allow the use of a firelock with some powder and shot to Each 
Family, that they be the better enabled to subsist themselves 
during the Winter, if there are any spare arms at Fort Amherst. 


I am, Sir, &c, Ac, 
To Capt Williams, M. WILMOT. 

Commanding Fort Amherst 
at St. John's Island. 

Extract from Dispatch — Lord Hillsborough to Lieut. Govt. 


Whitehall, 26th Febry., 1768. 

His Majesty was well pleased to find by your Letter No. 3 
that the Acadians have at length seen that their true interests 
lies in a due Submission to His Government, and have given 

* Michael Francklin was a native of the South of England. He came to 
Halifax about the year 1752 and was engaged for many years in mercantile 
pursuits. He was elected a member of the House of Assembly in 1759, and 
appointed to His Majesty's Council on 3rd May, 1762. In 1766 he received the 
appointment of Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia, which he held until superseded 
by Admiral Arbuthnot on 27th Feb., 1776, when he again took his seat at the 
Council board. In this and the following year he was occupied in organizing 
the militia of the province and received the rank of Lt. Colonel. For several 
years before his death Mr. Francklin was Commissioner of Indian affairs for 
Nova Scotia. His exertions in support of British authority while administer- 

BUch ample testimony of their wish to participate in the lenity 
of it ; His Majesty thinks that this disposition ought to be 
encouraged by holding out every Advantage that can be 
given to them consistent with public safety, and therefore 
you will not fail to give them the fullest Assurances of His 
Majesty's favor and protection, and of His gracious intention 
to compensate them as far as may be for the Deprivation of 
those benefits they had so rashly forfeited by too obstinate 
an Adherence to their Prejudices in favor of the Government 
of Prance. 

His Majesty considers with Tenderness and' Attention, the 
Situation of those who have made Settlements in Cape Breton 
under the Protection of temporary Licenses from the Govern- 
ment of Nova Scotia, and Care will be taken that whatever 
Plan shall be adopted for the Distribution of Lands in that 
Island, a due Regard be had to their Improvements. 

Lieut. Governor Francklin to Isaac Deschamps* * 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax, 1st June, 1768. 
Sir,— ^ 

It is with great pleasure I fin4 by your letter of the 30 
May so many of the Accadians resident in King's County and 
the District of Windsor, are at length come to a sense 01 their 
duty to the King, by taking the Oaths of Allegiance, and I 
have it in Command from His Majesty to give them the fullest 
Assurances of His Royal Favor and protection. 

And you may also give them from me the fullest assurances 
that I totally disclaim and disavow any Intentions to make use 

ing the Government was greatly instrumental in preserving the tranquillity of 
Nova Scotia during the period of the American revolt. In his letters to En- 
gland he frequently complains of unfair treatment by Mr. Legg, who for several 
years held the appointment of Governor in Chief. Govt. Francklin married a 
daughter of Joseph Bouteneau, of Boston, who was a grand daughter of Mr. 
Peter Faneuil of that city. He had several children; the late James B. 
Francklin, for forty years Clerk of the House of Assembly of Nova Scotia, was 
his eldest son, whose only daughter married the Hevd. R. F. Uniacke, Rector 
of St. George's, Halifax. Governor Francklin died at Halifax on 8th Nov., 
1782. N. S. MS. Doc. ; Council Books ; Murdoch's N. S., 2 vol., 413, 461, 504, 
564, 568, 571, 591 ; Nova Scotia Almanacs. 

* Isaac Deschamps was of Swiss extraction. He came to Nova Scotia early 
in life. He was at Fort Edward (Windsor) in 1754, as Clerk to Mr. Joshua 



of them as Forces to be employed out of this Province, and 
that such report could only* have risen from weak or evil- 
minded People, and you may still further assure them, that 
they will be treated at all times with the same degree of 
Indulgence and protection with His Majesty's other Subjects. 
And to this you may also add that the Government has not 
the least Design Either to molest or disturb them on account 
of their Religion. 

I am with regard 



Isaac Deschamps, Esq., 

or in his absence to 
Winckworth Tongue, Esq., 


Lt. Govr. FranckLin to Colonel H. D. Benson. 

(Letter Book.) 

Halifax, 4 July, 1768. 

Some of the Accadians who reside in Kings County and 
at Windsor, who have lately taken tKe oaths of allegiance to 
His Majesty, have informed me that they have been warned 
to Train with the other Militia, which they conceived as a 
hardship being unprovided with arms, and unable to purchase 
them immediately, were they to be bought. 

I am therefore to desire that you do Exempt them from 
Mustering or training, until you have Orders to the Contrary 

Mauger, and assisted Capt. Murray in suppressing the turbulent proceedings 
of the Acadian French at Pisiquid that year. He was elected a member of 
Assembly for West Falmouth in July 1761, and the same year was appointed 
one of the Justices of the Court of Common Pleas for Kings Co., (Hants and 
Kings then being comprised in one County). In 1768 he was appointed by 
Lt. Governor Francklin Judge of the Island of St. John (P. E. Island), and 
inl770 Assistant Justice of the Supreme Court of Nora Scotia in the place of 
Mr. Duport, appointed to St. John's. On the death of Chief Justice Finucane 
In 1785, he became Chief Justice of the Province. He was Acting Clerk 
of the House Assembly in 1772. Judge Deschamps was appointed to His 
Majesty's Council 6th Oct., 1783. He died on 11th August, 1801, in the 
79th year of his age. His son, George Deschamps, received the appointment 
of Judge of Probate for Hants County on the death of his father. N. 5, 
MS. Doc; M & Almanac; Murdoch's If. S. t 249, 404, 406, 479, 493. 


from the Governor or Commander in Chief for the time 
being—and I am further to Signify to you, that it is the 
King's Intention, and I do Expect, they be treated by the 
Officers of Government with all Possible Mildness and Ten- 
derness upon every occasion to the End that they may not 
have the least cause to repent of their having submitted in 
so ample a manner to his Majesty's Government. 

To Col. Denson. * 

I am, Sir, Yours, &c, 


LL Governor FrancMin to Lt. Governor Ccwieton. f 

(Letter Book.) 

Nova Scotia, Halifax, 4 July, 1768. 

Some few of the French Accadians who have refused to 
take the Oath of Allegiance to the King, are going into your 
Province, hoping to mix themselves, unnoticed, amongst the 
Canadians : and thereby to partake of the protection and bene- 
fits of Government without acknowledging their Sovereign. 
I therefore thought it necessary to give your Excellency this 
information, that such ofcutinate perseverance in withholding 
the allegiance due to the King, and so contrary to the example 
of the rest of those people, may be noticed, and treated in such 
manner as by your Excellency shall be judged most fit and 

I am, Ac, 


To His Excellency 

Brigadier General Carleton, 
Lieut. Governor of the Province of Quebec. 

* Colonel Henry Denny Denson was one of the original proprietors of West 
Falmouth, where he resided for many years. He was for a short time Speaker of 
the House of Assembly in 1778. He left no male descendants in Nova Scotia, 
The place of his residence at Falmouth still beats the name of Mount Denson 

t Afterwards Lord Dorchester/ 


LL Governor FrancJdin to Governor Carlelon* 

(Letter Book*) 

Nova Scotia, Halifax, 18 August, 1768. 

I had the honor to receive your Excellency's Letter to 
Lord William Campbell of the 5th of August, 1767, by Mr. 
Bailly the Priest, whose Conduct has been hitherto irreproach- 
able and to all Appearance bids fair to be of greate benefit to 
this Province, by quieting the minds of the Indians who 
began to be very uneasy — and his Mission has this further 
good tendency of reconciling the consciencies of the Acca- 
dians who have lately taken the Oaths of Allegiance to His 
Majesty's Government. 

By this Gentlemen I am Informed that the Pere Bonaven- 
ture Missionary at the Bay do Chaleurs, lies under some 
censures of the Church of Quebec, and that among other 
articles he is Charged with having used his endeavours to 
alienate the minds of the Indians from this Government, and 
as Justice is due to every man, I think it necessary to acquaint 
your Excellency that whatever his other faults may be, we 
have nothing of that sort to lay to his Charge, but on the Con- 
trary Capt. Dean of the Mermaid has repeatedly assured me 
that he was of great use in preventing differences between 
the People who Pished thereabouts and the Indians, and had 
particularly refused his Functions to^uch of them as Shewed 
an Inclination in 1765 to commit Hostilitys against us. 

It is necessary at the same time I should acquaint your 
Excellency that there are certain Canadians and Inhabitants of 
Kamouraska and its Neighbourhood who come every Spring 
to Hunt in the River St. John to the great detriment of the 
Indians of that River by destroying their Beaver and at the 
same time they shall fill their Heads with news of their own 
Invention, which has a tendency to keep up the Idea of the 
Power of France. If this could be prevented as well as the 
Traders of Canada from coming into this Government, it would 
be doing this Province great service, as I am apprehensive 
of their forming a kind of an Asylum for the Banditti of Both 

I have the Honor <fcc. 

To His Excellency 

Guy Carleton, Esq., 

Governor of the Province of Quebec, &ca. 


Secretary BuLkeley to John Anderson and Francis Peabody. 

(Letter Book.) 

Secretary's Office, 

Halifax, 20th August, 1768. 
Gentlemen, — 

The Lieut. Governor desires that you will give notice to 
all the Accadians, except about Six Families whom Mr. Bailly 
shall name, to remove tnemselves from St. John's River, it not 
being the Intention of the Government that they should settle 
there, but to acquaint them that on their application here 
they shall have lands in other parts of the Province. * 

I am, <fcc, 


To John Anderson & Prs. Peabody, Esqrs. 
Justices of the Peace for the 

County of Sunbury, River St. John. 

* In July of this year a warrant of Surrey was issued to 44 Acadian families 
for lands at St. Mary's, in the County of Annapolis. They were from Windsor 
and Annapolis. 











Lords of Trade to Governor Cornwattis. 

Whitehall, 1st August, 1749. 

We have lately received letters from Mr. Shirley, His 
Majesty's Governor of the Massachusetts Bay, and Mr. Mas- 
carene as the Commander in Chief of Nova Scotia, transmitting 
copies of a letter from Monsieur Galissonniere Governor of 
Canada, to Mr. Mascarene, and their answers relative to seve- 
ral demands made by the Governor of Canada, which greatly 
affect the right of the Crown of Great Britain in those parts 
and in particular in the Province of Nova Scotia; and as 
not only that right, but also the safety and security of the 
Infant Settlement may be greatly interested therein, We have 
thought it proper to send you the enclosed copies of the 
said letters. 

You will easily perceive from the information j r ou have 
already had with respect to His Majesty's right to Nova 
Scotia, the extravagance of M. Galissonniere's demands, and 
what little foundation there is for them, but as that which 
relates to the Abenaqui, or St. John's Indians, ftho' under 
that general name of the Abenaqui Indians the French 
include the Penobscot and other Tribes of Indians in those 
parts) may if the least encouraged, have a dangerous ten- 
dency to weaken His Majesty's right to that part of His 
province; We shall give you the best information in this 
matter that we are able to collect relative to the said Indians, 
to the end that you may be enabled to assert and maintain 
His Majesty's just right in this point. 

This nation or tribe of Indians have constantly resided upon 
the river St. John's in the heart of Nova Scotia, and did m 
the year 1726 acknowledge His Majesty to be rightful pos- 
sessor of this Province according to its ancient boundaries,, 
and submitted to him as such, in as ample a manner as they 
had formerly done to the French King, as will evidently 
appear to you from the enclosed copy of the ratification of a 
treaty made at Boston in 1725, between their Delegates and 


those of the neighbouring nations on the one part, and Mr. 
Mascarene in behalf of His Majesty on the other part ; there- 
fore, should M. Galissonniere's demand be complied with, it 
might be construed to imply a giving up His Majesty's right 
to the Northern part of the Province, and as there appears to 
us to be an absolute necessity of compelling these Indians to 
renew their submission to His Majesty before they can be 
admitted to terms of peace, we earnestly recommend to you 
to take such measures for that purpose as shall appear to you 
most likely to prevail. 

And as there is great reason to apprehend that the French 
may dispute the right of the Crown of Great Britain to these 
territories, we further earnestly recommend to you to have a 
watchful eye to the security thereof and upon the proceedings 
of the French. So we bid you heartily farewell, are 

Youre very loving Friends, &c, 

The Honble. Colonel Cornwallis, 
Governor of Nova Scotia. 

Count de la Ghdissonniere, Governor of Canada, to Governor 


(Translated from the French.) 

Quebec, 15th January, 1749. 

As soon as I became aware of the suspension of arms, 
concluded on the 30th April last, I ordered a cessation of 
hostilities throughout the whole extent of my government. 

I recalled the detachments that I had sent to the war, 
although I might have caused the one at Beaubassin and Bay 
Verte to remain there, until I had ascertained the conditions 
of the peace, wttfch I had not yet learned. 

M. Marin who commanded that detachment has set at 
liberty the prisoners taken by him at Louisbourg. 

Tranquillity has at length, been re-established on my part, 


as if there had been no war ; but on the part of the savages, 
this was effected with difficulty, for they objected to me, 
with a good deal of reason, that I was greatly exposing them, 
in preventing them from continuing hostilities against you ; 
whilst I could not assure them, that you would observe the 
suspension of hostilities with respect to them. 

After all these attentions, which you could not be ignorant 
of, I have cause, it seems to me, to be astonished at, and to 
complain of several acts that you have committed this autumn. 

The first is — the expulsion from Mines, of the missionary 
who was there. This act of violence appears to me quite 
out of place. You would have had to wait only a few months, 
to ascertain whether you would remain in possession of Mines 
or not; and, supposing that district remained to you, you 
would then have had time enough to require that missionary 
to be changed, according to the practice of the preceding 

Nor was the burning of the houses t)f Amand Bugeaude 
and La Maigre at Mines a very decent act ; for, if the new 
treaty were to restore Mines to us, you would be obliged to 
rebuild these houses, that act having been done after the 
suspension of hostilities had been published. The second is 
the exaction of new submission from the inhabitants of Beau- 
bassin and Bay Verte, which appears to me equally premature 
and useless, until you and I know the regulations of the new 

But the third exploit ot Mr. Gorham is still more extraor- 
dinary than the others. This consisted, in having attempted 
to exact submission from the inhabitants of the River St. 
John, a river situated in the continent of Canada, and far this 
side of the Quenibec, where the boundary of New England 
was settled by common consent. What took place between 
Mr. Gorham and the Abenaquis, with respect to this River 
St. John, is not more regular, and is hardly prudent on his 
part, Mr. Gorham having sent them word, that if they wished 
to be included in the peace, it would be necessary for them 
to make their submission to you at Port Royal. 

This shocked them so much (and reasonably so) that the 
whole nation is entreating me, to permit them to renew the 
war. Mr. Gorham has afforded them new cause for this, by 
retaining two of those savages, who had gone on board of 
his ship in search of their missionary ; which is manifestly so 
contrary to the law of nations, that I cannot for a moment 
doubt, that you have immediately sent them back. 


Judging from what I have been told, it is very doubtful, 
whether the English of Mr. Gorham's vessel who were killed, 
came to their death by the Abenaquis ; but even if that were 
the case, it would not be less certain, that those, who went 
on board in search of their missionary, and who went there 
relying on the public faith pledged by Mr. Gorham, could not 
be arrested. 

I demand of you sir, in the first place, to have the two 
savages set at liberty. 

Secondly — To be kind enough to make no change in the 
matter of religion and its ministers in Acadia. 

Thirdly — To forbid Mr. Gorham and all others, from solicit- 
ing or threatening the inhabitants of the river St. John, or 
any other dependency of the Government of Canada, for the 
purpose of binding . them to submissions, contrary to the 
fidelity they owe to the King of Prance, who is their master 
as well as mine, and who has not ceded that territory by any 

Fourthly — I beg you to have the goodness to inform me, 
whether you intend to include the Abenaquis in the peace ; 
and, in that case, I entreat you again to have the goodness to 
induce Mr. Shirley to allow them to settle again in their 
villages, and to leave their missionaries undisturbed there, as 
they were before the war. They engaged in it only as our 
allies ; and, it ought to be ended for them, as for us. Should 
you think differently in New England, I could not help assist- 
ing them ; it not being just, that I should leave them exposed 
to your vengeance, after having been pleased with their 
services. You must know the savages well enough, to 
understand, that it is important for the safety and the tran- 
quillity of the frontiers of the Province of Massachusetts, that 
I have a prompt and positive reply ; for, they are continually 
soliciting me, to allow them to continue the war. 

I consider that I have been particularly fortunate, in being 
able to restrain them up to the present time ; especially, since 
they have heard of the acts and threats of Mr. Gorham ; and 
notwithstanding the trouble I have taken to quiet them, I 
should not be surprised, if they resorted to some act of 

It would be easy for you, I should think, to forward me 
your reply by the missionaries on the River St. John or 

It is through them also, that I address you this letter, which 
I send in duplicate. 


Tt is also proper, that the missionaries be informed of your 
decision ; that will assist them in restraining the savages, 
I have the honor to be with perfect consideration 

Your very humble and obedient servant, 

i(True Copy.) 

P. MascarTenb. 

Copy (signed) W, Shirley. 

Governor Mascarene to Count De la GMCissonniere.* 

Annapolis Royal, 

25th April, 1749. 

I have received on the 18th Inst. April the honour of 
Your Letter dated at Quebec the 15th January new stile, in 
which you first acquaint me that as soon as you heard of the 
suspension of Arms you had recalled the parties you had sent 
to War. As all the Troops which have been under my Command 
during the Course of the war, have only acted within His 
Majesty's Territories to defend them from Invasion, I had not 
the same reason to recall them but ordered them not to act 
offensively unless provoked and obliged to it by any violence 
offered to them. Your parties had left this Province long 
before the preliminary Articles were signed, and I don't know 
they had any right to enter it after suspension of Arms, by 

■■ J r-|---~ ■ i- ~ - i ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ i. mj_i__i t_i__^ ^^— ^^^^— — 

* Roland Michel Barrin Count de la Galissonniere is represented as being 
one of the ablest men of his time. He was appointed Governor ot Canada in 
1747, to act until the arrival of the Marquis de La Jonquiere, who had been 
nominated Governor General. He returned to France in 1749, and was the 
same year appointed one of the Commissioners, on the part of the French 
Government, for settling the boundaries of Acadia — Govr. Shirley of Massa- 
chusetts, being the Commissioner on the part of the British. In 1751 he pub- 
lished a memoir of the French Colonies in America. His scientific acquire- 
ments obtained for him the place of head of the department of nautical charts 
at Paris. In 1756 he commanded the French fleet of 13 ships of the line, in 
the affair off Menorca, where the unfortunate Admiral Byng was defeated. He 
died at Nemours in October of the same year, aged 63, deeply regretted by 
King Louis XV., with whom he was in great favour. He is represented as 
being diminutive in stature, with a deformed person, but possessed of a power- 
ful intellect and great energy and determination. He was a strenuous sup- 
porter of the Abbe De la Loutre, and, after his return to France, is said to 
have furnished him with money and supplies for his work in Acadia. — Biog : 
Universal, quoted in N. Y. Col. Doc, vol. 6, p. 532; MS. Doc. iV. S. ; Tab: 
Hist : Canadiennes, par Bibaud, 1861 j TyrreU papers, N. S. Documents. 



virtue of those Articles, took place, as did M. Marin, who tho' 
he had the suspension of Arms signified to him by the Gover- 
nor of Louisbourg yet carried away from thence several 
officers and men he had surprised and landed them in this 
Province, whom however he thought fit to release afterwards, 
tho' he carried with him several soldiers who had deserted 
from this Garrison. 

As I have reckoned this Province and all the Inhabitants 
seated in it as belonging to the Crown of Great Britain, not* 
withstanding your Troops have had sometimes a footing there- 
in, I have never refrained from making His Majesty's authority 
to be acknowledged and due regard paid to it whenever it has 
been in my power. It is in consequence of it that I sent to 
Manis and Chignecto and other parts to establish good order 
and call to an account those who had acted contrary to the 
Fidelity they owed to. the King of Great Britain, their Sove- 

The Missionaries who have been allowed from this place to 
reside in this province, have by an order of the government 
been obliged to come to this place and obtain permission of 
their so doing, and to remain in the place allotted to them and 
when they have been found to labour to alienate the Peoples 
affection from His Majesty and their fidelity and duty from 
the Government or otherwise misbehaved, they have been 
ordered out of His Majesty's Territories, and those who have 
avoided those faults have been suffered to remain, and have 
not been any way molested. 

Those ot the Inhabitants who have suffered in their per- 
sons or their estates have undergone those penalties for 
having acted in treasonable and rebellious practices contrary 
to their Oath of Fidelity and as subjects by which they are 
bound to the Crown of Great Britain. What you are pleased 
to name the new submissions required of His Majesty's french 
subjects, were to give them an opportunity of clearing them- 
selves from having been concerned in such rebellious prac- 
tices that they might still continue in favour and protection of 
His Majesty's Government. 

It is many years ago that the French families seated on the 
jiver St. Johns, came to take the oaths of fidelity to the 
Crown of Great Britain, and have been reckoned as all the 
jest of the French Inhabitants to be His Majesty's subjects 
and under his protection and have been assisted and dealt 
with as such — when Mr. Gorham went there, in the same 
iinanner as he had been in other places of this Province, he 


had orders not to commit any Hostilities except provoked or 
obliged to it by any violence offered to him or those who were 
under his Command — his boats and some men who were ashore 
were fired upon tho' those who had committed this outrage 
were called upon by our people in a friendly manner, and at 
the time that Mr. Gorham had sent up the River to speak 
with the French inhabitants. His taking two of the Indians 
with him was to bring the Indians to clear themselves of hav- 
ing had a share in that outrage, and to bring to light the 
offenders. These two Indians were treated here with all 
humanity and so little guarded that they got away, one of 
them got home, and the other being recovered went to Bos- 
ton, where as I have heard he is not kept like a prisoner, but 
with all the good treatment he can desire. As for the Indians 
of St. John's River being told that if they would have peace 
with us they must come to this place to make their proposals 
I think Sir there is nothing contrary to what has been prac- 
ticed heretofore by these people. The last peace with them 
was made in the Territorys of Now England and at this place, 
I have the original of the Articles by me. Those very In- 
dians sent a deputation to me about five years ago to desire 
tclive in peace with the subjects of Great Brittain tho' the 
two Crowns should be at war, which I assured them they 
might if they would and sent them honourably back again but 
they soon altered their opinion tho' no reason was given on 
our side for it. 

The first of your demands Sir is answered already by my 
telling you that neither of the two Indians you mentioned are 
in my possession. 

As for the second, in regard to the religion of the French In- 
habitants of this Province, I have and shall continue to follow 
the Treaty of Utrecht, and what commands I shall receive 
from the King my Master if there is to be any alteration. 

The third relating to the French Inhabitants of the River 
St. John's, I have reckoned them as subjects of Great Britain 
and seated in Territorys belonging to that Crown, and cannot 
alter my opinion till by the boundaries being settled between 
the Government of Nova Scotia and Canada or by orders from 
the Court of Great Brittain, I am obliged to think otherwise. 

I shall comply with your fourth demand by sending your 
letter to Govr. Shirley, with whom I am obliged to consult in 
what relates to the British Interest in those parts of the 
World, and I can do it with the more speed as I am to des- 
patch a vessel to Boston within three or four days. 



After having answered the material points of the lettef yott 
have done me the honor to write to me, I am to acquaint you 
Sir, that by a vessel arrived Yesterday from Boston we have 
the confirmation of the signing the definite Treaty of Peace 
between all the powers at war on the ft October last the rati- 
fications whereof have been since exchanged, with which the 
King of Great Brittain has acquainted his Parliament in his 1 
speech, and the addresses of both Houses of Parliament 
thereupon with His Majesty's speech are come to my hands 
which I take the freedom to enclose to you. I expect every 
day the Articles of peace which have been already printed, 
and ordered to proclaim the peace in this Province. 

This great work is happily completed and it doth not seem 
proper for us in these parts of the world to trouble the friend- 
ship which is reestablished betwixt our two Nations by start- 
ing difficulties which are already or will soon be decided at 
home for our future direction. It shall be my care to give no 
Occasion for any breach of the good understanding which is 
to be the Fruits of Peace, tho' it is not my intention whilst 
I have the honor to command over the Province of Nova 
Scotia to relinquish any of the rights I am persuaded the 
King my master has, till I have His Majesty's orders for it. 

I have &c. 


M. de la Galissonn&ire 
Ac. &c. &c. 

Governor of Canada, 

Governor Shirley to Count De la Galissonniire. 

Boston, May 9th, 1749. 
Two days ago I received from Mr. Mascarene a Copy of 
your letter to him, dated at Quebec 15th January wherein, 
(among other Demands)' you call upon him to acquaint you, 
whether he intends to comprehend the abenaqui Indians in 
the Peace, without requiring any kind of Submission from 
'em ; and desire that in such case he would engage me to let 
'em resettle in their Village, and their Missionaries remain 
there wth 'em unmolested as they did before the War observ- 
ing to him that those Indians enter'd into the War, only as 
your Allies, and therefore when the War was finished with 


you it ought to be so with regard to them, and you proceed 
to say, Sir, that if they thought otherwise in New England 
you shall be obligM to assist those Indians, intimating that it 
is of importance to the safety and tranquillity of the Frontiers 
of the Massachusetts Bay, that you should have a speedy and 
Positive answer, and that you shall not be surprised if the 
Indians shou'd proceed to acts of Violence. 

To this Sir wch is the fourth Demand in your letter, Mr 
Mascarcno having referr'd you to me upon it, I shall comply 
with your request in giving as speedy and Positive an answer 
as may be. 

The Village of the Abenaqui Indians, by wch. I at present 
understand only those who are seated on St John's River, 
has been ever deem'd by the English to be situated within 
the heart of Nova Scotia, and consequently that tribe of 
Indians together with the French Inhabitants upon the same 
River to be resident within his Majesty's Territories; and 
accordingly, Sir, the latter have acknowledged themselves 
ever since the Treaty of Utrecht to be Subjects of the Crown 
of Great Britain by taking the Oaths of Fidelity and Alle- 
giance to it ; and have had the protection of His Majesty's 
Governmt in common with his other Subjects in that Pro- 
vince. This being the case, these Indians when the advice of 
a Rupture between His Majesty and the King your Master 
was hourly expected, under the pretext of sending a Deputa- 
tion to Mr Mascarene to desire that they might remain in 
Peace and Amity wth the English, notwithstanding War shou'd 
happen between the two Crowns, gpin'd Admission into Anna- 
polis Royal for some of their Tribe who were in Reality (as 
it afterwards prov'd) Spies, and having obtain'd Mr Masca- 
rene^ agreement to what they pretended to propose in behalfc* 
of their Tribe, and being honourably treated and dismissed* 
by him return'd in three Weeks after, among others of their 
Tribe with their Missionary de'Loutre at their head, Sur- 
prized and Killed as many of the English at Annapolis Royal - 
as they caught without the Fort, destroy'd their Cattle, 
Burnt their Houses, and continued their acts of Hostility 
against the Garrison till the Arrival of two of the four first 
Companies I sent from New England for the Reinforcemt off 
it : such was the entrance of these Indians, Sir, into the War 
with us, and their Alliance with you. 

For this Perfidious Behaviour I caus'd war to be declared' 
in his Majesty's name agst. these Indians at Boston in Novem- 
ber 1744 and so far as it depends upon me, they shall not be* 



admitted, Sir, to Terms of Peace 'till they have made * 
proper Submission for their Treachery, unless they shon'd 
be already Comprehended in the Definitive Treaty of Peace 
and Friendship lately concluded at Aix la Chapelle, wch I 
shall on my part strictly observe in every point. 

As to what you have thought fit, Sir, to declare in your 
letter concerning your intentions to support the Indians in 
acts of Hostility against us unless we give 'em peace upon 
the terms there prescribed by you, and the danger the Fron- 
tiers of the Massachusetts Bay in particular may be in, unless 
you have a speedy & Positive answer upon this head ; what 
I have to say in answer is, that I shall be sorry for a new 
Rupture between us, and am very desirous to have perfect 
tranquillity i-estor'd to the Province under my Government j 
but if the latter is not to be the case, and you think fit to 
make yourself a party in an Indian War, agt. us, I doubt not 
but his Majestys Subjects upon this Continent wilF be able to 
make just Reprisals upon Canada when it shall be his Majesty's 
Pleasure to have 'em do it. 

I can't avoid now, Sir, expressing great surprize at the 
other parts of your letter whereby you take upon you to call 
Mr. Mascarene to Account for expelling the Missionary from 
Minas for being guilty of such treasonable Practices within 
his Majesty's Government as merited a much severer punish- 
ment than that of expulsion from the Province. 

The Right you claim, Sir, of sending Missionaries from 
France to reside among his Majesty's Subjects of Nova Scotia 
as their Priests, and, in consequence of that, your forbidding 
his Majesty's Governour to make any alteration in the State of 
Religion and its ministers there, is still more extraordinary : 
and I mast not omit upon this occasion to remark to you 
that I think the letter wch. the Bishop of Quebec lately 
wrote to Mr Mascarene concerning his intended Visitation of 
•his Majesty's Subjects in that Government in Such Terms as 
shew'd he looks upon 'em as part of his Cure of Souls and 
within his Jurisdiction was likewise an extraordinary attempt, 
and can't be admitted. 

Your interfering, Sir, in his majesty's Punishment of his 
: Subjects in Nova Scotia inflicted for Rebellious and Treason- 
able Practices against his Crown, and his requiring others of 
'em to renew their Oaths of Fidelity : and in one word your 
treating the Subjects of the Crown of Great Britain in that 
Province as if you looked upon 'em as Subjects of his most 
Christian Majesty, and being under his allegiance, is, if possi- 


We still more surprizing : and as these, attempts are Manifest 
Invasions of the undoubted Bight wch. every Prince has over 
his Subjects, I can't but look upon 'em as Insults upon his 
Majesty's Government wch. require no further answer. 

After these attempts, Sir, upon his Majesty's Right of Go- 
vernment over his Subjects m Nova Scotia, I am less sur- 
prized at your encroachmts upon the limits of his Province, 
wch. you are pleased to call in your letter Dependencies of 
the Government of Canada. 

As to your Demand for the Release of the two Indians 
carry'd off by Captn. Gorham, I can't allow, Sir, that you have 
a right to interpose in that affair, and Mr. Gorham has satisfied 
me that he committed no breach of Publick faith in doing it. 

I can't conclude without making use of this opportunity to 
acquaint you, Sir, that we look upon Port St. Frederic at 
Crown Point as an Encroachment upon his Majesty's Terri- 
tories, and in case you proceed to settle the Country round it, 
shall esteem those Settlements so too, unless that tract has been 
ceded to you by the late Definitive treaty at Aix la Chapelle. 

I am sorry, Sir, that the first fruits of the Peace on your 
part have so unpromising an aspect and beg you will be per- 
suaded that nothing shall be wauting in me to preserve that 
right understanding wch. subsisted between us during the' 
war, having the honour to be wth. the most perfect Regard, 

Your most humble & most 

Obedient Servant, 

Marquis La Galissonni&re. W. SHIRLEY. 

Copy. W. Shirley. 

Indorsed— ReocL 11 July 1749. Entered per 

Copy tf Letter from Governor CornvoaRis to Captain Rous, 

Commander of His Majesty's Ship Albany. 

I have received information by letters from Governor 
Shirley and Colonel Mascarene to Govr. Hopson, copies of 
both which he sent me, that the French are erecting a Port or* 
Ports at the mouth of St. John's River; information likewise* 
that the French are endeavouring to make a settlement at 
Port Mou ton, on Cape Sable Coast. As this is a direct viola- 
tion of Treaty, St. Johns River being undoubtedly within the 
limits of Nova Scotia; As a French Fort there might be of i 


dangerous consequence to this Province and the other Biv 
tish Colonies in North America, I am of opinion that it will be 
for His Majesty's service, that you proceed with the Albany 
Sloop now under your command, to St. John's River, there to 
inspect yourself What works are carrying on, and demand by 
what authority such Ports are erecting, assert His Brittannic 
Majesty's Right to that Coast as a part of Nova Scotia, and 
prevent their making further progress therein, or demolish 
them as your own prudence shall direct you. You will also 
visit Port Mouton in your way, and if you find any appearance 
of a settlement there, you will use all possible endeavours to 
prevent it* 

You will receive herewith a declaration which you wilt 
deliver to the Commander of St John's Port, (if any one has 
dared to assume that title^ asserting the undoubted rights of 
the King of Great Britain ; and in His Majesty's name re- 
quiring him to abandon his design. If land forces are wanting, 
you have likewise our order to the Commander of Annapolis 
Koyal, to give you what Troops you may have occasion for. 

I am <fec. 


M. La Jonquiire* to Governor Cornwctttis. 

(Translated from the French.) 

Quebec, 25th Oct. f 1749. 

I beg to tender you my very sincere thanks for ther 
obliging letter you did me the honour to write to me on ther 
15th of August last. 

It wonld have been highly gratifying to me had I antici- 
pated your politeness by assuring you of the pleasure I shall 
always experience in corresponding with you for the welfare 
and the advantage of those subjects, whose government has 
been entrusted to us. 

* Jacques Pierre de Taffaoel, Marquis de la Jonquiere, succeeded M. Galis- 
•onniere in the Government of Canada in August 174$. He was Rear Admiral 
and third in Command of the great fleet under Due D'Anville, intended to 
destroy the British Settlements in Acadia ; which, after having been dispersed 
by repeated gales of wind, put into Chebucto in distress in 1746. Admiral 
Jonquiere was afterwards placed in command of another expedition in 1747, 
destined for Canada and Acadia. The British Fleet under Anson and Warren 
fell in with him on 3rd May, and after a well fought engagement the FrenfJh 
•truck their colours. Six of his vessels of war and all the East India ship* 


It is not to day that your merit has become known to me ; 
daring my stay in England I was witness of the many praises 
bestowed upon it by every body. I shall be quite willing, 
For my own part, to give you proofs of this on all occasions. 

The general peace which has just been concluded must 
naturally draw the people of our two governments into a 
mutual friendship. Such are the sentiments I inspire all my 
Canadians with ; and I am persuaded that they themselves are 
disposed to enjoy the tranquillity which they have for a long 
time desired. I am very glad that you, on your part, en- 
courage the same feelings amongst your subjects. 

The Marquis de la Qalissonni&re nas not at all acted badly 
towards Mr. Mascarene. I have seen the copies of the letters 
which he has written to him, and if you will kindly give the 
matter your attention, you will see that the representations 
he has made to him are ^ust, and that it is solely Mr. Mas- 
carene who is blamable, in having put himself in a position to 
receive the complaints of M. De la Galissonni&re. That gen- 
eral has, besides, taken great care of your prisoners, and has 
granted them in this government, entire liberty. He has, 
even through pure sentiments of humanity, sent away more 
than three hundred of the said prisoners to New York and 
Boston, a large part of whom were ransomed from the savages 
with much difficulty, and at a great expense ; whilst, with 
reluctance on the part of the governors of 'those two cities, 
have they been prevailed upon to procure the same advantage 
to a very small number of our people. On my arrival in this 
country, I wrote to Mr. Clinton by an English prisoner, and 
sent him an officer to agree upon a respective exchange. 
That officer's mission was not attended with the success that 
I anticipated from it ; he returned with the said Englishman 
without any of my people. 

Since that deputation Mr. Clinton has sent me one of his 
officers to remove his prisoners. Although he ought to have, 
by the same means, sent me my prisoners without excep- 
tion; and although his mistrust was rather out of place, 
yet to lessen every difficulty, and to accelerate the good 

under his convoy were captured, and between 4000 and 5000 French taken 
prisoners, among whom was La Jonquiere himself. He died at Quebec on 
17th May. 1752, in the 67th year of his age, and was succeeded in the govern- 
ment by the Marquis du Quesne de Mannenville. M. Jonquiere appears to 
have made the acquaintance of Govr. Cornwallis while residing in England as 
a prisoner of war. Collections Hist. Soe. Quebec ; Gameau's Canada ; Holmes 
American Annals; Universal Hist ; N. York Documents ; Cornwallis' Letters, 
N. 8. MS, Documents. 


fortune of these poor people in general, I was ready to send 
away at a moment's notice all the English and the Anniers 
who remain in my government. 

But a great obstacle at first presented itself to my good 
wishes, in the opposition which the chiefs of the Abenakis of 
the village of St. Francis made to the release of your pri- 
soners, on the ground that twenty six Abenaquis had been 
carried off, and that they were detained about Boston. I left 
nothing unsaid to appease these savages ; they strongly per- 
sisted iri their opposition and told me, even openly, that if 
their brothers did not immediately recover their liberty, they 
would take up the hatchet. 

I was then obliged to give way to the entreaties of these 
savages — their nation having always been faithful to the king 
my master. 

I wrote, in consequence, to Messrs. Clinton and Shirly r 
Governors of New York and Boston, and sent them the inter- 
preter of the said savages to demand from them the discharge 
of the prisoners. I agreed with the English deputy as to the 
spot where the respective exchange should take place ] and 
as soon as I shall have information that the prisoners of my 
government have been conveyed thither, I shall send away all 
the English and the Anniers to the same place. 

You see, Sir, that I am doing my best, that the subjects of 
the Kings our masters, may enjoy that tranquillity which the 
general peace gives them the right to lay claim to. 

With respect to the river St. John, the Marquis de la Ga- 
lissonni&re has done quite right in sending there a good 
detachment. You must be well aware that I have sent one 
into the settlements of Delkekondiack, Memerancougs and 
Chipudy. The officers who command at those stations have 
orders to maintain their position, and to prevent the forma- 
tion, by you, of any establishment there, until the true limits 
of Acadia and New France have been regulated by the two 
crowns ; and until then, I am quite right in observing to you r 
Sir, that you cannot maintain with so much precision, that the 
coast of the river St. John belongs to the King of Great 
Britain. I might give you proofs of the contrary ; but as I 
have just had the honor to obsarve to you, this question is to 
be decided by the two crowns. 

I can not offer any obstruction to the orders of the bishop 
of Quebec, who, as a good pastor should take care of those 
entrusted to him ; and on this subject I have the honor to call 
your attention to the Articles granted to the inhabitants of 
Acadie in 1727. 


By the second article, they'are permitted to withdraw them- 
selves whenever they shall think proper to do so. And by 
the third article, they are also permitted the free exercise of 
their religion, and to have priests, Catholic, Apostolic, and 
Roman. Now, according to the law which you yourselves 
have made, these inhabitants are to exercise their religion 
without difficulty, and you know that no priest can administer 
the sacraments without the approval of his bishop. It is this, 
positively, which gives occasion for the orders 01 our prelate. 

I have no other savages than four Anniers : all the others 
were sent away by my predecessor ; the said four Anniers are 
not at all under restraint and have every gratification they 
can desire. 

I will send them back to Mr. Clinton with all the other 
prisoners when we make the exchange. 

I have, in the mean time, made enquiries concerning the 
five savages you do me the honor to speak about. I. am told 
that there were three who had embraced the Catholic, Apos- 
tolic, and Roman religion, and that our savage nations had 
adopted them ; the two others died — one here, the other at 

I have the honor to be 
with all possible esteem and consideration 

Sir, <fec, <fec, 


Governor Cornivallis to M. La Jonquiire. 

[Translated from the French.] 

Sir, — 

I have just received the letter, which you did me the 
honor to write to me on the 25th of October. Indeed it is 
difficult to believe that a man like you could approve of M. 
de la Galissonniere's letter. With respect to the affair of the 
exchange of prisoners, in which you complain of the Gover- 
nors of New York and New England, as it is the first time I 
have heard of it, I am not prepared to reply ; but it appears 
to me that Mr. Clinton has the same reason that you have, to 
complain of mistrust, as you were the first to send an officer 
to treat concerning the exchange. It seems to me that it was 
your place to show confidence, and to send back with him, alL 
the prisoners. 
I am very much surprised to find that you not only approve; 


of the conduct of M. de la Galissonni&re in reference to the 
river St John, but that you yourself have sent detachments 
into that province, as far as Selkikoudiac, Memeranconrs and 
Chippodie. It is to your letter that I am indebted for the 
first information of this, which causes me to hope that your 
detachments have not yet arrived there, and that yon will give 
orders to prevent their arrival, as I cannot possibly imagine 
any thing more contrary to the good faith and confidence 
which subsist between the two crowns, or more opposed to 
the law of nations. It is true that I have become aware, 
since my arrival here, that their Britannic and most Christian 
majesties have agreed to name Commissioners to settle the 

Does it follow from that, that I am to send detachments 
through the whole of Canada, or you through Nova Scotia? 

Sir, notwithstanding the proofs which you think you can 
give to the contrary, I am quite right in maintaining, that, 
nntil the two crowns have agreed otherwise, the whole coast 
of St. John and those places into which you write to me that 
you are sending detachments, are comprised in Nova Scotia. 
As to the places about which there could be any difficulty, 
you can not be ignorant that the rule is, " There shall be no 
change at all, nor shall any establishment be made there, nor 
shall any troops be sent there." 

I have forwarded this letter by an express courier, in order 
to communicate my sentiments to you, and to warn you that 
I shall give notice of the same to his Britannic Majesty ; and 
while awaiting his orders I shall do what I consider my duty. 

I have the honor to be 

With all possible respect, 

Sir <fcc. <fec. <fcc. 

Halifax, Nov. 1st, 1749. 

Extract from a Letter of Oovr. Laivrence to Govt. Shirley. 


Halifax, 5 Nov. 1754. 

Being well informed that the French have designs of en- 
croaching still further upon his Majesty's rights in this Pro- 
vince, and that th$y propose the moment they have repaired 
the Fortifications of Louisburg to attack our Fort at Chig- 


necto, I think it high time to make some effort to drive them 
from the North side of the Bay of Fundy. But as it is im- 
possible for mo to collect men enough to execute this design 
without weakening the metropolis and exposing the Settlers 
in this Part of the Province to the insults of the French and 
Indians I have sent the bearer Lt. Col. Monckton to Solicit 
your assistance and to advise with your Excellency how such 
an undertaking might be carried on with the greatest Privacy 
and effect. He -has my directions to propose to you the rais- 
ing two thousand men which if he can effect early in the 
Spring, will I believe with what regular Troops I shall be able 
to add to them, be sufficient to do the business. I do not pro- 
pose to put your Excellency's Province to any expence upon 
this occasion but to defray all charges that may arise out of 
the money granted for this Colony concerning which I have 
already wrote to Ld. Halifax. Your Excellency must un- 
doubtedly be sensible what an advantage we shall gain upon 
the French by attacking them first more especially as their 
Chief dependance is the Indians and our deserted French 
Inhabitants who most probably will leave them when they find 
they are not able to keep their ground, and who would infalli- 
bly assist them if they should begin with us, these considera- 
tions have induced me to put this design in Execution as 
early in the Spring as may be, before the Ships of War are 
arrived at Louisbourg from France. They will then bo in the 
greatest want of provisions and Warlike stores and what I 
natter myself will greatly favor our design at this juncture is 
the encroachment the French have made on the Ohio, to which 
place their force and attention seems at present to be entirelv 
drawn off, and I should be guilty of the highest neglect if I 
did not endeavour to avail myself of this opportunity, as well 
to assert his Majesty's just and undoubted right to that coun- 
try they have so unwarrantably taken possession of, as to 
shew all the resentment in my power to their insults on his 
dominions and subjects to the Southward, and perhaps to 
facilitate their extirpation in those parts by still further incit- 
ing a diversion of their force and adding to the alarm your 
Excellency's late expedition and those marks of military skill 
you have left behind on tho Kennebeck must unavoidably 
have given them. I have thus far laid before you Sir my 
reasons for desiring your assistance at this important and 
critical juncture, the most pressing is self-preservation being 
as I said before well informed that they design to attempt our 
Fort at Chignecto as soon as their affair will admit of such an 


enterprize, and I am the farther induced to give credit to this 
information because I well know the difficulties they labor 
under at present for .want of land to put the deserted inhabi- 
tants upon who they are now obligea chiefly to maintain at 
the Kings Charge, and for want of a free navigation in the 
Bay of Fundy they are put to such streights for Provisions 
that they dare not collect the Indians in Bodies near them for 
fear so great a Consumption should cause a general famine 
and oblige them to quit the Country. Thie I say Sir is my 
first and principal inducement, strongly corroborated by the 
great desire I have to shew a proper resentment to their en- 
croachments upon this Colony in particular and their viola- 
tion of treaties all over His Majesty's dominions on the Con- 
tinent of America, and these considerations must undoubtedly 
be of the greatest weight with a person of your Excellency's 
known zeal for His Majesty's interest and the publick welfare. 
But I must still mention some few things that come properly 
under your notice in your particular charge of the Massachu- 
sets as your Excellency was the first mover of the undertak- 
ing the settlement of this province by way of a Barrier to the 
Eastern Parts of N. E. you may well conceive how little it can 
answer that design while the French possess Beausejour and 
St John River as they have by that means a short and easy 
communication (by way of Bay of Verte) from Louisbourg to 
St. John, I think only five days march, as well as the oppor- 
tunity of annoying the shipping of Your Excellency's Go- 
vernment from the North side of the Bay in time of War. 
Neither do I imagine that this Colony can answer any pur- 
pose until the French are driven away from our neighborhood, 
as they are continually using every means in their power to 
draw our French Inhabitants from their duty and allegiance 
by threats, promises and forgeries that they propogate amongst 
them by means of their missionaries as well as the annoyance 
they give his Majesty's Subjects by the Indians who they are 
for ever setting on to perpetrate mischief and to discourage 
any attempt that may be made to cultivate the land and ex- 
tend our settlements. I am sensible I have already taken up 
too much of your Excys. time by enlarging upon a subject 
you are much better versed in than myself. I shall now pro- 
ceed to inform you that I have already taken the precaution 
of sending two armed vessels into the Bay with positive 
orders to prevent any corn being carried to the French from 
Pisiquid, Mines or Annapolis Royal, for which purpose the 
Council of this province have passed an Act laying a very 


heavy penalty on the exportation of Grain without a permit 
from me. I wish we could as easily prevent their being sup- 
plied from the Continent, but that I fear we cannot so effec- 
tually hinder, tho* nothing in my power shall be wanting 
towards it. 

The next thing to be considered is the security of this 
Town against any revenge the French may attempt by ship- 
ping, we have on this station a Twenty Gun Ship and a Sloop 
and the twenty gun Ship and Sloop from Carolina are ordered 
to be here in the Spring and I have by this opportunity wrote 
pressingly to Capt. Legg to come as early as possible. I pro- 
pose also if your Excellency has no objection to apply to the 
Captain of the Station Ship at Boston for his assistance but I ^ 
apprehend it will be time enough to do that after I had heard 
from you. 

I propose that the bearer Col. Monckton shall conduct this 
expedition he being a person every way qualified, as well by 
his rank and ability as his knowledge of the place. The 
officers of the troops to be raised I leave entirely to your Ex- 
cellency, begging the favor of you to appoint under your 
commission such persons as you snail think most proper. 

For the better execution of this design I have given Col. 
Monckton an unlimited credit upon Messrs. Apthorp and 
Hancock and I must desire the favour of your Excellency 
before this is communicated to them to engage them to the 
profoundest secrecy for upon that every thing depends. 

As every step to be taken hero must depend upon the pos- 
sibility of raising the men and the progress made therein, I 
shall impatiently expect the honor of hearing from your Ex- 
cellency by the very first opportunity. 

Col. Monckton's powers and instructions are made out as 
you will perceive Sir in the most general terms in order to 
obviate any difficulties that might be incurred by confining 
them too much to particulars, in the fullest persuasion that 
this most necessary and useful enterprise will meet with your 
Excellency's hearty concurrence. I beg leave to assure you 
that I am with the greatest respect & esteem, 


Yr. Excellency's <fec. 

Halifax, Nov. 5, 1754. 

To Govr. Shirley, 


Governor Shirley * to Governor Laivrence. 

Boston, Nov. 7th, 1754. 

I received the originals, of which the inclos'd are Copies 
from Sir Thos. Robinson by the last Ship, and lest those sent 
your Honour should by accident have miscarry'd, I transmit 
you copies of those wch. I have received. 

I construe the contents to be orders to us to act in Concert 
for taking any advantages to drive the French of Canada out 
of Nova Scotia when that may be done consistently with the 

v Safety of the English Settlements there. 

•' If that is your sense of them and your honour will be pleas'd 
to let me know whether you want any and what assistance to 

\ Enable you to execute the Orders, and communicate such 

•• plan as you shall judge most proper for effecting this, I will 
endeavour to send you such assistance from this Province, as 
you shall want, in time, and shall readily Co-operate with yon 
in such measures, as shall be thought best for promoting the 
propos'd Service. 

I would in particular desire of your honour to let me know 
what sea force you judge requisite to dislodge the French 
from their forts on St. John's River and to cut them off from 
Supplies at the forts upon the Isthmus from Louisbourg by 
the way of Bay Verte, and thro the Bay of Funda. 

* William Shirley was a native of England, born about the year 1693. He 
was by profession a lawyer, and had been in office in London. He removed to 
Boston with his family about 1735 or 6, where he continued to reside, following 
the practice of the law, until appointed Governor of Massachusetts in 1741. 
Governor Shirley planned the expedition against Louisbourg in 1745 ; in which 
year he received the rank of Colonel of foot. He was appointed Major General 
in the British Army in 1755, with the superintendence of the military opera- 
tions in the Northern Colonies, and was Commander-in-Chief for a short time 
after the death of Gcnl. Braddoek. Having failed to accomplish an expedition 
against Niagara in 1756, he was suspended from the command of the army 
and ordered to England, where he was badly received. He, however, after 
much labour, was enabled to exculpate himself from the charges made against 
him, and published several pamphlets in his own defence. In 1759 he became 
a Lieut. General, and after long solicitations obtained the Government of the 
Bahama Islands , in which he was succeeded by his son Thomas. He finally 
returned to Massachusetts, and died at his seat near Roxbury in 1771, and hit 
remains were interred with the honors of war under the King's Chapel in the 
Capital. He was one of the Commissioners on the part of Great Britain for 
settling the limits of Acadia, and was the author of the well known publication 
entitled, u Memorials of the English and French Commissaries," dated 21st 
Sept, 1750, wherein he claimed for the British all the land east of the Penob- 
scot River and south of the St. Lawrence, as constituting Ancient Acadia. He 
was also the author of a work entitled, '* Memoirs of the late War in America/ 


It gives me a real pleasure, yt. 1 have the honour of being 
joined in this Service for procuring an happy deliverance to 
nis Majesty's Northern Colonies from the danger of the present 
neighbourhood of the French in their Incroachmts. within 
your Honour's Governmt. with a gentleman of whose Zeal 
and abilities for promoting the Service of our King and 
Country in this Instance I have so high an Opinion. 

I have the honour to be 

with great esteem and regard, 
Your Honours most humble 
and most obedient Servant, 

Hon. Lt. Govr. Lawrence. 

Nov. 12. 

I inclose your Honour an extract from my letter to Sir 
Thomas Robinson upon this Subject for your perusal : You 
will be pleased to send to his office what you may have to add 
to the contents by the first opportunity from Halifax, and to 
favour me with an answer to my letter to yourself, as soon as 
you conveniently can. 

I am, 


as before, 


Indorsed,— Reed, per Homer, Nov. 27. 

printed in London in 1767, and several other publications. He had long urged 
on the home government the necessity, as well as the importance, of establishing 
s British Colony in Nova Scotia upon a permanent basis, and in 1748 devised a 
•cheme for that purpose, which he submitted to the Secretary of State ; its- 
details were numerous and elaborate, and embraced the design of introducing 
British settlers among the French in the interior of the country. It was not 
adopted, but copies of his letters were furnished to Governor Cornwallis on 
account of the local information they contained. 

Governor Shirley supported the Massachusetts Assembly in their opposition 
to the plan for the Union of the American Colonies for the purposes of defence 
agreed upon at Albany in 1754. Though a firm supporter of the prerogative 
of the Crown, " it was the height of his good fortune," says Minot, " by a 
spirit of accommodation to avoid the broils which had been so constantly 
fomenting between the Chair and the Assembly in preceding Administrations." 
Mr. Minot, in his Hist, of Massachusetts, pays the following tribute to his 
memory : " Although he held some of the most lucrative offices within the gift 
Of the Crown in America, yet he left nothing to his posterity but a reputation 
in which his virtues greatly prevailed over his faults, and which has not been 
surpassed by that of any succeeding Governor under the English sovereignty." — 
N. Y. Col. Doc, vi., 959; Smiths Hist. N. Y.; Allen's Biographical Die.; 
Minof s Hist. Mass., vol. 1, p. 292-297; N. S. MS. Doc.; Hutchinson's Hist. 
Mass., continuation, p. 15. 


Extract from Govt. Shirley's letter to Sir T. Robinson, dated 
Boston in New England, 23d. May, 1754. 

I purpose to set out for the Eastern parts of this Province 
in about 17 days, with a party of 500 men, which is to pro- 
ceed up the River Kennebeck in quest of the French Fort, or 
Settlement, said to be erected or made there in the summer 
before last, of which I had the honour to acquaint the Rt: 
Hon: the Earl of Holdernesse in a former letter, and to cause 
a Fort to be built about 60 miles up the River, and to have an 
interview with the Norridgwalk, Penobscot and Arregunticook 
Indians at Falmouth in Casco Bay ; But if the Advices are 
well founded, which I have this morning received from Halifax 
and Annapolis Royal, that some of the rebel Inhabitants of 
Schiegnecto, together with the' Indians of the Peninsula, and 
St. John's River are through the influence of the French Gar- 
rison at Beausejour engaged in any enterprize to break up all 
the Eastern Settlements of this Province as far as the River 
Kennebeck, where it is suspected they are gone, the Force 
which is raised to proceed with me will not be sufficient to 
Execute the design I go upon. 

If the advices are true, they will afford you, Sir, one 
Instance of the many mischievous Consequences to the Col- 
onies of New England, as well as to His Majesty's Province 
of Nova Scotia, which must proceed from the French of 
Canada's having possessed themselves of the Isthmus of the 
Peninsula, and St John's River in the Bay of Funda, and 
continuing their Encroachments within his Majesty's Ter- 

Sir Thomas Robinson to Governor Shirley. 

Whitehall, July 5, 1754. 

I have received and laid before the King your letter of the 
10th of May, wherein you give an account of the Enterprize, 
in which, it was said, the Indians in Nova Scotia, under the 
Influence of France, were engaged, in order to break up all 
the Eastern Settlements of your Province, as far as the River 
Kennebeck, where it was suspected they were gone, which if 
true, you were afraid, the Force you have now under your 
command, would not be sufficient for your Operations on that 
River : I have the King's Orders to repeat his Royal Appro- 
bation and Encouragement, already signified to you in my 


letter of the 21st June, his Majesty not doubting, but that yo u 
will continue the same Zeal and Vigour, with which you an d 
the Government under your care, have begun to act, in 
defence of the just Bights and Possessions of His Majesty's 

With respect to your present Apprehension of not having* 
force enough to proceed in your expedition on the River 
Kennebeck, you will without doubt have given immediate 
Intelligence thereof, to Colonel Lawrence— Lieutenant Gov* 
ernor of Nova Scotia, and will have concerted the properest 
measure with him for taking all possible advantage in Nova 
Scotia itself, from the absence of those Indians, in case Mr . 
Lawrence shall have force enough to attack the Forts erected 
by the French, in those parts, without exposing the English 
Settlements : and I am particularly to acquaint you, that i f 
you have not already entered into such a concert with Colo. 
Lawrence, it is his Majesty's Pleasure you should immediately 
proceed thereupon, and I now send that Gentleman a copy of 
this Letter, by the King's Order, that it may serve as His 
Majesty's Instruction to him, as well as yourself. 

I am 

Your most Obedient 
humble Servant, 


P.S. — I send you herewith a Copy of my Letter to Colonel 

(A true Copy.) 

W. Shirley. 

Sir Thomas Robinson to Governor Lawrence. 


White Hall, July 5, 1754. 

Having received a very material Letter from Governor 
Shirley, dated the 23rd of May, I am, by the King's order, to 
send you the enclosed extract thereof, together with a copy 
of the Answer, which I have wrote to him, by his Majesty's 
Command, and which you will consider as an Instruction to 
yourself upon this important occasion. His Majesty does not 
doubt, but that you will jointly with Mr. Shirley execute 
these orders with the greatest Prudence and zeal, and that 


you will take such effectual measures as will frustrate the 
designs of the French and will procure an essential Benefit to 
your own Government. 

I am, &c.j 

(A True Copy) 

W. Shirley. 

Extract from a Letter of Qovernor Shirley to Sir Thomas 

Robinson, dated Novr. 11, 1754. 

About a week ago I had the Honour to receive your letter 
dated the 5th of July, acquainting me that it was his Majesty's 
pleasure that I should concert the properest measures with 
Col. Lawrence Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia for taking all 
possible advantage in that Province of the supposed absence 
of the Indians inhabiting it in case he had force enough to 
attack the French Forts erected in those parts, without ex- 
posing the English Settlemts. there : and that if I had not 
already entered into such a concert with Colonel Lawrence I 
should immediately proceed thereupon. 

This supposed absence of the Indians proving to be a 
mistake, the advantage proposed from it could not be taken. 
But as it seems to be the spirit and intent of his Majesty's 
Commands that Colo. Lawrence and I should act in concert 
for taking any proper advantage for attacking the French 
forts erected in Nova Scotia, without leaving the English 
Settlemts. thero exposed: I have acquainted him with my 
construction of those orders, and that if he construes them in 
the same sense and will let me know whether he wants any 
and what, assistance to enable him to execute them, and com- 
municate to me such plan as he shall think most proper for 
the Service, I would endeavour to send him the assistance 
from this Province in time and readily Co-operate with him in 
such measures as shall be jiidg'd best by us for effecting the 
proposed Service. 

Ii Colonel Lawrence had a sufficient force to attack the 
French forts and keep the field against the revolted inhabi- 
tants of Schiegnecto now drawn off to them, and the Collected 
strength of the other French Settlements scattered up and 
down in those parts which openly avow the interest of Canada 
and disclaim all obedience to his Majesty's Governmt. I 
believe he would make no great accot. of the Indians of Nova 


Sfcotia; Though they when join'd with the other Eastern 
Indians, and some French of Canada might have been a formi- 
dable enemy to the New England Forces in their late march 
to the head of the River Kennebeck &c. thro' a wilderness 
Country, a service of itself extremely fatiguing and in wch. 
the expertness of the Indians in Busbfightong gives them a 
great superiority over the best troops who are not accustomed 
to it, yet a large body of them in an open Country would give 
Regulars or even the New England Militia but small inter- 
ruption, and small parties of them aro more to be dreaded in 
Ambushes from whence they may instantly escape into the 
woods, than ten times their force in an open field where they 
can't attack by surprise : and never will venture against an 
<3qual force. 

It is universally agreed by every English Officer of Nova 
Scotia, with whom I have conversed here as a thing certain 
that the principal ftench fort at Beau Sejour may be easily 
cutt off from their water which it is said they are obliged to 
fetch at half a miles distance from the Fort as they might 
likewise from supplies of Provisions or Stores all which they 
must receive from Louisbourg either thtough the Bay Vorte 
or the Bay of Funda, so that in case it should prove difficult 
to reduce them by the force of Artillery, yet it seems very 
practicable to starve the Garrison into a surrender provided 
we have a sea force superior or equal to that of the French in 
those two Bays to prevent their being supported from Louis- 
bourg with Recruits or Provisions. 

As far as I can learn from conversation with the same Gen- 
tlemen it is not doubted but that the Regular troops wch. 
Colonel Lawrence could spare to attack the French Forts on 
the Isthmus and the lower fort on St Johns River reinforc'd 
with 1000 men from New England would be a sufficient force 
to secure the success of that Service and drive the French of 
Canada out of the Province. 

What Ships of War might be requisite over and above what 
are now employ'd for the protection of Nova Scotia and might 
be drawn thither from the New England, New York, and Vir- 
ginia Stations in order to dislodge the French from the lower 
fort on St John's River and to cutt off their Garrison upon 
the Isthmus from receiving Supplies or Reinforcemts. by the 
way of Bay Vert, or thro' the Bay of Funda, I can't presume 
to say — its well known that the French have had a 36 Gun 
Ship almost constantly since the conclusion of the late Peace 
in the Bay of Funda and it is said they have generally one 



50 Gun Ship at least cruizing or stationed near Bay Vert: 
whether his Majesty hath any of that force in those parts I 
don't know. 

As to the most advantageous opportunity for attacking the 
French Forts, Sir, I would with great submission observe that 
their Incroachmts. upon the Ohio seem at present to require 
all the forces they can spare out of Canada to support them, 
wch. seems a considerable circumstance in our favour. 

Another advantage is by the defection of the Inhabitants 
of Schiegnecto to tlie French, that district well, hath a greater 
quantity of rich Arable land than any other part of Nova 
Scotia is now left vacant, so that there is room for 500 or per- 
haps 1000 families to be settled there, wch. if done with 
persons of Industry and Sobriety and acquainted with Hus- 
bandry whose fidelity and attachment to His Majesty's Govt, 
may be depended upon, such I call settlers Either from 
Great Britain, New England or the North of Ireland would 
by its Neighbourhood to the King's Garfison there greatly 
strengthen it — upon occasion be an exceeding good barrier to 
the Peninsula by securing the Isthmus and a curb to the 
French Inhabitants of Minas and Annapolis River by a Con- 
tinual Inspection of their behaviour with them. 

I beg leave, Sir, further to observe that the longer this 
service is put off, the more difficult it grows on every acct. 
It is certain that it might have been much more easily effected 
than it can now, if the small party wch. was at first sent to 
St. John's River under an Ensigns Command had been imme- 
diately remov'd and the Party wch. first appear'd under the 
Command of Monsieur de la Corn in Schiegnecto without any 
sort of Cannon to defend them had been drove out of the 
Province before the one and the other had strengthened them- 
selves so much as they have done. And it seems equally cer- 
tain that the longer it is delay'd the French works will grow 
still stronger, and France part with them with greater reluc- 
tance : and if an open Rupture should happen between the 
.two Crowns before the French are dislodg'd, whoever con- 
siders the superior strength of their Fort on the Isthmus to 
those of the English, and the superior number of inhabitants 
there who are in the French Interest to those whose attach- 
ment to the English interest can be depended upon will not 
be at a loss to determine wch. nation would be most likely to 
stand their ground longest in the Province: The English 
indeed have at present much the greatest number of Regular 
T.roqps in it but its well known how expeditious the French 


we in bringing Troops into a Country wch. they would win : 
what opportunities they have of doing that into Nova Scotia 
by surprize and how sudden and fatal a blow they gave to 
Canso and the King's Garrison there with an armament fitted 
out from Louisbourg immediately after the declaration of the 
last war. 

I think it my duty, Sir, further to observe that if Nova 
Scotia should be lost by any sudden blow the Eastern parts 
of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and the whole Province 
of New Hampshire (within wch. Tracts of Territory are 
included the Woods from whence the Royal Navy is now 
supply'd with Masts, Yards and Bowsprits) together with the 
Rivers of St. John's, Pentagoet and Kennebeck, and all the 
Sea coast as far as Merrimack River with the whole fishery 
to the Westward of Newfoundland must soon fall into the 
possession of the French most likely in the same Spring and if 
they should hold these acquisitions together with Canada and 
Louisbourg that they would then have it in their power to 
assemble and support a very large body of Regular Troops 
in these parts (wch. they cant possibly do long at present) 
and by the Situation of their New Sea Coast abounding with 
most Commodious Harbours for the largest ships of war, 
perhaps be able to dispute the mastery of the Eastern part of 
the Atlantick Ocean wth. the British Navy: How far, Sir, 
such an event might go towards determining the fate of the 
Colonies seems easy to conceive. It would certainly be 
extremely difficult to retrieve such a loss by force of arms 
and it is probable that France must be greatly exhausted and 
reduced to as feeble a state as she was in at the time of 
making the Treaty of Utrecht, before she could be brought to- 
make another Cession of Nova Scotia to the Crown of Great 
Britain : How great an Object this Country is, Sir, in the- 
Eyes of the French seems to appear from the risque they 
run in the destination of much the greatest part of their naval 
force under the Command of the Duke D'Anville during the 
late War to the Coast of Nova Scotia at a time when Great 
Britain was in possession of Capo Breton with a strong 
squadron lying in the Harbour of Louisbourg and the arrival 
of a Stronger under the Command of Admiral Lestock was 
daily expected at the same place : And the manifest incroach- 
ments they have made upon it sinco the conclusion of the 
present Peace even whilst the negotiations of Commissaries- 
wch. both Crowns had very lately agreed to in a solemn, 
manner for settling the disputed limits was actually holding. 


at Paris, seem to shew that the Bent of their Councils is stlH 
the same — whether if they should be sufler'd to go on 
strengthening themselves in their incroacbmts. until they 
should be in a condition to become masters of the whole 
province, they may not be tempted to find some pretence for 
declaring war in order to avail themselves of such an oppor- 
tunity : or whether the wresting of those holds out of their 
hands before they arrive to such a pitch of strength, and 
curbing them with a line of forts near the Borders of Canada 
would not tend to make the present Peace more lasting and 
solid are matters wch. tho' they do not lie within the Compass 
of my Knowledge in publick affairs to determine yet I thought 
not improper for me to mention for your consideration. 

I should have mention'd it among the advantages of driving 
the French of Canada out of Nova Scotia now that it would 
give New England and particularly the Province of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay a most grateful sense of His Majesty's Pater- 
nal care of his Colonies and animate them to Exert them- 
selves in the Common cause at this critical Conjuncture. 

Tho' I have mentioned, Sir, that the opinion of several 
Officers of Nova Scotia is that the addition of 1000 New Eng- 
land men to the Regular Troops wch. could be spar'd to attack 
the French Forts would bo sufficient, yet I would not be un- 
derstood to say either that that would be a sufficient force, or 
that so great an one would be necessary, that is a matter wch, 
is wholly with Colonel Lawrence to determine : I am apt to 
think however that as it will be a very essential part of the 
service that the French should be dislodg'd from the Fort 
near the mouth of the River St. John's, and it should be done 
at the same time that the French forts on the Isthmus are 
attacked, he may be of opinion that it may be advisable for 
him to be assisted from New England with some Troops in 
that part of the Enterprise. 

It is not practicable for us to have a consultation together 
by letter before the latest Vessells wch. are employ'd in the 
English Trade from hence will take their departure this sea- 
son, but we shall be able to agree upon measures in a ver} r 
few weeks for the reduction of the French Forts early in next 
year in case it should be his Majesty's pleasure to have that 

These orders should arrive here by the latter end of March 
• or first week in April to be in time for beginning the opera- 
tions early in the year, and if they were sent in a 50 Gun 
.Ship instead of one of his Majesty's Sloops, that might be 


sufficient for the service together with the three Ships now 
upon the Boston, New York and Virginia stations, all wch. 
should have express orders to assist in it. The first London 
Ships belonging to the New England Trade usually sail for 
Boston in the middle of February. If you would be pleas'd 
to send, Sir, a Copy of his Majesty's orders to Mr. Bollan 
agent for this province he would take care to transmit them 
to me, wch. might possibly save time : If Letters are trans- 
mitted under Cover to me for the Captains upon the New 
York and Virginia Stations I could forward them by an 
oxpress by Land. 

Governor Shirley to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston Dec. 14th 1754. 
Sir- . 

I had the honour of your packets by Lt. Col. Moncton, 
containing your proposals for driving the French of Canada 
out of Nova Scotia according to the Scheme lay'd down in 
your letters to me and Instructions to Colonel Moncton. 

I view'd this plan most justly calculated by your Honour 
for his Majesty's Service with great pleasure and did not hesi- 
tate to send you the assistance you desir'd of mo for carrying 
it into Execution, as soon as I had perused it. 

Two days after this I received news from England that his 
majy. had been pleas'd to order mine and Sir William Pep- 
perelPs Regimts. to be forthwith reviv'd, and two Brish. 
Regimts. to imbark tor Virginia upon an Expedition to be 
commanded by Major General Braddock : and since that I have 
receiv'd my packets from the Secretary at Warr, Sir Thomas 
Robinson, and Lord Halifax, upon the affair of my Regiment* 

As the orders I receivd in them seem'd at first sight to me 
to clash with the designed Expedition agt. the French in 
Nova Scotia this Spring, I was greatly embarrassed, but soon 
came to a determination to co-operate with you in the most 
vigorous manner, for effecting the important Service within 
your own Governmt. wch. your Honour may depend upon my 
prosecuting to the utmost of my power. 

As I have had for several days an inevitable load of business: 
upon my hands, part of wch. consisted in sending the neces- 
sary Dispatches to England, to let the Ministry Know my 
resolution of co-operating with you, and what part it was 
requisite for them to act, in order to enable us to enter into 


the propos'd Service in Nova Scotia, I begg'd the favour of 
Colonel Moncton to acqaint your Honour very particularly 
with what I had determin'd in concert with him to do: bo 
must desire to referr you to his letter wch. goes in this 
Vessell, wch. I have detained three or four days' till I could 
dispatch him, and have promis'd him to acquaint you with 
it, yt. your Honour may make the master some consideration 
for it. 

I send you by him your publick packets from England, 
among wch. your Honour will find two letters from the Lords 
of Admiralty, one to Captn. Rous the other to Captn. Kinsey, 
containing orders for them both to repair forthwith to Virginia, 
and put themselves under the command of Commodore Keppel, 
wch. Orders Captn. Shirley, hath likewise received upon this 
Station, as I doubt not the Captns. upon the New York and 
Caroline Stations, either have or soon will : 

I have already wrote to Sir Thomas Robinson and Lord 
Halifax, pressing for orders to countermand this, as I shall to 
Commodore Keppel upon the same affair, and hope your 
Honour will prevail upon Captn. Rous and Kinsey as I have 
done upon Captn. Shirley, not to proceed to Virginia, untill I 
can have an answer at least from Commodore Keppel : and yt. 
you will be pleas'd to write yourself both to him and the 
Ministry as I have done : for otherwise the Expedition in the 
Bay of Funda cannot proceed, nor indeed in any other part of 
it, to Effect. 

It is now near Eleven at night, and I have been writing 
hard ever since Seven in the morning to dispatch a London 
ship waiting for my letters, and can scarce hold my pen in my 

I hope your Honour will find the Acct. given you in Colonel 
Moncton's letter satisfactory to you. 

I am with very great hopes of finding you effectual assis- 
tance seasonably, and the most perfect esteem and regard, 

Dear Sir, 
Your Honours most faithfull and 

most obedient Servant, 

Honble. Lt. Govr. Lawrence. 

Indorsed,— Reed, by Jones, Dec. 27. 


* Instructions to the Hon. Lt. Col. Monckton. 


With these instructions you will receive a letter for 
Governor Shirley which at your arrival at Boston you are to 
deliver to him and to consult with him how two thousand men 
may be raised with the greatest privacy and despatch for the 
service of this Province who are early in the Spring to be 
employed under your command for the reduction of the Port 
the French have contrary to Treaty set up in his Majesty's 
undoubted Territory's at a place on the Basin of Chignecto 
by them called Beausejour as well as to remove them from 
any Encroachments they have made on his Majesty's dominions 
in the Province, 

If you find there is a great probability of your procuring 
the above mentioned number of men to be in readiness to take 
the Field in the beginning of March you are to provide upon 
the best conditions in your Power 12 Eighteen pound guns 
with Appurtenances and 100 rounds of Ammunition wch. will 
be about 150 barrels of Powder, Tents, Small Arms, Ammuni- 
tion Flints and other things necessary for the Troops, Harness 
for 50 horses, 200 Bill hooks, 500 Pickaxes, 500 Iron Shod 
Shovells, 50 Wheel barrows. 

And that you may be the better enabled to carry on this 
Service you have herewith a letter of unlimited Credit upon 
Messrs. Apthorp and Hancock Merchts. in Boston, if the 
Cannon and other materials above mentioned cannot be pro- 
cured at Boston you must apply to the Governor of New York 
for his assistance in getting what may be wanting. 

You are to correspond with me as often as opportunity 

* The Honorable Robert Monckton was the second son of John, first Viscount 
Galway, an Irish peer by his wife, Lady Elizabeth Manners, youngest daughter 
of the second Duke of Rutland by his Duchess Catherine, daughter of the 
celebrated William Lord Russell, beheaded in 1683. Robert Monckton began 
his military career in Flanders in 1742, was upon the King's Guard at the Bat- 
tle of Dettingen, and was present in several other engagements. In 1753 he 
was stationed at Halifax, and was sent from thence in command of a body of 
Regular troops to suppress the riots which took place that year among the Ger- 
mans at Lunenburg. In 1754 he received the appointment of Govr. of the fort 
of Annapolis Royal. In June, 1755, he commanded at the reduction of Fort Beau- 
sejour and the other French forts at the Isthmus, and in the following year he wag 
appointed Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia under Lawrence. In 1757 he obtained the 
appointment of Lt. Col. of the 4th Batt. of the 60th Regt. called Royal Ameri- 
cans, and was attached to the army of Lord Loudun. In the following year he 
commanded a Battalion at the siege of Louisbourg under General Amherst, 
and in 1759 he served as Brigadier General under Wolfe at the capture of 
Quebec, where he received a wound in the lungs. The only immediate reward 


offers, letting me know how yon go on, taking care to send 
your letters by the safest conveyance and in the most private 
manner, and you are to conduct yourself according to these 
Instructions or such others as you may hereafter receive. 

But if it should so happen tlyat you do not hear from me 
before the beginning of March, you are in that case as soon as 
you think the weather will permit you to take the Field to 
hire a sufficient number of Vessels to transport your Troops 
and Baggage and Warlike Stores and to proceed to Chignecto 
and there to use your Endeavours to take the French Fort at 
Beausejour as that is the principal place they have, and it yon 
succeed in taking it you are to accept of such Capitulations 
from the French officer as you shall esteem most for his 
Majesty's honour and the Good of the Service. a 

vessel to acquaint me with your doings therein. 

You are then to send a Detachment such as you shall deem 
sufficient to summon to surrender a small Fort the French 
have built at a place called Gaspareau on the Bay Verte, and 
if the Officer commanding there shall refuse to surrender the 
DetachmL be ordered to use force to bring him to a Com- 
pliance. After which you are to wait in the roost Convenient 
place till you receive further Orders from me. 

During your Stay in Boston yon are in all things to Consult 
his Excellency Gov. Shirley and Conduct yourself according 
to his advice and such instructions as you now have or may 
hereafter receive irom me. 

Given at Halifax this 

Seventh dav of November. 1754. 

Bv Comd. of the Lieut. 

Govr. Win. Cotterell, Secy. C : L: 

which he received for these services was the Colonelcy of the 17th Regt. of 
Foot. In 1761 he was breve tied a Major General, and shortly after appointed 
Governor of New York. H« was soon removed from this government by being 
appointed to the command of the Expedition against Martineco, where he U 
said to have expended £500 from his private purse in furnishing to the sub- 
altern officers of his army those necessaries and comtorts which, from the small- 
ness of their pay, they were unable to procure for themselves He returned to 
New York after the capture of Martineco, and then proceeded to England. Soon 
after his return he was tried by a Court Martial, on charges of oppression, &c. r 
preferred by a Major Campbell , but was honorably acquitted, lie received the 
military appointment of Governor of Berwick in 1766, and was a Lieut. General 
in 1770. He was afterwards recommended by the East India Company as 
Commander in Chief of the Army of India, but did not receive the appoint- 
ment. In 1778 he was Governor of Portsmouth, and represented that Borough 
in the British Parliament until his death, which occurred in 1782.— N. S. MS. 
Doc; Army List ; Burke's Peerage; New York Colonial Documents, vol. 8, 260. 


Governor Shirley to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, January 6, 1755. 

I have the honour of your letter of the 12th of last De- 

I am perfectly convinc'd (your Honour's letter and opinion 
in the matter effectually did that, before I talk'd with Colonel 
Moncton) that a thousand men is not a sufficient reinforcement 
to the Regulars that you can spare for the proposed service : 
and I shall exert my best Endeavours for raising two thou- 
sand, in time to be landed at Schiegnecto by the first of April 
at furthest : I believe the season of the year, as the general 
run of the weather is in this Climate, will scarcely permit 
taking the field before : and I hope, that will be early enough 
to take the French unprepared at Land, and before the arrival 
of their Ships of Warr at Louisbourg : The forces employ'd 
by me in the Expedition agt. Cap Breton could not land, thro r 
the Severity of the season, upon the Island, before the 31st 
day of April!. If the season should prove moderate this year 
and is practicable to get the men, stores <fec. ready for the Im- 
barkation by the beginning of the third week in March, it 
shall be done ; I propose to begin raising the men by the first 
of February and hope the levies may be compleated or pretty 
near it, in a month or five weeks. 

A month ago I wrote to the Lt. Governor of New York, to 
desire he would furnish me with ten Cannon of 181b. Ball (the 
same Mr. Clinton had lent me upon the Expedition agt. Cap 
Breton) with Carriages, Implements, and 1200 balls; and 
received the inclos'd answer from him: If we should fail of 
these Cannon, I will send your Honour some 24 pounders 
instead of them from Castle William with carriages and a pro- 
portion of Powder and other Stores : I will also inquire 
into the Stock of powder to be collected here, and if there 
is not a sufficiency for the service, will endeavour to procure 
it from the neighbouring Colonies: I will likewise collect 
what quantity of small arms I can, or rather look out for them 
least we should be disappointed of the 2000 Stands, I have 
desirVl may be sent from the Governmt. at home. 

I shall not wait to hear further from England, and am of 
opinion, it is absolutely necessary your Honour should dis- 
patch a Vessel from Halifax thither with an Express, as you 
propose in your letter : and further that a Sloop should be 
either in waiting or taken up here in the beginning of 


February to go express to Halifax, the first day we can form 
a judgmt. with any certainty of my being able to find a 
sufficient reinforcemt. in time for effecting the proposed 
service, wch. I am satisfy'd should be done as early as possible 
in the Spring. 

I am oblig'd to your Honour for communicating to me the 
French Memoiro which with the other reasons pu£ it out of 
doubt, that the French are determined to begin an offensive 
War upon the peninsula, as soon as ever they shall think them- 
selves strengthen^ enough to venture upon it, and that they 
have thoughts of attempting it in the ensuing spring. 

I enclose your Honour extracts of two letters from Anna- 
polis Royal which shew, that the French Inhabitants are in 
expectation of its being begun in the Spring : And another 
Circumstance, which increases my apprehension is, that I 
have undoubted intelligence by an English Captive lately 
arrived here from Mont Real, yt. when he left that place the 
French were transporting parties of Soldiers, in all four 
hundred and an hundred Indians from thence to Quebec with 
a design, as he conjectured to attack Fort Halifax upon the 
Kennebec: but I rather think their destination is for the 
Isthmus, in order to reinforce their troops there : and if that 
should be done with any degree of strength, and they should 
attack Fort Lawrence, and oblige the Garrison to retreat, I 
have not the least doubts, that the French Inhabitants will 
(as your Honour observes in your letter) infallibly appear in 
arms for them: On the other hand I think it is highly 
probable, that if we attack the French with such a force as 
the Inhabitants of the districts of Minas, and Annapolis River 
shall judge superior to the united force of the French Garrison, 
the Revolted Inhabitants of Schiegnecto, and Indians, but that 
the Inhabitants of the two first mention'd districts will remain 
neuter at least, and those of the last mentioned will upon offers 
of Grace (but not extending to a restoration of them to their 
lands) on the one hand, and threats on the other that they 
shall be treated as Rebels, in case they shall not withdraw 
from the French of the Canada, and deliver up their arms 
within a limited time ; desert them ; and that, perhaps in that 
case the Indians would draw off from them too : If they did 
not, I think, reprisals should be made upon them for the 
Murther of Capt. Howe, and their other mischiefs, and depre- 
dations upon the English made there by any of their Tribes 
on this side of the River St. Lawrence, and those whose lives 
were spar'd should be made prisoners, and detain'd either in 


New England or Nova Scotia as Hostages for the future good 
behaviour of their brethren of all those other tribes, towards 
the English. 

I would submit it, Sir, to your Consideration whether this 
doth not seem consistent with justice, as well as good policy^ 
and if in the progress of this affair your Honour shall think it 
needfull to add any thing to Colonel Monckton's Instructions 
upon this or any other head, you will be pleas'd to transmit it 

The more, sir, I think of the service we have under con- 
sideration, how much the preservation of Nova Scotia and the 
security of his Majy's. other Colonies upon this Continent 
depends upon dislodging the French from their forts upon the 
Isthmus, and St John's River, before they begin an offensive 
war there; the mischievous consequences which must ensue 
to his majesty's service, if on the contrary the French should 
dislodge his troops from fort Lawrence, gain the possession of 
the whole district of Schiegnecto, and be join'd by the other 
French Inhabitants of the peninsula iu acting offensively : 
that if the former of these events does not take place this 
Spring, the latter most probably will before the end of the 
summer : the more, I say, Sir, I think of this the more neces- 
sary it appears to me that the measures we are concerting, 
should be prosecuted in the most vigorous manner, and the 
more inexcusable any delay to do it appears. 

Upon first being acquainted with his Majy's. orders for new 
raising mine and Sir William PepperelPs Regimts. by letters 
from Mr. Fox, and Sir Thomas Robinson, I was something 
embarrass 1 d in my mind abt. proceeding to raise the two 
thousand for the proposed service in Nova Scotia besides, not 
knowing whether it might not be thought by the Governmt. 
at home, that that service might have been effected by those 
two Regimts. in conjunction with the Regulars, your honour 
could spare for it : But when I consider, how improbable it is 
that Sir William Pepperell's, and my Regiment could bo rais'd 
in time for the service ; that if they should, it was uncertain 
whether Major General Braddick would employ them in it, 
and how greatly the French in Nova Scotia and Canada must 
be alarm'd upon the news of the two new Regiments, being 
actually raising in New England, and consequently hasten 
their attempt agt. Nova Scotia before the English Garrisons 
there should be reinforc'd: I soon determined, that it was 
most advisable to pursue our first concerted measures, and 
not to hazard the loss of that province to the French by 


trusting to any other precarious scheme : If your Honour 
should alter your own Sentimts. upon receiving the news of 
the raising Sir William PepperelFs and my Regiments, con- 
cerning the proceeding to raise the two thousand Irregulars, 
you will be pleas'd to signifye it forthwith to me ; and I shall 
be glad, if at all events you will let me hear from you upon 
that head, as soon as possible. 

As the raising these levies under my Commission, which 
your Honour proposes in your first letter, may possibly facili- 
tate the compleating of them in time, I am ready to do it, and 
shall give the Lieutent. Colonels command of one of them to 
Capt Winslow late of Phillips's now Hopson's Regt. who had 
the chief command of the late expedition upon Kennebeck 
River under me ; and is, I believe extremely well qualify'd 
for the present Service : He hath the best reputation as a 
military man of any officer in this province and his character 
in every respect stands high with the Governmt. and people 
and he is particularly well esteem'd and belov'd by the Sol- 
diery, so yt. I greatly rely upon him for success in raising the 
men : and I flatter myself he will not dishonour his command, 
or prove disagreeable to Lt. Colonel Monoton, under whom he 
is to act as Commander in Chief of the expedition. 

The next Command, as Lieutenant Colonel of the other 
Regiment, I shall give to Capt. Scott of whose capableness in 
the service I have a good opinion : I have besides a kindness 
for him, and it will give me greater pleasure to give him a 
step, as I understand, he is happy in the confidence and good 
opinion of yourself and Colonel Moncton. 

I would chearfully ease your Honour's Governmt. of part 
of the charge of this Expedition, if it was in my power : But 
I am firmly persuaded, it is not in my power to induee the 
assembly of this province to pay any part of it, after their 
late expensive expedition upon the kennebec ; They will, I 
trust, be well spirited to promote the success of the levies by 
their public approbation of the undertaking: But to ask 
money of them towards defraying the chargo of it, would 
have no good effect, and might have a bad one. 

If you succeed, Sir, in this enterprize, as there seems to be 
the justest grounds to hope you will, there is not the least 
room to doubt but that the parliamt. will most readily pay the 
whole expense, tho* it should be double what it will be, and 
the Kingdom will ring with acclamations of joy for the happy 
effects of your Vigilance and good Conduct in so national a 
service : Should the undertaking not succeed (as I trust it 


Will according to our warmest wishes) yet I am satisfy'd the 
prudence of the measures will justifye them, and nothing can 
obstruct their success but what must shew the necessity of 
entering into tbem : and that it was your Indispensable Duty 
to proceed as you did : But I think a failure of success ought 
not to be thought of in the case : you must succeed if the 
Levies are raised, and arrive at the place of their destination 
in Season. 

I shall join, Sir, with Colonel Monckton in every frugal 
expedient for lightening the expence : But it will inevitably 
be a very considerable one : The nature of the service, which 
your Honour is a much better judge of than 1 am, will not 
suffer it to be otherwise. The terms of Inlistmt. which will 
raise the men, must be that they shall receive the Kings pay, 
full cloathing, a blanket, 30s. sterlg. Bounty money, and be 
discharged at the end of the expedition or within Twelve 
months time from the day of their Enlistmt. In all the levies 
wch. I have made here for his Majesty's service these have 
ever been the terms, except limiting the expedition to a year's 
time at the furthest. In the late expedition upon Kennebec 
the Assembly allowed the men 15 old Tenour being the 
value of 30s. Sterlg. bounty thd the enlisting was only for the 
term of three months, 20 old Tenour or 20s. Sterlg. per 
month consisting of four weeks (wch. is considerably better 
than the Kings pay and cloathing) besides their provisions, 
and a blanket, your Honour will therefore judge how impracti- 
cable it is to raise them for the present service, which will 
carry them out of New England with a certain prospect of 
coming to action, upon lower terms, than what I have above 

Colonel Monckton at first proposed having the men rais'd for 
six months only, as thinking that would save half their 
cloathing, and yt. they would enlist for less bounty money : 
but to have offered them half cloathing in the terms of their 
Inlistmt. would not have rais'd them, and to have given them 
but half cloathing after they were inlisted (without letting 
them know it before) would have occasioned great discontent ; 
and as to the Bounty money, they will enlist as soon for a year 
as six of the summer months, for the same bounty : I have 
therefore advised him to have them inlisted for a year, they 
may be disbanded at pleasure, when the service is over. But 
should it require a longer time to execute it, than the term of 
their Inlistmt. detaining them beyond it might have been dan- 
gerous : Discontents and mutinous behaviour might have 


arose : I experienced the inconvenience of it at Louisbourg: 
Besides, Sir, it seems to me, that your Honour will very 
probably want the service of some of them for the whole year : 
It is an essential part of the expedition that the French should 
be dislodged from their lower fort at least upon St. John's 
river, and all their settlemts. broke up there : If they are 
suffer'd to remain there they will soon be very strong and 
preserve their communication between Canada and the Bay 
of Funda thro that river, deprive the English of the Furr 
trade upon it, wch. is valuable and be masters of the sea coast 
between that and the River Pentagoet or Penobscott, and 
maintain an absolute influence over the Indians of both 
Rivers : To leave them one post in the Bay of Funda would 
be of mischievous consequence : Now it may require some of 
the Irregulars to take possession of it and garrison it until 
your Honour can spare Regulars to do it: There ought 
indeed to be a new fort built there : both English and French 
ever kept a garrison there, as they had alternate possession 
of the river until K. William the thirds reign. As Colonel 
Monckton hath not in your Honour's Instructions to him any 
particular directions concerning his acting in this River, he 
would, I believe, be glad, if you would be pleas'd to send him 
what orders your Honour shall think proper upon this head, 
particularly in case this fort is attacked, whether you would 
have it done by a detachmt. of the forces at the same time, 
that the operations upon the Isthmus are carrying on, wch. 
would divide their strength, or have the French first dislodg'd 
from the Isthmus, and the fort as St. John's River <fcc. to be 
afterwards attacked : 

It is possible likewise that there may be occasion for detain- 
ing some of the Irregulars longer than the bare service of the 
expedition is over, on other accts. 

I need not mention to your Honour that it is necessary the 
officers should have the King's pay as well as the men. 

Only one thing more remains to be mentioned to your Honour 
upon this head : Mr. Winslow at first proposed to me to give 
him a Colonel's commission yt. he might have the Benefit of 
cloathing his Regimt. as in ordinary cases. I told him this 
was an extraordinary case, in which no perquisites were to be 
expected, and besides it would not be proper upon other accts. 
Ho thereupon reminded me that his taking the command I had 
thought of for him would prevent his going to England this 
spring, where he had some affairs depending that would suffer 
by his absence, and besides, that it might in other respects be 


for his advantage to be there at this conjuncture, that his 
fitting of himself otit for the expedition would be an expence, 
and upon the whole his bare Lieu tent. Colonel's pay, for the 
few months he should receive it, would scarcely compensate 
for what he should be out of pocket, besides his being a 
sufferer on several other accts. As he is an officer that will 
be very necessary for me to employ in this expedition, and 
without whom I might find difficulties in raising the men in 
time, I have talk'd over the affair with Colonel Moncton, who 
is of opinion that it is. reasonable (as I am too) that Mr. Wins- 
low should have an allowance or present of 600 Sterg. over 
and above his pay, for his service, in some shape or other : 
He thinks that the saving upon the cloathing of each Regi- 
ment out of the two-pences would amount to abt. 1300 
Sterg., and therefore propos'd that the 600 should be raiVd 
out of the fund for bounty money supposing 35 or 36 shillings 
be allow'd instead of 30s. per man : wch. is agreed between 
us, and Mr. Winslow acquiesces in it. 

Your Honour hath, 1 perceive, given Colonel Moncton un- 
limited credit upon Messrs. Apthorp and Hancock, and he 
looks upon himself confin'd by that to those Gentlemen for 
every article to be provided for in this expedition : I have a 
friendship for both of them and have been instrumental in 
introducing them, particularly Mr. Apthorp into the Business 
of the Board of Ordnance and as merchant factors for vour 
Honour's Governmt. wch. I think stands upon no appointmt. 
nor order of the Board of Trade, but purely upon the plea 
sure of the Govrs. of Nova Scotia from time to time : My 
kindness still remains for them, and we are upon exceedingly 
good terms ; But as I have a Daughter lately marryM to a 
mercht. here, who is a Young Gentleman of extreme good 
character, and for whose fidelity and honour in his dealings I 
can be answerable, of some Capital, and Eldest son to a 
mercht. of the largest fortune of any one in Boston I think I 
shall not do anything unreasonable by Mr. Apthorp and Han- 
cock, if I request the favour of your Honour to let my son in 
Law Mr. John Erving be ioin'd with them in furnishing money 
and stores for this Expedition upon the same terms they do : 
Not only this particular occasion upon wch. I ask it makes it 
in many respects reasonable in regard to Messrs. Apthorp & 
Hancock, but the part I have had in succouring the province 
of Nova Scotia when in extreme danger of being lost during 
the late warr, would make it reasonable for me to extend my 
request that Mr. Erving might upon future occasions likewise 


be let into one third part of the benefit of the merchant agent 
or factor's business for the province of Nova Scotia, be that 
what it will : I mean, Sir, reasonable with regard to them* 
The granting of the request with respect to } T our Honour I 
shall esteem altogether a favour, and reckon myself under an 
obligation to you for it: I don't think it would be disagree- 
able to Lord Halifax, and I believe Mr. Kilby would not have 
it in his power to embarrass any accots. upon this particular 
occasion : Besides, he would be very loath to disoblige, I 
believe either Mr. Erving or his father. 

If there will be the least inconvenience in your doing this, 
Sir, as I have taken the liberty to make the request, so I beg 
leave to assure you that I would not in such case desire it 
and you will give me as much satisfaction in declining it in 
that case, as in granting the request if there is no inconveni- 
ence in your doing it. 

I am with the most real esteem and regard, 

Dear Sir 
Your most faithful and 

most obedient servant, 

Hon. Lt. Gov. Lawrence. 

Indorsed — Reed, per Cap. Wimble, ye 17th. 

Governor Lawrence to Lords of Trade. 

Halifax, 12th January, 1755. 
My Lords, — 

* * * # # # * 

When I laid before your Lordship, in my letter of the 1st 
of August, 1754, the propriety of building a Fort in Ghibben 
Accadie River, I intended thereby to forward the settlement 
of tho Country about Halifax, by covering tho Inhabitants, as 
much as possible from the annoyance of the Indians, which I 
thought the best temporary remedy for our present circum- 
stances, and the only step I could take towards acquiring 
some internal strength ; as I had not sufficient force to act 
offensively against those French, who had encroached on his 
Majesty's undoubted Territories. But I soon discovered that 
no measure I could take for the security of the Province, 
would have the desired effect, until the Fort at Beausejour, 
and every French Establishment on the North side of the Bay 


<o? "Pundy, was absolutely extirpated, Having very good iutelli* 
gence that the French had determined, as soon as ever they 
liad put the Fortifications of Louisbourg into a tolerable 
condition, to make themselves masters of the Bay of Fundy, 
by taking our Fort at Chignecto ; as their success in this 
enterprise, would have thrown the Province into the greatest 
confusion and danger, I thought it became my indispensable 
duty, to ward off this blow at any rate, and, in consequence 
thereof, determined to attack them before they had time to 
■collect their strength; for this purpose I sent Lieutenant 
Colonel Monckton to Boston, with a letter to Governor Shirley, 
ix copy of which I now enclose your Lordships ; and, as it 
contains the whole plan of this undertaking, I beg leave to 
refer your Lordships thereto. 

I was highly sensible of the risque I ran, in attempting an 
enterprise of this importance, and, above all, in creating so 
considerable an expense, without having previously obtained 
your Lordships approbation ) but all other considerations gave 
way to that of the impending blow that threatened His 
Majesty's Province, the care of which I have the honour to be 
entrusted with; and I was the easier as to myself by the 
confidence I have in your Lordships readiness to support me 
in so just and necessary an attempt, and in your well known 
candour, in pardoning any error in judgment, I might fall into, 
when you were satisfied that the instruction was just* But I 
have lately been relieved from any anxiety upon this account, 
by receiving His Majesty's commands, in a letter from the 
Secretary of State, requiring and authorizing me to consult 
with Governor Shirley, and to ask his assistance in raising 
men for the service I have before mentioned. I am now to 
acquaint your Lordships that I have received Governor 
Shirley's answer, and am assured by him and Lieutenant 
Colonel Monckton that the Men will be ready very early in 
the Spring, but that arms cannot be got for them on the 
Continent, which Mr. Shirley has already acquainted your 
Lordships with, an<T expects they will be sent very early in 
the Spring. #**####* 

I am, &Cs 


The Lords Commrs. 

for Trade & Plantations. 


402 fforA scotia vocmtEms. 


Remarks relative to the Return of the Forces in Nova Scotia, 

30th Mch, 1755. 

To give a more distinct Idea of the situation of his Majes^ 
tys Troops in this Province it is necessary to mention the 
several po9ts they at present occupy and the necessity there 
is that these posts be maintained. 

1 ° , Halifax in Chebncto Harbour now the chief town in 
the Province being so well known needs no particular de* 

2°, George's Island is situated within the Harbonr of 
Chebncto and has several Cannon mounted for protecting the 
Harbour but the Batterys are not quite finished. 

3 ° * New BatteAY has lately been begun likewise not finish- 
ed. It stands on a rising ground about two miles east across 
the Harbour from Halifax this is to prevent shipping enter- 
ing the Harbour under the Eastern shore without reach of 
George's Island. 

4° . Dartmouth, a large place picketed in for protection of 
the Settlers from England that arrived in 1750 and of the 
Government Mills lyes to the North East about a mile and a 
half from Halifax on the other side of the Harbour. With 
these three places there is only communication by water. 

5 ° , Lawrence Town is a large palisaded square and Block- 
house situated upon a point of land near the Harbour of Mus- 
quedaboit about 4 leagues by water Eastward from Halifax 
with which there is a Communication by land from Dartmouth, 
& distance about 12 or 14 miles. This is a Settlement under- 
taken by a Company of Gentlemen and protected by the 
Troops from the incursions of the Indians who live a good 
part of the year in that neighbourhhod. 

6°, Lunenburg is the place where the Palatine Settlers 
have been set down it is situated upon a neck of land which 
forms a peninsula having the Harbour of Mirleguish on the 
South West and a branch of Mahone Bay on the North East, 
Distant from Halifax by Water about 16 leagues — we have 
as yet no communication open with it by land. There is 
great necessity for the troops at that place both to protect 
the Settlers and to awe those of them that are of a turbulent 

7 ° . Fort Sackville is a post at the head of Chebucto Bay 
or Bason, about 12 miles by water and 15 miles by land from 


Halifax. It is by this Port that the Route lyes to the interiotir 
parts of the Province, and from which Halifax may be alarmed 
m case of any sudden attempt of the French or Indians upon 
us by land. 

8°. PrziQuiD or Fort Edward is a fort situated upon an 
eminence on the South East side of Mines Bason between the 
rivers Piziquid and St. Croix to which we have access by 
land by way of Fort Sackville and is distant therefrom about 
40 miles, we have also a communication therewith by the Bay 
of Fundy. There is a necessity of keeping a strong Garrison 
here to send out detachments to scour the country for Indians 
and to keep the disaffected French Inhabitants under subjec- 

9 ° . Crtgnecto or Fort Lawrence is a Fort at the head of 
the Bay of Fundy opposite the French Fort of Beau Sejour, and 
about 2 miles distant therefrom, separated by the River Mes- 
guash and a marsh. We have no other communication there- 
with as yet but by water. This Fort has hitherto prevented 
the further encroachments of the French on that side, but it 
is not by its situation in a capacity of protecting the Isthmus, 
as the ffrench are in possession of the North side of Fundy 
Bay, Beau Sejour, & Bay Verte. 

All these posts already mentioned may withstand any force 
the Indians could bring against them, but being only picketed 
they could make little or no resistance if attacked by Regu- 
lars with cannon. 

10°. Annapolis Royal is a place of strength & the only 
regular fortification in the province, its distance from Halifax 
by land going by Piziquid and Mines is about 160 miles. It 
has a very good Bason and Harbour for his Majesty's ships, 
where they may ride at anchor in great safety. 

From hence it will appear that altho' it should at any time 
be thought expedient to withdraw the troops from these difft. 
outposts & leave them exposed, it would take a very consider- 
able time to collect them together for the deffence of Halifax 
or any other place where the province might be attacked. 

Remarks on the Stale tf the Isthmus of Chignecto. 

The French Fort at Beausejour on the Isthmus of Chignecto 
is a regular earthwork consisting of five Bastions faced with 
Timber, has a ditch and cover'd way and is sufficient for con- 
taining a garrison of three or four hundred Regular troops. 
The Guns mounted from 24 pounders downwards are in num- 
ber from twenty to thirty. 


The Garrison has hitherto consisted of about frotn 80 to 10ft 
Regular Troops, commanded by a Capt., but if our last intelli* 
gence be true it has been very lately reinforced by 300. men or 
thereabouts, detached from 1000 that it is confidently reported 
•Arrived at Quebec from France the last fall. This fort standi 
upon an eminence rather difficult of access ; and is according 
to their claim the Southern Boundary of the French King's 
Territory there. Besides the Fort of Beausejour, the French 
'have another inconsiderable palisaded Fort called" Gaspereau 
•■on. the east side of the Isthmus, for protecting their stores 
&ca that arrive from Loursboitrg & Canada in the Bay of 

It is from these posts they they have been enabled hitherta 
to annoy us by their partys of Indians & French in disguise, 
and they Keep a Constant Communication open between 
Louisbg. and the River St. Johns & Quebec, and if they should 
ever think of attempting a Conquest of this province by land 
r it is from that Fort we have the most to fear as they can by 
means thereof draw together all their force from Canada by 
St. John's River, & from Louisbourg & St. John's Island by the 
baj" Vert without our having any intelligence of their pro- 
ceedings or designs. They have of French Inhabitants & 
Indians in the different districts to the Westward of this? 
Fort along the Coast between 13 & 1400 persons hearty in 
their Interest that may be collected into a Body in the space 
of 4 days, and who may for anything we know to the Contrary 
be joyned by three times that number of our own French 
Inhabitants within the Isthmus. It may not be improper to 
observe in general that as the whole Country backwards ex- 
cepting St. John's & just about the Isthmus, is an uninhabited 
wilderness the French could have no other design in building 
this Fort at so considerable an expense except with a view 
of laying hold of the first favorable occasion that offered for 
making a conquest of the province r and to prevent the fugitive 
French Inhabitants, who are still lurking about in the country r 
from forming any body or making any forced settlement 
thereabouts, and likewise to keep open the Communication 
with Annapolis Royal & Chignecto. 

Annapolis Royal is a place of strength and the only regular 
fortification in that part of the Province which lyes to the 
Eastward of the Bay of Fundy & the Isthmus of (7rigneeto r 
its distance from Halifax by land going by Piziquwl and Mines 
is about 160 mile9. It has a very good Bason and Harbour for 
his Majesty's Ships where they may ride at anchor in great 


safety, But it would take 1000 men to defend the works if 

Forts en the Isthmus % qf Chignecto. 

1. Fort Cumberland (called by the French whilst in their 
possession Beau Sejour) is a regular earthwork consisting of 
five Bastions faced with Timber, has a ditch & Covered way 
and is sufficient for containing a Garrison of six hundred or 
800 men. Since the Removal of the French there have been 
some considerable additions & repairs made to the works 
which are ordered to be compleated this season. It is situated 
on a high point of land between the small rivers Messaguash 
& Tintamarre & is difficult of access except on the Northeast 
or East side, from whence there is an easy communication by 
land with Bay Vert in the Gulph of St. Lawrence. 

2. Fort Gasperau fell into our hands upon the Surrender 
of Beau Sejour and was formerly the French Magazine of 
Stores for maintaining the Indians & French Inhabitants who 
had been debauched from their Allegiance. 

It is a picketed square with a block house to protect the 
stores and is of very inconsiderable strength except against 
musquetry, but by its situation on the River Gasperau, which 
runs into the Bay Verte, on the North East side of the Isth- 
mus, it is of great service in securing the peninsula from the 
inroads of the Enemy, and is a kind of lookout to observe any 
motions from Louisbourg or the Island of St Johns, which 
forms one side of the Bay Verte. 

3. Fort Lawrence was built by order of Governor Corn- 
wallis in the year 1750 when the Isthmus was first attempted 
to be settled. It is situated upon a point of land to the East- 
ward of Fort Cumberland, at the distance of about two miles, 
separated by the river Messaguash & a Marsh : as it is only a 
picketed Fort with Blockhouses and cannot contribute much 
to the security of the Isthmus it would have been demolished 
upon our getting possession of Beau Sejour & Gasperau Forts 
but it was judged necessary that it should still be maintained 
for protecting the settlers that are already or hereafter may 
be planted upon the evacuated lands in its neighbourhood,, 
which are esteemed very good having been a long time under 
cultivation by the French Inhabitants. 

Notwithstanding the vigilance of the officers commanding - 
at the different outposts & the great care with which they 
executed their orders for enibarking the French Inhabitants 
on board the Transports for carrying them out of the pro- 


vincc ; several of tbem made their escape into the Woods and 
have found means of subsistence during the winter. Those 
without the Isthmus have jpin'd themselves wth. the French 
Officer's party who retreated from the Fort at the mouth of 
the river St John's last summer. He has also with him the 
Mickmack and St John Indians, and they make by the best in- 
formation 1500 men in number and are very active in annoy- 
ing any party s sent out from Fort Cumberland or Gasperau. 
As they can receive supptys from Canada or Louisbourg at 
a small Harbour called Jediach they will doubtless draw to 
them all those inhabitants that have taken shelter in the 
Woods in different parts within the peninsula in which case 
they will be strong enough to annoy us greatly upon the Isth- 
mus if not to endanger the loss of the forts themselves as we 
have never been able to do more than half garrison them for 
want of the augmentations being compleated of the other 
regiments doing duty in the Province which by the returns 
will appear to be still in very great backwardness. 

Indorsed — Additions to the Remarks on the Return of the Forces in Nova 
Scotia formerly sent to General Braddoek and General Shirley, now sent to Ld. 
Loudoun. 21st June, 1756. 

Governor Shirley to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, May 31, 1755. 
Dear Sir, — 

I return'd here from Alexandria in Virginia on tlie 13th 
Instant, the result of my interview with General Braddock r 
was his entire approbation of the measures we had concerted 
for removing the French Incroachmts. in Nova Scotia and 
sending his orders by express to yon to proceed to the 
execution of them : his approbation likewise of the intended 
expedition to Crown point, and his ordering me to take the 
command of an attempt for the reduction of the French Forts 
at Niagara with my own and Sir William Pepperell's Regi- 
ments, all wch. together with an attack of the French Forts 
upon the Ohio with the two British Regiments and provincial 
Troops of the Southern Colonies under his own command, 
make up the whole plan of operations. 

The troops raised for Nova Scotia were 1800 of them im- 
barked by the 20th April, and remain'd on board waiting for 
the arrival of the 2000 stands of arms from England, wch. 
having a passage often weeks, did not come here till the 12th 


Instant. By the 17th Col, Moncton went on board, the fleet 
waited till the 23rd for a wind, on wch. day at 6 in the morning 
they sailed and had so fine a time, that we are in hopes they 
got to Annapolis four days ago. Three of their officers are 
here picking up about 100 scattering men wch. I shall hasten 
after them : they sail'd with near 2000 as Lt. Col. Scot in- 
form'd me. 

It gave me some uneasiness to find the forces here at my 
return. Their sailing a month before they did might make a 
vast difference in the success of their undertaking, and if I 
had been upon the spot, I believe I should have been of opin- 
ion for them to have taken up with 800 arms, wch. might have 
been purchased here and your 1000 stands of arms at Annapo- 
lis, and have saiPd then with 1800 men, rather than to have 
waited for the arms from England and picking up their whole 
2000 men : But it is to be hop'd from the intelligence con- 
tained in your Honour's letter wch. I had the pleasure to 
receive from you five day? ago, they will still arrive in good 
time at the place of their destination. 

Under cover of that letter I receiv'd a packet from you, 
directed to Governor Morris, wch. I have forwarded to him 
by express. 

The general is I believe by this time halfway in his march 
between Wills's Creek and the French forts upon the Ohio : 
and the two other Expeditions are in motion with the utmost 

We have had some fishermen's news that twelve large ships 
were seen three weeks ago off the Banks of Newfoundland 
standing for Louisbourg and yt. one of them wch. passed very 
near one of the fishing barks, appeared to be very full of men : 
They pass'd without speaking to the fishermen. This accot. 
considering the preparations of the French at Brest puzzles 
us a little : But we are in hopes that according to the general 
run of Fishermen's news, it may prove a mistake. I write 
this in the greatest hurry, Captn. Proctor staying for it, who 
is to sail the moment lie gets it you will therefore be pleas'd 
to excuse the obliterations in it. 

I am in the most unfeigned manner 
and with the greatest esteem 
Dear Sir, 
Your most faithful Humble Servant, 

Honble. Col. Lawrence. 

Indorsed — Rec'd per Homer, June 7. 


Governor Lawrence to Lords of Trade. 

Halifax, 28th June, 1755. 
My Lords, — 

I have the highest satisfaction in beginning this Letter 
to your Lordships, with the announcement that the French 
Fort at Beausejour, surrendered to Lieut. Colonel Monckton r 
the 16th Instant, and the next day a small Fort, upon the 
Biver Gaspereau, running into the Bay Verte where the- 
French bad their principal Magazine for supplying the French 
Inhabitants and Indians.- -In these Forts were found a great 
quantity of Provisions and Stores of all kinds, of which 
Colonel Monckton has not yet had time to transmit me a 
particular account. I enclose your Lordships the terms of 
Capitulation. Notwithstanding the Fort at Beausejour had 
twenty six pieces of Cannon mounted, they surrendered after 
four days Bombardment, before we had even mounted a single- 
Cannon upon our batteries. Our loss upon this occasion, is 
very inconsiderable, not above twenty killed, and as many 
wounded. Major Preble, of the Irregulars, is slightly wound- 
ed in tho shoulder ; Ensign Tonge, of Major Geiveral Warbur- 
ton's Regiment, acting as Sub-Engineer, received a shot in 
bis thigh, as he was taking a Survey of the Grounds for the 
trenches and the batteries to bo raised against the Fort ; and 
Ensign* Hay, of Colonel Hopson's, who had been taken pri- 
soner by the Indians, in going alone from our Fort to the 
Camp, was killed by one of our Shells in the French Fort, 
which felL through a sort of casement, and also killed three 
French Officers, and wounded two more. 

At Colonel Monckton's iirst arrival, the French had a large 
number of Inhabitants and Indians, four hundred and fifty of 
which, were posted at a Blockhouse which they had on their 
side of the River Messaguach, to defend the pass of that 
River. Here they had thrown up a strong Breastwork of 
Timber, for covering their men, and had Cannon Mounted in 
the Blockhouse. At this place they made a stand for about 
an hour, but were forced by our troops with some loss, leaving 
their Blockhouse and the pass of the river clear for our people, 
who inarched without further interruption, to the ground 
intended for their encampment ; as we had not Men enough 
to invest the Fort entirely, several got away, and, when the 
Fort surrendered, there remained one hundred and fifty 
regulars, and about three hundred Inhabitants, several of 
which, with their Officers were wounded. We do not yet 


exactly know the numbers that were killed in the Fort ; but 
we believe their loss has not been trifling, as several lay half 
buried upon the Parade. Colonel Monckton has new named 
the Fort, and called it Fort Cumberland ; he gives the Troops 
under his command, great praise for their good behaviour, 
and the spirit and resolution with which they acted, upon this 

I have now given the Colonel orders for proceeding to the 
Fort at St. John's River, which I flatter myself will give him 
very little trouble, as their main strength, which was Beau- 
sejour, is gone. He has likewise my orders to leave a Garri- 
son in that Fort as it is an infinitely better one than ours, as 
well for situation as strength. The deserted French Inhabi- 
tants are delivering up their Arms, I have given him orders 
to drive them out of the Country at all events, tho' if he wants 
their assistance, in putting the Troops under Cover, (as the 
Barracks in the French Fort were demolished) he may first 
make them do all the service in their power. Our possession 
of the Isthmus, it is to be hopecl, will bring over the Mickmack 
Indians to our interest. 

The expedition has cost much more than was expected, but 
there will remain stores to a very considerable value, which 
may be hereafter sold for the public account, or kept for the 
future service of the Province. ***** 

I am, <fcc, 

The Lords Comms. for 
Trade & Plantations. 

Governor Phips* to Governor Lawrence. 

Sir, — 

Our hopes of a more favorable account of the late action 
near the Ohio are now at an end, the last post having brought 
us the particular circumstances of that most deplorable 
afFair. I transmit you herewith copies of several letters and 
papers that have come to ray hands relating to it. This is un- 
doubtedly an heavier stroke than ever the English upon this 
Continent have met with before. I wish the Effect of it may 
be not only to raise the spirit and resentment of the several 
Colonies against the French, but also to caution the several 
armies not to trust too much to any uncertain accounts of the 

* See page 183. 


strength and circumstances of the enemy. After such mis- 
fortunes it behoves us to look forward and to take the best 
measures for his Majesty's service which the present state of 
affairs will admit of. The forces employed in the Crown 
Point expedition are actually upon their march thither, and 
his Excellency Goverr. Shirley on the twenty eighth day of 
last month was at Schenectady on his way to Oswego where 
all but the last division of his Forces had marched before 
him. What effect this news may have on the Expedition to 
Niagara I cannot determine. I am well assured his Excel- 
lency's Zeal for the Service will be accompanied with great 
prudence and discretion. I doubt not that your Honour will 
now think it more necessary than ever that the Forces in 
Nova Scotia should be so employed as not only to secure the 
acquisitions already made, but also to obtain such further 
advantages as they shall be sufficient for, and that Admiral 
Boscawen will have the same sentiments with respect to his 
Majesty's ships under his Command. I must on this occasion 
also propose to your Consideration whether the danger with 
which his Majesty's Interest is now threatened will not re- 
move any scruples which may heretotore have subsisted with 
regard to the French Neutrals as they are termed and render 
it both just and necessary that they should bo removed unless 
some more effectual security can bo given for their fidelity 
than the common obligation of an oath for by the principles of 
their Religion this may easily be dispensed with and although 
they expose themselves to be treated as Rebels, yet what con- 
fidence can ever be placed in Subjects who are inclined to 
revolt whenever they can do it with safety ? The Assembly 
of this Province is to meet the sixth Instant. I hope to pre- 
vail on the members to make further provision for strengthen- 
ing the Crown Point expedition. Had the same Zeal been 
shown by the Southern Colonies as has appeared in this Pro- 
vince and the other Governments of New England together 
with New York and the Jersics, affairs would probably have 
been in a much better situation than they are at present. 

I am, 
, Sir your most obedient Humble Servant 

Lt. Governor Lawrence. 

Endorsed. — Lieut. Governor Pliips without date, but by the circumstances 
must be about the 28 or 29 of July 1755. Reed, by Mr. Green Junr. 18th 
August 1755. 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 411 

Governor Phips to Governor Lawrence, 

Boston, 28 July, 1755. 

On the 23 Instt. I forwarded to you the advices reed, by 
express from the Govrs. of the Southern Colonies, relating to 
the Forces under the immediate commmand of Major General 
Braddock. Such full credit was given to the most unhappy 
Circumstances of this Melancholy News, by the Gentlemen of 
Maryland and Pensilvania, who are nearest to the Place of 
Action that in conformity to their desire, I thought it proper 
immediately to transmit the same to you. I have since reed, 
further advices wch. have something of a more favourable 
aspect, and which I think it equally necessary to forward ; 
and as this is an affair wch. very nearly concerns us I shall 
from time to time Communicate all material Circumstances 
relating to it as they shall come to my knowledge, and the 
rather as the whole Continent seems to be filled with uncertain 
reports, some of which may probably reach you. 

I am, 
Your most obedient 

Humble Servant, 
Honble. Charles Lawrence, Esq. S. PHIPS. 

Endorsed — 
Enclosing Copies from Mr. Delancey, Peters & Trent. 
Reed. Aug. 5, p. Lot Hall. 

Answered Aug. 6th & 8th by way of Rhode Island pr. Cap. . 

Relating to the defeat of Genl : Braddock. 

Governor Delancey to Governor Phips. 

New York, 21 July 1755, in the Evening. 
Sir, — 

According to my conjecture, things are not so bad as 
represented by Colo, lnnes. I have just now received from 
Philadelphia the accounts I enclose. I hope the General may 
still be able to recover the Cannon with the assistance of that 
part of his Army which was left behind under Colo. Dunbar. 

I am, Sir, 
Your most humble 

& most obedient servant 
Lt. Govr. Phips. JAMES DeLANCEY. 

Copy Attest : 

Thos. Clarke, Deputy Secy. 


WiUiam Trent to Governor Hunter Morris. 

Mouth of Conicochig, 

Wednesday, 16 July, 1755. 

May it please Your Honour, — 

Being informed that you were on your journey for the 
array but stopped at Shippingsburg on acct. of the news 
brought by the Waggoners who run oif at the beginning of 
the engagement makes me take this opportunity of acquainting 
your Honor That by a young man just come here from the 
Camp we are informed that our army is beat and the Artillery 
taken, but that the General with the rest of the army are 
making a good retreat. As the person who brings this report 
is a sober young man come from Fort Cumberland since an 
Express arrived from the Army I think this acct. the best to 
be depended upon, and I imagine there will be no great 
danger going to the fort where I intend to set out for this 

I am 

Your Honours most obedt. 

humble Servant, 


To the Honble. Robert Hunter Morris 
Esq. Governor of Pensilvania 

at Shippingsburg. 
Copy attest : 

Thos. Clarke, Depty. Secry. 

Richard Peters to Governor Ddancey. 

Philadelphia, 19 July, 1755. 
Sir — 

Since mine of Yesterday we have received accounts that 
the defeat is not general ; that the Army was in two divisions, 
in the first of which marched the General having with him 
1300 men, 4 howitzers, 4 twelve pounders and 13 Artillery wag- 
gons. The second was commanded by Colo. Dunbar and had 
not marched further than 2 miles West of the Great Meadows, 
distant from Fort Duquesne GO miles having with him the 
heavy baggage, Ordinance Stores, the Provisions and greatest 
part of the Waggons. 

War in norm America, 1754-1761. 413 

Thd General was advanced within 5 miles of Fort Duquesne, 
and marching in a narrow way on the 8th or 9th Instant when 
he was attacked by a large number of French and Indians and 
beat but not killed as was said, and was making a fine retreat 
to Colo. Dunbar's part of the Army. 

The first Accounts were given by some frightened wag- 
goners, but the latest is from Capt Trent to our Governour, in 
a Letter of the 16th Instant from the mouth of Conocochig on 
the Potowmac distant 60 miles from Fort Cumberland, which is 
copied and sent herewith, and I believe may be best depended 
upon as the man who gave him the Intelligence, heard at the 
Fort what the Express irom the army said and reported it to 
Capt Trent. 

I shall add that all accounts are hitherto confused, and ap- 
pear to be uncertain, so that we have reason to think matters 
will not turn out so bad as they have been represented. 

I am 
Your Honour's most Obdt. Servt. 


Honble James De Lancey Esq. 

Copy Attest : 

Thos. Clarke, Dy. Secty. 

Extract of a Letter from Major Rutherford. 

Sir, — 

Before you receive this you will have heard of the most 
shocking blow that the British Troops ever received. Gene- 
ral Braddock march'd within 7 miles of Fort DuQuesne with 
1500 men well equipped, and a very fine Train of Artillery, 
leaving Colonel Dunbar, with whom I wasf, with almost half 
the Troops behind, with Orders to bring up the Waggons 
whose horses tired, and to stop until the horses recruited a 
little, he was attacked by not more, by the best accots. than 
300 Indians and Canadians, who intirely defeated him with 
the loss of Sir Peter Halket and most of his best officers, most 
of his men and all his artillery, provision, baggage and Am- 
munition, and ruined all our hopes and schemes. We are now 
on our Retreat, and very little strengthened by the remains of 
the first Division, the General dangerously wounded, as is Sir 
John St. Clair and most of those who have joined us. 


Exlradtfa letter from an Officer in the Army with Colo. Dunbar. 

I am sorry to tell you our Array, at least that part which 
the General went out with being picked men are intirely 
defeated. The General arrived at the Rear Party dangerously 
wounded, as is also Sir John St. Clair and many other 
Officers : The dead uncertain as to numbers I think is near 
1000. This with the taking our train of Artillery and all the 
Baggage is a loss not to be retrieved. They set off the 12 
inst. tor Wills Creek where they expect to be in eight days. 
They were obliged to leave and destroy every thing they 
were marching with except two 6 pounders and Provisions 
sufficient for their retreat. The Common men behaved 
extreamly in the Engagement, the Officers extreamly well 

but to no effect for the men were so surprised and thrown 
into Confusion, (tho its imagined the Enemy were very few) 
that they were obliged to run away and leave the baggage 
and every thing else in their possession and but very few 
arrived safe here. Mr. Soumein is dead in the engagement. 

Governor Delancey to Governor Phips. 

New York, 27 July, 1755. 
Sir, — 

I inclose you a copy of a Letter I receiv'd from Capt. 
Robert Orme, Aide-de-Camp to the late General Braddock, 
which gives an undoubted account of the late defeat. I have 
also received from him a list of the Officers killed and wounded, 
and the return of the men, by which it appears that besides 
the General who died of his Wounds there were 25 officers 
killed, 37 wounded and 22 unhurt, and that according to the 
most exact return that could be then gotten, there were about 
600 men killed and wounded. This disaster will make the 
French insolent, Embolden their Indians, and dishearten ours. 
I have called the Assembly to meet next week, when I shall 
propose to them to raise more men to reinforce or sustain the 
Provincial Troops. We must exert ourselves and do some- 
thing to Counterbalance our late Loss : be pleased to write 
me what may be expected from your Government as soon as 
you can form a judgement about it. I have not time to write 
to Governor Wentworth to acquaint him with what I write. 

I am, Sir, 

Your honours most obedient 
Humble Servant, 
Lt. Gov. Phips. JAMES DeLANCEY. 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 415 

Major Robert Orme to Governor Hunter Morris. 

Fort Cumberland, July 18, 1755. 

I am so extreemly ill in bed with the wound I have 
received in my thigh, that I am under the necessity of em- 
ploying my friend Capt. Dobson to write for me. 

I conclude you have had some account of the Action near 
the banks of the Monongahela, about 7 miles from the French 
Fort ; As the reports spread are very imperfect, what you 
have heard must consequently be so too. You should have had 
more early accounts of it, but every officer whose business it 
was to have informed you, was either killed or wounded, and 
our distressful situation put it out of our power to attend to 
it so much as we would otherwise have done. 

The 9th Instant we passed and repassed the Monongahela, 
by advancing first a party of 300 men which was immediately 
followed by another 200 : the General with the Column of 
Artillery, Baggage and the main Body of the Army passed 
the River the last time about one o'clock. As soon as tho 
whole had got over the Fort side of the Monongahela, we 
heard a very heavy and quick fire in our front, we immedi- 
ately advanced in order to sustain them; but the detachment 
of the 200 and 300 men gave way, and fell back upon us, 
which caused such Confusion, and struck so great a panicle 
among our men, that afterwards no military expedient could 
be made use of that had any effect upon them. The men 
were so extreamly deaf to the exhortations of the General 
and the Officers, that they fired away in the most irregular 
manner all their Ammunition and then run off, leaving to tho 
enemy the Artillery, Ammunition, Provisions, and Baggage, nor 
could they be persuaded to stop till they got so far as Gist r s 
Plantation, nor there only in part, many of them proceeding as 
far as Colo. Dunbar's party, who lay six miles on this side. 

The Officers were absolutely sacrificed, by their unparalel'd 
good behaviour, advancing sometimes in bodies, and some- 
times separately, hoping by such example to engage the 
soldiers to follow them, but to no purpose. 

The General had five horses killed under him, and at last 
received a wound thro his right arm into his lungs of whicjj 
he died the 13th Instant: Poor Shirley was shot through the 
head : Capt. Morris wounded, Mr. Washington* had two horses 

* Afterwards General Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the American 
Revolutionary Army, and first President of the United States. 


shot under him, and his cloaths shot through in several 

!)laces, behaving the whole time with great courage and reso- 
ution, Sir Peter Halkert was killed upon the spot, Colo. 
Burton and Sir John St. Clair wounded. I have sent you a 
list of the killed and wounded according to as exact account 
as we are yet able to get. 

Upon our proceeding with the whole convoy to the little 
meadows it was found impracticable to advance in that 
manner ; the General therefore advanced with 1200 men, with 
the necessary Artillery, Ammunition, and Provision, leaving 
the main body of the convoy under the Command of Colo. 
Dunbar, with orders to join him as soon as possible. 

In this manner we proceeded with safety and expedition, 
'till tho fatal day I have just related ; and happy it was that 
this disposition was made otherwise the whole must have 
starved or fallen into into the hands of the Enemy, as numbers 
would have been of no service to us and our Provision was 
all lost. 

As our number of horses were so much reduced, and those 
extreamly weak, and many carriages being wanted for the 
wounded men, occasioned our destroying the Ammunition and 
superfluous part of the Provision, left in Colo. Dunbar's 
convoy, to prevent its falling into the hands of the Enemy. 

As the whole of tho Artillery is lost and tho Troops are so 
extreamly weakened by deaths, wounds and sickness it was 
judged impossible to make any further attempts, therefore 
Colo. Dunbar is returning to fort Cumberland with every 
thing he is able to bring up with him. 

I propose remaining here 'till my wound will suffer me to 
remove to Philadelphia, from thence I shall proceed to 
England; whatsoever commands you may have for me you 
will do me the favour to direct to me here. 

By the particular disposition of the French and Indians, it 
was impossible to judge of the numbers they had that day in 
the field. 

I am 
Governor Morris. Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 
and most hble. Servant, 

Province of the Massa Bay, 

Copy attest : 

Thos. Clarke, Depy. Secry. 

WAH IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761- 417 

A lisl of the Officers who were present, and of those Killed 
and Wounded in the action on the banks qf Monongahda 
the Wi Day of July, 1755. 


His Excellency Edward Braddock, Esq., General and Com- 
mander in Chief of ail his Majesty's Forces in North America, 
died of his wounds. 

Robert Orme Esq. J . Wounded 

Roger Morris Esq. V Aides de Camp Wounded 

George Washington Esq. ) 

William Shirley Esq. Secretary . Killed 

Sir John St. Clair, Deputy Qr. Master General. . Wounded 
Matthew Lessley, G entn. Asst. to the Qr. Mr. Genl, Wounded 
Francis Halket Esq. Major of Brigade, 

44th Regiment. 

Sir Peter Halket, Colonel Kill'd 

Lieut. Colo. Page Slightly wounded 

CaptTatton Kill'd 

Capt Hobson . . . . 

Capt Beckworth , 

Capt Gethings. , Killed 

Lieut Falconer , 

Lieut Litler Wounded 

Lieut Bayley 

Lieut Dunbar Wounded 

Lieut Pattinger 

Lieut Freeby . /Wounded 

Lieut Allen , Killed 

Lieut Halket. Kill'd 

Lieut Simpson Wounded 

Lieut Lock Wounded 

Disney Wounded 

Kenedy .Wounded 

Townsend Kill'd 


Nartlow Kill'd 

Pennington Wounded 

48th Regiment. 

Lieut Colo. Burton Wounded 

Major Sparks . Slightly wounded 

Capt Dobson 



C*pt Chohaler Killed 

Capt Bowjrer Wounded 

Capt Rye* Wounded 

Capt Lieu, Morris 

Barbut Wounded 

Wal*ham Woonded 

CrimUe Kflld 

Wideraan KilTd 

IIan»ard KilTd 

Gladwin Wounded 


Edmegton Wounded 


Brereton KuTd 

Hart KilTd 

Montreseur Wounded 




McMuIlen Wounded 

Crow Wounded 

Sterling . . . Wounded 


Capt Ord 

Capt Lieut Smith Kill'd 

Lieut Buehannon , Wounded 

Lieut McLeod Wounded 

Lieut MeCulIer Wounded 


i'oter McKeller Esq Wounded 

Robert (Gordon Esq Wounded 

Williamson Esq Wounded 

Detachment of Sailors. 

Lieut Spondelou Kill'd 

Mr ITayneH, Midshipman 

Mr Talbot, Midshipman Kill'd 

Capt Stone of Gonl. Lascell's Regiment Kill'd 

Capt Floyor of Oenl. Warburton's Regiment. . .Wounded 

Independant Companies op New York. 

Capt Gates Wounded 

Lieut Soumien Kill'd 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754r-1761. 419 

Lieut Miller 

Lieut Howarth of Capt Demeri's Independt. 

Compy Wounded 

Lieut Gray of the Same Company Wounded 

Virginia Troops. 

Capt Stephens Wounded 

Capt Waggonner 

Capt Ydteon , Kill'd 

Capt Peronie , Kill'd 

Capt Stewart, » 

Hamilton Kill'd 

Woodward .... 

Wright Kill'd 

Splitdorff Kill'd 

Stuart Wounded 

Waggonner Kill'd 


According to the most exact Return we can as yet get 
about 600 men killed and wounded. 

Governor Phips to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, 7 November, 1755. 

The enclosed vote of the General Assembly of this Pro- 
vince will explain to your Excellency the occasion of my now 
writing to you. If any such measures as is suppos'd have 
been taken to oblige the troops which went from this Pro- 
vince to Nova Scotia in the spring of the year to enlist into 
his Majesty's service I am persuaded that your Excellency 
will strictly prohibit all such unjustifiable practices: and I 
cannot doubt but that your Excellency will give orders that 
the terms of their Enlistment be complied with and that they 
be furnished with every thing needful for their comfortable 
support. In the mean time I am with much respect, 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

and most humble servant, 

His Excellency Governor Lawrence, 

Indorsed— Reed, per Homer, 30th, 


The House op Representatives, Octr. 81st, 1755, 

Whereas it has been represented to this Court that the 
Forces raised within this Government, for his Majesty's service 
at Nova Scotia are much exposed by being lodged in tents, 
and very poorly cloathed, by means whereof they must 
greatly suffer by the cold as the winter advances, to jprevent 
which some of them have been induced to enlis$ into the 
Regiments upon the Establishment in order to obtain cloath- 
ing and more comfortable lodgings in Barracks, and others for 
the like reasons are under strong temptations to the same, 
which circumstances very much disappointment the expecta- 
tions of this Court who were prevailed upon to countenance 
and encourage so large a number of the inhabitants to leave 
the Province by the assurances given that they should be dis- 
charged and at liberty to return upon the expiration of 12 
months from their enlistment; ainl whereas it may be of ex- 
treme bad consequence to his Majesty's serviceat this critical 
juncture, if the term of enlistment either according to the 
letter or the true Intent and spirit thereof should not be com- 
plied with: Therefore voted that his Honour the Lt. Gover- 
nour be desired to write to His Excellency Governour Law- 
rence and to acquaint him with the trust and dependance 
placed by this Court on his effectual cure that the aforesaid 
term of Enlistment be complied with and that none of the 
soldiers that have gone from this Province be left to suffer 
through cold or any unusual and unnecessary hardships, and 
that in case there be not a sufficient supply of Cloathing to be 
obtained in the Government of Nova Scotia, that upon advice 
thereof it shall be furnished by this Court and transported 
thither and delivered to the men at first cost, provided such 
cost may be stopped from each mans wages respectively when, 
due, and reimbursed to the Province. 

Sent up lor concurrence. 

J. Hubbard, Spkr. 

In Council November 1st 1755. Read and concurred. 

Thos. Clarke, Dpty. Sectjv 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 421 

Governor Shirley to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, Febry. 1756. 

I was favour'd at Now York with your letter dated the 19th 
of October by Mr. Clapham, whom upon your Recommendar 
tion, I shall be glad to serve when a proper opportunity offers ; 
(and since ray arrival here with your Packett dated 4th of 
January) : I am oblig'd to you, Sir, for the favourable Senti- 
ments you express in it of my Conduct in the public Services : 
The season was so far advanc'd before the preparations for 
that part of it, which was under my immediate Command in 
the last year's Campaigne, could be begun; my forces so 
weak, and the arrival of them and a proper quantity of Pro- 
visions at Oswego so late, that nothing further could bo done 
the last Fall than securing that place agt. the attempts of the 
French and erecting the necessary works and buildings . . 

. . . and for covering the men in the works. I hope to 
have it in my power to open the Campaigne in good time 
this year, and to act with a force more adequate to the 
service propos'd : What that is, you will in part see by the 
inclos'd copy of the Minute of a Council of War held at 
New York. 

In your Letter of the 4th of Janry. you mention two points 
for my consideration, vizt. " the repeopling the land lately 
evacuated in Nova Scotia, by the Removal of what are call'd 
the neutral French, with good Protestant Subjects from the 
continent" (I suppose you mean of North America) and "the 
fortifying St. John's River in the Bay of Funda." 

The first seems to me very difficult to be effected in the 
present State of Hostilities in North America especially as to- 
Schiegnecto, wch. is so remote from Halifax, & exposed to 
Sudden attacks from Canada, the Islands of St. John's and 
Cape Breton : The present constitution of the Government 

in the Province I believe will be an obstacle 

at all ... . their being settled wth. good Protestant 
Subjects from this Continent, especially the Charter Govern- 
ments of New England, whose Inhabitants are fond, not only 
of being govern'd by general assemblies, consisting of a Go- 
vernor, Council and House of Representatives . but likewise of 

All that occurs to me at present, wch. can be done for draw- 
ing settlers from this Continent to the evacuated lands in 
Nova Scotia, is a publication of the terms upon wcli. they 


may be encouraged to settle there ; and the protection from 
an Indian and French Enemy, they may expect in the District 
where they are to sit down. 

As to the second point, I look upon dispossessing the 
French of St John's River and fortifying it, to be necessary 
for securing the Bay of Funda, and the Peninsula agt. at- 
tempts from Canada: You may remember, Sir, that last 
winter I mentioned it to you as an essential part of the plan 

we were then concerting for removing their 

Incroachments look upon that service to 

be but half finished, if the French were left in possession of 
that river : in which you concurr'd with me, & proposed it 
should be done, as soon as the reduction of the French forts 
on the Isthmus should be effected : If I am rightly inform'd 
nothing hath been yet done towards it, except making a Visit 
up the River as far as the lower Fort near the mouth of it, 
upon wch. the French abandon'd it having first destroy'd the 
Stores and burst the Cannon, and there still remain the Set- 
tlemts. they had above that Fort, by means of which they 
keep the Indians inhabiting it in a dependence upon them, 
and have a passage from that part of the River across a car- 
rying place into the River Patcotyeak which carries them into 
the head of the Bay above the Isthmus whereby a communi- 
cation may be maintained between St John's River and Cape 
Breton across the Gulf of St Lawrence* 

From the copy of your letter, Sir, to the late General Brad- 
dock dated the 6th of August, I perceive the leaving this 
part of the service, wch. was proposM to be effected the last 
summer, undone, is to be attributed to the immediate neces- 
sity, you found yourself under, of removing the Neutral 
French from the Peninsula: wch. must have been left undone 
if you had employ'd any part of the Regular or New England 
troops in dislodging the French from St John's River that 
year : I am persuaded that nothing but an urgent necessity 
would have prevented an attempt's being made the last sum- 
mer to clear that River of the French. 

As to any assistance at present from this Province towards 
doing that service, I have the strongest reasons to apprehend, 
from the Engagements they are under to raise their large 
Quota of Troops for an attempt against Crown Point this 
Spring, the number of their Countrymen still remaining in 
Nova Scotia and the Disgust they have taken at the enlisting 
.of some of them into the Regiments of Regulars before the 
Term of their enlistments into the New England Regiment 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 423 

was expir'd, there ia no room to hope for it : I should be 
extremely glad, if it was in my power to induce the Assembly 
to give you any. 

As the last mention'd circumstance hath given a general 
uneasiness to the Government I could wish that the Soldiers 
of the New England Regiment had not been suffered to inlist 
into those upon the establishment : and I am sorry, Sir, to find 
by your letter that it appears to you in so different a light 
from that in which it does to me : Yon say there, it was not 
in your power to discountenance the practice ; on the contrary 
it appears to me to be irregular, & expressly agsL the Articles 
of Warr : I suppose } T ou don't doubt, Sir, but that a soldier's 
inlisting out of one of the King's Regiments into another 
without a regular discharge from the regiment in which he 

. and made punishable both in 

the officer who knowingly receives and enter- 
tains him, notwithstanding the King should have given orders 
to augment the Regiment, into wch. the Soldier inlisted: 
What the regular discharge mention'd in that article of War 
is, seems very clear in another: it must be given before 
the inlistment, and by a Field Officer of the Regiment, in 
which the Soldier last served, not by one of the Regiment 
into wch. the Soldier inlisted : Now both these parts of 
the King's Order are broke through in the inclos'd paper: 
wch. was deliver'd to me as the form of the Discharges given 
by Colonel Moncton : and I am informed that the New England 
officers from whose Battailions the Soldiers inlisted, were 
so far from consenting to the Inlistments that they openly 
oppos'd it. 

I don't think, Sir, tho the Now England Regt. should be 
deem'd a Provincial one that that will be the case : by the last 

Clause in the Act of punishing Mutiny and 

Desertion the Soldiers and Officers of such regiments, when 
join'd with his Majesty's regular Forces, are liable to Martial 
law and discipline in the same manner wth. those of the 

Upon looking into the inclosM copy of Sir Thomas Robin- 
son's Letter to me dated 10th of Feby 1755, you will find, Sir, 
that I rais'd the New England Regiment by the King's ex- 
press Command; that the 2000 men it consisted of, were to be 
exclusive of the augmentation of the several regiments to 
1000 men each consequently not to be applyM to compleat 
them ; and that I who rais'd those troops was forbid by hig 
Majesty to dispose of them to any other use than what th« 


late General Braddock should particularly direct : The Gene- 
ral order'd them, as you know, Sir, to be sent to you in th& 
condition, wch. I rais'd them in vizt. Regimented, and I don't 
conceive that you have power to discharge them from his Ma- 
jesty's .... in that Regiment, in order to compleat the 
Regiments of Nova Scotia : especially as the Articles of War 
seem so expressly to forbid it : besides, you seem, yourself,, 
from the copy of your Letter to General Braddock, to be of 
opinion that he, and consequently his successor, had power to 
have recalled the New England Regiment before the terms ot 
their Inlistments were expir'd,aiKl employ'd in any other part 
of his Majesty's Service as doubtless we both had. 

I have enter'd into so particular an examination of this 
matter, to shew the reasons, upon which I have founded my 
opinion, that there was not the least necessity of going into 
the measures you have, for completing the Nova Scotia Regi- 
ments, and that there is no occasion for other Instructions to 
forbid your persisting in them, than what his Majesty hatb 
given in his Articles of War, which seem to me plainly to 
forbid it* 

I was in liopes the heart burnings occasion'd in the 
Province by this affair were allay'd untill I reed, a few days 
ago an address full of discontent from tl>e Assembly upon it, 
as you will see by the inclos'd extract, and upon my not 
immediately answering it, I found their raising new Levies 
for an attempt agst. Crown Point this Spring laboured much 
in the House of Representativos ; to satisfy them therefore, 
I was oblig'd to send them the inclos'd answer : by which you 
will see, Sir, I have moderated their demands for the discharge 
of such men, as have enlisted out of the New England Regi- 
ment before the expiration of the terms of their former 
inlistments, and confm'd it to those, who have Parents, 
Children, or near Relatives in the Province of the Massachu- 
setts Bay. 

As to the others who may have inlisted, there will, I 
believe, no ill consequences arise from your retaining them : 
but the Umbrage it will give to this Province, from whence 
Nova Scotia hath so often drawn considerable and most timely 
succours and may possibly, upon future occasions, stand in 
need of their help again, to have the former retain'd against 
their Inclinations, will I am persuaded, hurt the Kings Service 
infinitely more, than their number towards compleating the 
Regiment, into wch. they have inlisted, will do good : I would 
therefore have them return'd to the several Companies in the 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 425 

New England Regt., to which they respectively belong'd, 
if they choose it; and must desire you would give the proper 
Orders to have them notify 'd of it. 

As to my il entering previously into an Engagement with 
" the House of Representatives, that the two Battallions, to a 
"man should be punctually returned to New England," 
Colonel Win slow must be under a mistake about that matter, 
if he understands it so : You will see by their Address to 
me, they make no such claim : All they desire is that I would 
make good to the Soldiers the terms of their Enlistments, one 
part of which is that they shall be discharged at the End 
of the Year for wch. they inlisted.(or sooner if the Service 
should be over) and sent back to Now England ; nor did I to 
the best of my remembrance enter into any Engagements 
whatsoever with the House of Representatives, other than 
what may result from that made with the Soldiers : wch. is 
among other things, that they shall be discharg'd at the 
expiration of their enlistments, and sent back to New England : 
and must, without doubt, be punctually perform'd, if they 
desire it, but can't be understood to preclude them from 
entering into any regiment after they are regularly discharg'd 
from the Service, into which they were inlisted. 

Mr. Hancock informs me, that no Vessells can be fitted at 
Halifax for transporting the New England Soldiers back hither, 
and that he and company have a considerable Quantity of plat- 
forms & water Casks here belonging to the Crown. I there- 
fore thought it advisable to give them orders for hiring and 
fitting up a suitable number of Vessells, as soon as may be 
that they may arrive at Halifax to embark the Troops at the 
time they have a Right .... their discharge from the 
service, and return home, or if you think that his Majesty's 
Service in Nova Scotia will admit of sending any part of them 
to New England before the terms of their Enlistments are 
expir'd, I would have them sent forthwith, as their early 
arrival here will be for the good of the Service, and be a 
saving at the same time to the Government of Nova Scotia : 
You will see, Sir, in my answer to the Assembly's address 
what I have promis'd shall be done in this respect, and which 
is what I think the public faith of his Majesty's service with 
the Soldiers of all Regiments requires should be done, and I 
would therefore have perform'd : I must desire at all events, 
that everything should be avoided, wch. can possibly be con- 
strued to be done wth. a design to lay any compulsion or hard- 
ship upon the Soldiers in order to induce them to inlist into 


the Nova Scotia Regiments ; You see, Sir, from past ground- 
less reports wch. prevail'd here, how necessary this caution is. 
B . . . . Soldiers quitting of Nova Scotia shall appear 
to you to endanger the safety of it, I would have them engag'd 
to remain in their present service for such further short term, 
as you shall think the Service requires, and they can be pre- 
vailed upon voluntarily to stay in it : I can't but hope, if 
their further stay should be necessary for the preservation 
of the Province from falling immediately into the Enemy's 
Hands, they would readily consent to remain longer in the 
defence of it : Among those who shall come first from Nova 
Scotia, I should be glad to have Major Prebble, Capt. Stevens, 
Capt. Hibbs, Capt. Adams, Capt. Willard, and their companies 

I am now and shall be in great want of arms : I must 
desire you therefore, Sir, not to fail to return, when the New 
England Regiment leaves Nova Scotia, the 2000 Stands of 
Arms, I order'd to be deliver'd to Colonel Moncton for their 
use : or such part of them as are not now us'd by them, as 
soon as possible : You will of course have arms sent over 
from England for the Augmentation of the three Nova Scotia 

I have deliver'd your inclos'd bills upon Mr. Kilby to Messrs. 
Apthorp, Hancock and Erving ; it is clear to me, that I have 
no power from Sir Thomas Robinson's Circular Letter to pay 
them out of the money at my disposal for Contingent Ser- 
vices ; and there would this Inconveniency arise from it : If 
the protection and defence of Nova Scotia should be deem'd 
an Extra Provincial one, and not properly chargeable to 
the Government of that Province, how shall I avoid the 
Demands of the several Provinces concern'd in the expedi- 
tion against Crown Point, wch. is out of the limits of their 
several Governments, for the payment of the charges incurr'd 
by them in that service, wch. is really Extra Provincial, and 
if comply'd with would load the Crown with a very great 

I must desire, Sir, you will send me, as soon as you conve- 
niently can, a Plan of the Fortifications of Beau Sejour at the 
time it was taken by the troops under the command of Lieut. 
Colonel Moncton : as also a . . . present situation, with 
the additional works, that have already been made, and of such 
as are propos'd to be still added, with the number and nature 
of the Garrison, it is intended to contain ; and also plans of 
the several Forts, that are already built in Nova Scotia, wth. 

WAB IN NOBTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 427 

their distances from each other, giving an account in what 
manner they are intended to protect the Province. 

I must likewise desire a return of the State of the Artillery 
and Ordnance Stores now in Nova Scotia, specifying the 
nature of the different pieces of Cannon and Mortars, and 
whether of Brass or Iron. 

As I shall want a reinforcement of men, to manage the 
Artillery, I propose having under my own immediate Com- 
mand: You are to order the Commanding Officer of the 
Detachment of the Royal Regiment of Artillery at Halifax, to 
have in readiness to join me upon the shortest notice one 
1st Lieutenant, 1 Serjeant, 2 Corporals, 4 Bombardiers. 3 
Gunners and 34 Matrosses : wch. men are to be replaced from 
Capt. Ords Company of Artillery in Newfoundland, provided 
the nature of the .... that Company there will admit 
of it : and in case a sufficient number of men can't be spar'd 
from Capt. Ord's Company, you are then to order the three 
Regiments under your command to furnish their equal pro- 
portions of men to join the Company of Artillery at Halifax, 
and to do duty wth. them in the several Garrisons in Nova 
Scotia, 'till the above detachmt. is replac'd. 

As I have a power to post Officers to all vacancies that may 
happen in any of his Majesty's Regiments in North America, 
I must desire by the very first opportunity to have Memorials 
sent to me from the Officers of each rank in the 40th and 47th 
Regiments intitled to preferment, in consequence of the death 
of Capt. Floyer and Capt. Stone. 

I likewise find by your returns that there are in the three 
Regiments, nineteen Ensigncies Vacant, I have therefore sent 
you a list of the names of those I have already filled up : and I 
I have order'd those . . . repair immediately to their 

Yesterday I received the duplicate of your Packett of the 
4th of January : the Schipper who delivered it to me, informed 
me, there had been some skirmish between a party under 
Lt. Col. Scott and some French and Indians, in wch. two 
French Neutrals were taken Prisoners and Eight of the 
Enemy Indians were Killed : but without the particular cir- 
cumstances of the action. 

1 beg leave to trouble you for an account of it in your next, 
as also for what Neutrals may be still left in the Peninsula and 
whether they have made any Head there. 

I am oblig'd to you for the part you take in the success of 
my undertakings ; I beg leave to assure you that I shall ever 


have the warmest wishes for your success in every attempt; 
and all your counsels for His Majesty's Service : and that I 
am with a most mifeign'd Esteem 

Your most Obedient, 

Humble Servant, 

Seven Blank 
Ensign Commissions, vizt. 

for yourself to fill up, and one 

. Col : Montague Wilmot, wch. please to deliver 

. . the inclosed Letter with my complim. 

. . Col: Winslow to come immediately .... 

. . . His Majesty's S 

other method for completing the Augmentation of the three 
Nova Scotia Regiments, than enlisting Men upon this Contir 
inent : By what Mr. Green tells me, I am not without hopes 
of you receiving some Recruits from England in the Sprine: 
it seems to me very obvious for them to tliink of so advisable 
a measure. 

Indorsed, — Reed. March 6, per Cap. Purdy. 

Governor Shirley to Governor Lawrence. 

Boston, March 13th, 1756. 
Sir, — 

I have received the duplicate of your letter dated the 
18th of February (the original is not yet arrived) and hope 
mine of the 16th of the same month in answer to yours of the 
24th of January, is before now come to your hands. 

I am sorry to find by your last, that you are of opinion that 
a dismission of the two New England Battalions before the 
Augmentation of the three Regiments of his Majesty's regu- 
lar troops is compleated will be of so dangerous Consequence 
to your province as you represent : and that at the same time 
the troops of the New England Battalion, now at Halifax press 
earnestly to be discharged, that you are inclined to think they 
are put upon it by some of their principal Officers. 

war itf north America, 1754-1761. 429 

I am flow to acquaint you, Sir, that in order to facilitate the 
compleating of all the King's Regiments upon this Continent to 
1000 men each, I have taken off the late restraint, I lay'd upon 
the recruiting Officers against entertaining indented servants r 
the henefit of wch. I can't but hope the Nova Scotia recruit- 
ing officers will soon find, as all the others have apparently 
done, and be thereby enabled to corapleat their respective 
regiments sooner than might before be expected : But lest 
this should not have the desired success, I enclose two letters 
from myself, one to Lieut : Col : Winslow and the other to 
Lt : Col : Scott open for your perusal, directing them to use 
their utmost influence with the men under their respective 
commands to consent to remain in their present service longer 
as you desire : If they can't be prevailed on to do that, with- 
out a small bounty, I would advise to their being enlisted de 
novo, I mean as irregulars into the Regiments they at present 
belong to, for the term of a year, by which time I hope you 
will be able to finish every part of the service for which they 
were first rais'd, and compleat the three regiments of regu- 
lars with you : If they can't be indue'd to Inlist for another 
year : we must be content with their doing it for a shorter 
term: The Detention of the men beyond the respective 
terms of their late enlistments against their consent would be 
a Violation of his Majesty's faith with the Soldier, not answer 
the end of the Service, for which they shall be detained, and 
prevent the future raising of any other men in New England 
for his Majesty's Service, except such as will inlist at large. 

The breach of faith with the Soldiers in this point is in my 
opinion a matter of so tender a nature that in the year 1748, 
when I had the honour to receive his Majesty's orders to 
dismiss the Troops rais'd for the then late intended expedi- 
tion against Canada, retaining such a number as I should 
judge necessary for the protection of Annapolis Royal, I took 
the liberty to dismiss them all (they having expressly enlisted 
for the term of that expedition only, with a promise of being 
discharged at the end of it) & inlisted about 600 of them de 
novo for the Nova Scotia Service upon a bounty of 30s. per 
man : and upon Lord Dupplin's inquiring of me, at a meeting 
of the Lords Commissioners for Trade, &c, join'd with the 
Paymaster General of his Majesty's Forces and the Secretary 
at War, why I reinlisted those men at the expense of a new 
bounty, when I was directed to retain them, I assigned this 
reason that the retaining them against their Consent, which 
must have been the case, beyond the term of their former 


Inlistmts. would have been a Violation of the faith of the 
Proclamation upon which they inlisted : and my proceeding 
was for that reason unanimously and entirely approved of by 
the whole board. 

I have now stated the sole difficulty in keeping the New 
England Troops longer in their present service : it arises from 
their being at present so earnest in pressing for their dis- 
charge, which they have undoubted right to claim : As to 
my Government's consent to their longer stay, wch. you seem 
to look upon as requisite in your letter, it is out of the 
question, as I, in effect, informed you in my last; I never 
made any engagement concerning the matter with them nor 
ever shall make such an one. The engagement made was 
with the men, and must be observ'd it is not in my power to 
dispense with it: and it depends upon themselves only 
whether they will insist upon being immediately sent home A 
there discharge or not : The uneasiness in my assembly and 
the whole province arose from the Officers of his Majesty's 
Regular Troops inlisting the Soldiers of the New England 
Battalions into their Regiments without being regularly dis- 
charge, and entertaining them against the consent of the 
New England Officers (concerning the irregularity and inex- 
pediency of which practice it is needless for me to add here 
what I have said in my last letter upon that subject) as also 
from the report, which obtained in the province (tho I dare 
say not well founded) that the men who inlisted were drove 
to inlist by some inconveniencies the Irregulars were exposed 
to in the treatment of them, beyond what the Soldiers of the 
Regular Troops were. 

I was from the beginning apprehensive of the difficulties 
which might arise to his Majesty's Service in Nova Scotia 
from the New England Forces being inlisted into it for too 
short a term : this was the reason, when Lt. Col : Moncton 
propos'd to me on your part the inlisting them for Six months 
only, that I represented to him the inconvenience of so short 
an inlistment, and persuaded him to consent to my inlisting 
them for a year: had not that been done the difficulty might 
have been much greater than it is even at present : and could 
I have foreseen that any other part of Service would have 
prevented the making an attempt for removing the French 
from St. John's River the last year, I should have insisted on the 
Troops being inlisted for two years or at least eighteen months. 

As things have turn'd out we must remedy these inconve- 
niencies in the best manner, we can, for his Majesty's Service. 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 431 

Yon will find in my inclos'd letters to Lt. Col. Wins- 
low and Lt. Col. Scott that I have us'd my influence 
over the Officers of the New England Regiment to en- 
gage them to exert their best Endeavours with their men 
to make 'em continue in their present service as long as 
the state of the province shall require it : This I should 
think their own interest should naturally prompt them to 
as their present pay is so much superior to what the Offi- 
cers in the pay of the province receive and I can account 
for the principal Officers acting the contrary part, which you 
suspect they do, no otherwise than from some strong disgust, 
they may nave conceived partly perhaps from having the 
Soldiers under their command taken from them into the Regi- 
ments upon the Establishment against their consent : I had 
indeed some time before heard that so good an harmony, as 
could be wished, did not subsist between the Officers of the 
New England Regiments, and those of his Majesty's Regular 
Troops wch. gave me concern not only as a coolness and 
dissatisfaction between these troops, wch. are join'd and act 
together in his Majesty's Service must have a tendency to 
hurt it: but as there was likewise danger of its being com- 
municated to, and creating a misunderstanding between the 
Oovernmts. of Nova Scotia and those of New England : wch. 
can't but be prejudicial to his Majesty's Interests in the 
former, on several accounts. 

As I have sent for Lt : Col : Winslow to come to Boston I 
have directed one of the inclosed Letters to him or the next 
Commauding Officer of his Battaillon, in case he should be 
imbark'd before this reaches you : and the other to Lt : Col : 
Scott, together with the requisite orders, impowering them to 
inlist the men under their respective Commands for another 
year, or such other term, not exceeding that as it shall be 
practicable, I thought advisable for yourself to enlist them for. 

It will in the End be the same Expence to the Crown, whe- 
ther the bounty money necessary to be given for inlisting the 
men de novo (if that should be found necessary) is paid out of 
the Annual Grant of parliament for the support of your Go- 
vernmt. or out of the Contingent money to be disposed of by 
me. I think for many reasons it is most regular that the pay- 
ment of the Expences incurr'd on account of the New Engld. 
Troops rais'd for the Service of Nova Scotia should go on in 
the Channel, wch. 'they have been hitherto conducted in : if it 
should be thought otherwise, it will be easy to transmit his 
Majesty's orders to me to reimburse your Government out of 





the Contingent money: wch. is the method that hath been 
lately made use of in similar cases. In the moan time I can't 
but think that my directions to you to advance the Bounty 
money, which may be necessary for retaining the New England 
Troops, and I do hereby give you, will justify you in doing it 

What I have before mentioned concerning your retaining 
the whole or part of the New England Forces at the Expence 
ot a Bounty (if it can't be done without it) is founded upon 
the supposed necessity of his Majesty's service for doing it 
which must depend upon your own determination as from 
your long residence on the spot and knowledge of all its ave- 
nues and the situation of every part of it wth. respect to the 
French, you must certainly be the best judge of it : For my 
own part I think it ought to be done, if you continue in doubt 
as you now seem to entertain some, about the safety of the 
Province in case the departure of the New England Battail- 
lons should take place before the three Regiments of the 
King's Troops are compleated : and as upon this occasion it 
may be a satisfaction to you to have an explicit account of my 
sentiments upon the present state of Nova Scotia and what 
his Majesty's service requires to be done there, I shall here 
give it you. 

From the idea I have of the situation and present circum- 
stances of the Province, now the Neutral French from whose 
residence within it its danger very much sprung, are in so 
great a degree removed out of it, it seems to me, Sir, that the 
two principal objects of your attention should be to fortify the 
Isthmus between the Bay of Funda and the Bay Vert and to 
take possession of St John's River : the Effect of the former, 
you are sensible would be to secure the province against sud- 
den descents and attacks of the French from Quebec thro the 
river St Lawrence, and Cap Breton across the Gulf: not to 
mention St John's Island, which is so very near a neighbour 
to the peninsula ; & from whence Danger may arise to it, when 
that Island shall be settled by the French ; The Effect of the 
latter, to prevent the French from making Settlements upon 
that River, wch. might in time endanger the safet} r of the 
Bay of Funda ; cut off all communication between Canada & 
Schiegnecto, which is or may be at present carried on across 
the Bay of Funda by means of a portage from the river St 
John's to the river Patc<)tyeak, which penetrates into the 
head of the said Bay, and t^p make the Indians inhabiting the 
former of those rivers, wh6 have frequently infested Nova 
Scotia dependent upon the English. 



WAfc tt* XOfcTB AMERICA, 1754-1761. 433 

A.S to Halifax^ Sir, the danger to be apprehended in that 
^quarter must be from an armament fitted out against it from 
old France in which case there is the strongest reason to 
depend upon the French's being disappointed in such an 
attempt by an armament from Great Britain. 

The proper End of the Isthmus for the French to erect 
their principal Fortress ttpon was certainly that next the Bay 
of Ftmda from whence they were most expos'd to attacks from 
the English, ■& where they accordingly built oti§. at Beau 
Sejotir: The vicinity likewise of this fort to their settle* 
ments upon St John's River With which it was material for 
them to keep a constant communication across the Bay of 
Funda, by which channel they had a quick correspondence 
with Quebec, was another reason for erecting their grand for* 
tress where they did: as to the End wext Bay Vert, thro 
which they drew their support, both from Quebec down the 
river St Lawrence and from Louisbourg across the Gulf, their 
small fortified magazine which they built near the Bay for 
receiving the necessary supplies of Stores and provisions for 
their grand fort, and transporting them to it by land, thro a 
practicable road of about sixteen miles, was sufficient there. 

On the contrary the end of the Isthmus next Bay Vert on 
which side the peninsula lies most expos'd to the danger of 
sudden attacks and descents from Quebec thr6 the river St. 
Lawrence, and from Louisburg across the Gulf, seeniS) for the 
like reason, to be the proper place for the English to build 
their principal Fort upon, in order to maintain their possession 
of the Isthmus and the whole of Bay Vert: Besides this a 
proper fortification built there would enable them to cutt off 
the present Intercourse, wch. the French of Louisbourg have 
with the Canada Indians, and to molest the navigation between 
Cape Breton and the river St. Lawrence which might distress 
the inhabitants of that island, as well as those of Canada, by 
leaving them no place but France to supply them with pro- 
visions and other necessaries : It would likewise prevent the 
French from making any considerable settlements upon St. 
John's Island, from whence farther danger might arise in time 
to the peninsula, and from carrying on any fishery there : and 
most effectually preclude them from having any settlements 
upon the coast of Bay Vert. 

The fort at the other end of the Isthmus next the Bay 
of Funda, now Fort Cumberland) would servo for a place 
of retreat in case of any sudden emergency, and for a maga* 
zine of ammunition, Stores, and provisions for the principal 



Port, all wch. would be constantly supplied thrd the bay of 

The Fort next Bay Vert should be very strong, and capable 
of holding a large number of men. wch. in cnse of any extra- 
ordinary attack, it might be supported with from the New 
England Colonies thro the Bay of Funda : 500 men might be 
sufficient for the present Garrison, and of 100 for that next 
the Bay of Funda: The Fort should be situated so as to 
protect the Harbour of Bay Vert, if that can be done. 

I know not, Sir, what particular directions you may have 
received for fortifying the Peninsula, or for the expenditure 
of the £10,000 transmitted to you for that branch of the 
service : But if the scheme 1 have mention'd for securing 
the Isthmus should not be inconsistent wh. those directions, 
and be thought a proper one, it would be a pity that any 
considerable sums should be lay 7 d out in additional works 
either to Fort Cumberland, the Fort at Gaspereau near Bay 
Vert, or Fort Lawrence, the two latter of wch. might, upon the 
erecting of the proposal large Fort at Bay Vert, be dropp'd. 

Before I quit this side of the Peninsula I would propose 
for your consideration, whether taking possession of the Har- 
bour at Tatamagouche, and erecting a small Fort there to be 
garrison'd with 150 men may not be necessary, and some 
light work proper to be erected at Cobequid, capable of hold- 
ing about 30 men. 

As to the other principal object of attention, which I have 
before mentioned, vizt., the taking possession of, and fortifying 
St. John's River, I think dislodging the French from their 
Settlemts. upon it, ami taking possession of their upper Fort, 
wch. from the accounts given by some of the Eastern Indians, 
and New England Traders to those parts, it seems probable 
they have built about 90 miles up the river, and six below the 
old Indian Town, an essential Service : and as the Business 
the French have now on their hands for the defence of their 
Encroachmts. at Crown Point and upon lake George, and Lake 
Iroquois, call'd by them Lake Champlain, seem to afford a 
favourable opportunity for attempting it early this spring, 
before they will probably expect, or at least be well preparM 
for it, I am of opinion the attempt should be made as soon 
as the season will admit, and you can be provided with every 
thing necesary for the Expedition wch. I suppose was for the 
most part prepar'd Jast year. 

From the present strength of the French Settlements as I 
have heard it computed by the most experiene'd and intelli- 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 435 

gent English Traders to them, I should think 800 or 1000 men 
ut most would be sufficient to make this attempt at the time 
propos'd, and as it would take but a short time, and you have 
rid the province of so many of .the French Inhabitants, that 
vou might spare that number especially if the two New Eng- 
land Battallions, or even one of them remain with you. 

When the French are drove from their Settlemts. on St 
John's River, 150 men posted where the French fort is sup- 
pos'd to stand now, at the head of their Settlements, and about 
six miles from the old Indian town, would probably be a suffi- 
cient force, for preventing the French from returning to their 
settlements and to oblige the St John's Indians either to quit 
their head quarters there, or the French Interest: and in 
such case a garrison of 50 men posted at the lower fort near 
the mouth of the river, lately abaudon'd by the French, and 
which I am informed may be soon repair'd might be sufficient 
there, as we are masters of the Bay of Funda by sea. 

The Isthmus with the Harbours of Bay Vert and Tatama- 
gouche on one side and the river St John's on the other being 
thus secur'd, and the Peninsula so far clear'd of the French 
Inhabitants I should think the interior settlemts. of the penin- 
sula, and in the Bay of Funda would have little to fear from 
Canada or Cape Breton, consequently that the number of 
posts which might before be necessary to be kept up there, 
might be reduc'd, and the forces, which are at present so 
divided, be collected so as to make 3000 men with the full 
Company of Rangers more than sufficient to keep the neces- 
sary posts, and perform the common services, and leave 200 
men to garrison the Forts at Placentia and St John, in New- 

As to the Settlement of Germans at Lunenburg if the End of 
posting the 152 men there, which I find by your return of the 
cantonment of the troops are plac'd there at present, is to be a 
guard upon the Inhabitants of that town, the Province had 
better be without the Settlemt. unless an equal number at 
least of settlers, whose fidelity to his Majesty's Government 
may be depended on, can be soon introduced among them : 
otherwise the more that Settlement increases, the more dan- 
gerous and burthensome it will grow to the province : and 
this instance seems to shew the risque of making entire set- 
tlements of Foreigners of any kind in so new a Government 
as Nova Scotia, without a due mixture of natural born sub- 
jects among them. 

As to the Apprehensions you express in your letter, Sir, 


concerning an attempt's being made upon Annapolis Royal hy 
a body of French and Indians early in the spring, 1 can't but 
hope, that if tho Isthmus is well guarded with the mouth of 
St John's River, as the Province is so well clear'd of Frencli, 
tho they may threaten that fort with a visit in the spring, it 
is most probable that they will consider better of ft, since thfey 
have been already foil'd in so many attempts upon it ; once 
when the garrison was much weaker than it is now, the wbrfes 
in a most ruinous condition, and none but French Inhabitants 
upon the peninsula, except the Troops of the Garrison, and at 
other times when the province was in the same expos'd condi- 
tion, except that the works of the Fort at Annapolis were re- 
pairM and the Garrison something stronger ; besides, the 
difficulty they must have to support themselves in their acqui- 
sition, if they should succeed in the attempt against Annapo- 
lis, unless they can at the same time make themselves masters 
of the Bay of Funda, and the Isthmus, seems to discourage 
the thoughts of it. It is however certainly a point of pru- 
dence to be well provided against all attempts of this kind. 

I should likewise think, Sir, that the 500 French Inhabitants 
mention'd in )*our letter to be lurking in the Woods, can't 
possibly subsist there long, but must either soon come m or 
retire to St. John's River, where the French will doubtless 
make themselves as strong as they can ; which shews the 
necessity of attempting to dislodge them from thence as soon 
as possible : and Mr. Boishebert's absence from the River 
with his party of French and Indians, which you likewise take 
notice of in your letter seems to favour the making an attempt 
there as soon as may be: at least it would rid the peninsula 
of Mr. Boishebert and his party. 

The surprize of the vessel loaded with provisions from 
Boston to Annapolis in Passimaquaddie Harbour by the 
Indians was a very unfortunate accident as it will yield the 
French and their Indians a very considerable support, I wish 
the Vulture Sloop of War may succeed in retaking her. 

You will find by my last letter that 1 have no thoughts of 
drawing a detachment of the Regulars from Nova Scotia to 
serve upon the Continent in the Spring, as you mention was 
rumoured, but as you seem to have no immediate occasion for 
the full company of Artillery now with you, an<l I have a 
pressing one for part of it to be employed soon in his Majesty's 
service upon the continent, I ordered a detachment of it to be 
sent to me, which I hope may bo now spar'd from the Service 
in Nova Scotia and would have embark for New York by 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 437 

the first Opportunity in the Vessel, wch. conveys these des- 
patches there to wait further Orders. 

Captain Broke having on this occasion expressed some 
concern in a letter to me at my having ordered his first 
Lieutenant up with the detachment of his Company, and 
desired that he might come with it instead of his Lieutenant, 
I shall refer that matter wholly to yourself. Sir, if you have no 
objection to it, and think it will be no detriment to his 
Majesty's Service with you that he should leave the Province, 
desire you will send him to New York with the detachment 
of his Company ordered thither ; But if you think it will, I 
would have his Lieutenant proceed with it according to my 
first Orders. 

I beg the favour of your honour to despatch this Vessel to 
New York with the detachment of the Artillery Company as 
soon as possible. 

I am with Great regard and Esteem 



Your most Obedient, 

Humble Servant, 


Governor Shirley to Governor Lawrence. 
(Duplicate.) Boston, March 19th, 1756. 

Before I had sealed up my letter of the 13th Inst., I was 
favoured with yours of the sixth, acknowledging the receipt 
of ray packet of the 16th of February: and since that Lieut: 
Col: Winslow is arrived who informs me that almost the whole 
of his Bataillon will embark soon for Boston : Notwithstand- 
ing this I flatter myself that the Force you will have with 
you after their departure, may still put it into their power to 
make an early attempt for removing the French from their 
Settlements on St. John's River. 

That force as I compute it from your returns will consist of 
1703 rank and file regulars, 651 New England Irregulars and 
your Company of one hundred rangers, in the whole 2,454;-. 
If one thousand of those will be sufficient for the proposed! 
attempt in conjunction with such vessels as shall be employed! 
in it: and 500 a sufficient guard for the Isthmus during the- 
time of making it, and the 114 which is the present garrison* 
of Annapolis, is a sufficient force for the defence of that: as I 
should think they would be for the short absence of the; 


forces sent to St. John's river, there would then remain 50fr 
for Halifax, which I should think would, with the protection 
of the ships under Captain Spry's Command, be a sufficient 
defence against any attempts from Canada, whilst that pro- 
posed against St. John's River was making : and 340 to be 
distributed at Fort Edward, Lunenburg, Sackville & Lawrence 
Town during the same time. 

I think from the very late confirmation I have had of the 
several accounts, I have constantly received these last three 
years, of the state of St. John's River, it may be depended 
upon that it is navigable upon the top of the tide over the 
first falls by Vessels of 150 Ton and as high as the ffrench 
Settlements and their own Fort which are thirty leagues up 
the river from the Falls by boats or Vessels of 80 or 90 Tun ; 
that the shoal water begins there, at about two leagues below 
the old Indian Town call'd Naducteek, which is situated at or 
near the Portage between the rivers St. John's and Patcotr 
yeak; that as the river is in many places very wide and 
abounds with islands and creeks, it is necessary for persons 
not well acquainted with the Navigation to have a pilot : and 
that the Fort which it is said the French have must be 
attacked with Cannon. 

As vessels would be discovered in coming up the river at 
such a distance as to give the ffrench settlers timely notice to 
abandon or destroy their houses and retire into the Woods 
with their cattle and effects : Whaleboats which might come 
upon them by surprize would be more proper to transport the 
troops employed in the attempt, and vessels might follow with 
Artillery, Ordnance stores, provisions &c the next day. 

I spoke much to Colonel Monckton when at Boston upon the 
usefulness which whaleboats might be to you arid recom- 
mended it to him to have a number provided ; but if you are 
not furnished with them, the transports must be made use of 
instead of them : Tho the King's sloops of war can't go up as 
high as the French Fort or Settlements : Yet I understand 
you have some small Vessels of Force which can. I need ob- 
serve that a fort placed upon or near the spot where the 
French Fort is supposed to stand would secure the Country 
for above ninety miles upon the river ; probably discourage 
the ffrench from attempting to make settlements in any part 
of it; oblige the St John's Indians either to quit their Country 
or the interest of the French (but most likely the latter) and 
cut off the communication which they and the French Indians 
inhabiting the coast between the Bay de Chaleurs and Bay 

WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754-1761. 439 

Vert, have at present by means of the Portage between the 
River of St John's and Patcotyeak, which I am informed is 
frequently the route of the latter of those Indians to Quebec 
as shorter and more convenient for their Canoes, than up the 
River St. Lawrence. 

I desire you would take the first opportunity, Sir, to let me 
know your own opinion upon the several works I have pro- 
posed to be erected in your Province. 

Lieut. Colonel Winslow's Battaillon being as he informs me 
determined to return to Boston, and likely to arrive here 
before this will reach you, it would be in vain to send a letter 
to him or any officer of his Battaillon to use their Endeavours 
to keep the men any longer in the service of Nova Scotia : But 
I have enclos'd one to Lieutenant Colonel Scot which you will 
be pleased to forward to him : One argument for persuading 
the men of his Battaillon to remain with you at least long 
enough in making an attempt to remove the French from their 
settlements in the Spring, in case you should determine upon 
it, and they cant be induced to stay longer might fee to pro- 
mise them when that attempt should be over, that they should 
proceed to Boston directly. 

It gives me some concern to find that Commodore Spry hath 
countermanded his order for the Hornet Sloop of War to sail 
for England, not only as it has prevented me from sending 
some very material dispatches to England in time to answer 
his Majesty's service ; but as his manner of doing it almost 
tempts me to give credit to some Rumours which I utterly 
discredited before. 

As fast as the Transports sent to Halifax to bring Lieut. 
Colonel Winslow's Battaillon to Boston, return, I would dis- 
patch them back to the Bay of Funda for Col Scotts Battaillon 
posted at Schiegnectto &c with orders to proceed from thence 
For St John's River upon the proposed attempt against the 
French Settlements there, in case you shall think it adviseable 
to prosecute it this Spring before the return of Scott's Bat- 
taillon to Boston or in case vou dont think that adviseable, to 
proceed with such of the Soldiers as will not remain with you 
longer, directly back to Boston. 

I am with great regard and Esteem, 

Your Honour's most Obedient 

Humble Servant, 

My letter to Colonel Scottis put ) W. SHIRLEY. 

under a flying seal for your perusal. ) 

Honble Charles Lawrence Esq. 


Gom\ Pownatt to Govr. Lawrence. 

Boston, Jan. 15, T 59- 
Dr. Sir, — 

Tho half ye month be rnnr out Tet as this is. the first oppor- 
tunity in my power to- embrace I beg to wish you a happy 
Now Year and every honour that a new Campaign can offer 
and that I know you will deserve. Instead of writing Dews I 
enclose you Newspapers- that contain all we have from 
England to ye 7th of Nov. The Duke of Marlb'rough is- dead 
and Ld. George S&ckville auccedes him in his. command. 
Genl. Hopson commands the Expedition to ye West Indies,. 
&e., and Cunningham is mad© his IX Q. M. Genl. with rank 
of Lt. Col : Genl Abercromby is to have ye Govt of Sterling 
Castle. GenL Shirly to have ye Bahamaes in ye room of 
Tinker. CoK Prideaux has kissed hands for Lord Howe'* Regt. 
Ld. Molesworth dead, Ld. Rothes succedes*. We have yet no 
directions for next year bat stand ready. The bad weather 
has interrupted our posts between this and N York^ so 
have not heard from thence this fortnight. I had a letter for 
you, by the Direction and Seal it is from our Jack, I had not 
time to write myself to you when I received it, so gave it 
to Mr. Hancock to forward. There were also two letters for 
Col. Wilmot, which I also gave Mr. Hancock. 

Stanwix and Prevost goe home, & don't hear whether Genl 
Abercrombie be sailed. As to the Ship in which I sail & 
am at ye helm we go yet before ye wind with a flowing 
sail — Sed non Semper arcum tendit Apollo. The more and 
more I see of ye world of buisness the more my disgust to it 
encreases. I find myself unfitt for it, and I find it very unfitt 
for ye turn of my temper. I will hold out wlhile, ye Warr lasts,. 
& will then ask leave to retire to home with a groom and a 
couple of Hunters & my books* 

I find I am gott into a vein of thought that ill suits- with 
rising fortune so permitt so circumscribe every good wish for 
you in wishing you all your gTeat merit deserves and to assure 
liow proud I shall alway be to iiud myself one of your best 
friends & to be esteemed 

yr faithfull and obedt.. 

His Ex